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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652981

RESUMO

Basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) is an aggressive and deadly subtype of human breast cancer that is highly metastatic, displays stem-cell like features, and has limited treatment options. Therefore, developing and characterizing preclinical mouse models with tumors that resemble BLBC is important for human therapeutic development. ATF3 is a potent oncogene that is aberrantly expressed in most human breast cancers. In the BK5.ATF3 mouse model, overexpression of ATF3 in the basal epithelial cells of the mammary gland produces tumors that are characterized by activation of the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. Here, we used RNA-Seq and microRNA (miRNA) microarrays to better define the molecular features of BK5.ATF3-derived mammary tumors. These analyses showed that these tumors share many characteristics of human BLBC including reduced expression of Rb1, Esr1, and Pgr and increased expression of Erbb2, Egfr, and the genes encoding keratins 5, 6, and 17. An analysis of miRNA expression revealed reduced levels of Mir145 and Mir143, leading to the upregulation of their target genes including both the pluripotency factors Klf4 and Sox2 as well as the cancer stem-cell-related gene Kras. Finally, we show through knock-down experiments that ATF3 may directly modulate MIR145/143 expression. Taken together, our results indicate that the ATF3 mouse mammary tumor model could provide a powerful model to define the molecular mechanisms leading to BLBC, identify the factors that contribute to its aggressiveness, and, ultimately, discover specific genes and gene networks for therapeutic targeting.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586106

RESUMO

This study evaluated protective effects of synbiotic on meat quality and oxidative status of breast muscle in heat-stressed broilers. Twenty 2-day-old broilers were allocated in a 2×2 factorial design, and the main factors consisted of synbiotic level (0 (basal diet) or 1.5 g/kg synbiotic) and temperature (thermoneutral or high temperature), resulting in 4 treatments. From 22 to 42 days, chickens were raised at thermoneutral temperature (22 °C) or subjected to cyclic high temperature (heat stress, HS) by keeping them at 32-33 °C for 8 h and 22 °C for rest 16 h daily. Cyclic HS decreased relative weight, redness (45 min), and pH values (45 min and 24 h) but increased contents of moisture and ether extract, lightness (45 min and 24 h), drip loss (24 h and 48 h), and cooking loss in breast muscle of broilers compared with those under thermoneutral temperature. It also increased malondialdehyde content and mRNA abundances of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and HSP90 but decreased glutathione (GSH) concentration and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), as well as mRNA abundances of nuclear factor (erythroid 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1), GSH-Px, and copper and zinc superoxide dismutase in breast muscle in broilers. Dietary synbiotic supplementation was effective in increasing weight and reducing lightness (45 min), drip loss (24 h and 48 h) and cooking loss of breast muscle in heat-stressed broilers compared with those fed the basal diet. It also reduced malondialdehyde content and HSP70 mRNA abundance and increased GSH-Px activity, GSH content, and mRNA abundances of Nrf2, NQO1 and GSH-Px in breast muscle of heat-stressed broilers. These results suggested that synbiotic supplementation at a level of 1.5 g/kg could ameliorate compromised meat quality and oxidative status in broilers under cyclic HS.

3.
Nutrition ; 81: 110940, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755743

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of pterostilbene, a beneficial component primarily found in blueberries, to alleviate the intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR)-induced early liver injury and oxidative stress in a porcine model. METHODS: Thirty-six IUGR piglets and an equal number of normal birth weight (NBW) counterparts received a diet with or without pterostilbene (250 mg/kg diet) during the first week post-weaning. Parameters related to the hepatic injury, oxidative stress, and antioxidant defense mechanisms were analyzed. RESULTS: Relative to NBW, IUGR induced liver injury, which corresponded to increments in circulating alanine transaminase activity and hepatic apoptotic cell rate, superoxide radical generation, and the accumulation of oxidative damage products (P < 0.05). Administering pterostilbene reduced plasma transaminase activities, decreased hepatocyte apoptosis rate, and prevented the augmented levels of hepatic superoxide anion, 8-hydroxy-2 deoxyguanosine, and 4-hydroxynonenal-modified protein (P < 0.05). In terms of the hepatic antioxidant function, pterostilbene was efficient in improving the superoxide dismutase activity and the metabolic cycle between reduced glutathione and its oxidized form (P < 0.05). The pterostilbene-supplemented diet facilitated the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and promoted the expression levels of superoxide dismutase 2 in the liver of IUGR piglets (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study indicates that pterostilbene treatment has an auxiliary therapeutic potential to ameliorate early liver injury in IUGR neonates, presumably by stimulating the NRF2 signals and the associated antioxidant function.

4.
Poult Sci ; 99(11): 5915-5924, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142509

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary squalene supplementation on the growth performance, plasma biochemical indices, antioxidant status, and meat quality in broilers. Two hundred and forty 0-day-old male chicks were allocated into 5 groups of 6 replicates and were fed a basal diet supplemented with 0 (Control group), 250, 500, 1,000, or 2,000 mg/kg squalene for 42 d. Dietary squalene supplementation linearly increased weight gain and feed efficiency of broilers during the grower and overall periods (P < 0.05). Squalene linearly decreased 21-d malondialdehyde (MDA) level and 42-d glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, and both linearly and quadratically decreased 42-d MDA level in plasma (P < 0.05). In contrast, squalene linearly increased plasma reduced form of glutathione (GSH) level on 21 and 42 d and superoxide dismutase activity on 42 d (P < 0.05). Squalene supplementation linearly decreased 21-d MDA accumulation but linearly increased GSH level on 21 d and 42 d and both linearly and quadratically increased 21-d GSH-Px activity in liver (P < 0.05). Supplementing squalene linearly increased pH value at 48 h and linearly decreased lightness at 48 h and 24-h drip loss of breast muscle (P < 0.05). The lightness at 24 h and cooking loss of breast muscle were both linearly and quadratically reduced by squalene (P < 0.05). Dietary squalene administration linearly decreased MDA accumulation but linearly increased GSH level and GSH-Px activity of breast muscle (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, aforementioned growth performance, antioxidant-related parameters (except 42-d GSH-Px in plasma and breast and hepatic GSH), and meat quality were improved by squalene when its level was 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg (P < 0.05), with their results being similar between these 2 groups (P > 0.05). It was concluded that squalene administration especially at a level of 1,000 mg/kg can improve growth performance, antioxidant status, and meat quality in broilers, providing insights into its application as a potential feed additive in broiler production.

5.
J Anim Sci ; 98(10)2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027517

RESUMO

This investigation evaluated the potential of natural antioxidants, pterostilbene (PT) and its parent compound resveratrol (RSV), to alleviate hepatic damage, redox imbalance, mitochondrial dysfunction, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in early-weaned piglets. A total of 144 suckling piglets were randomly assigned to four treatments (six replicates per group, n = 6): 1) sow reared, 2) early weaned and fed a basal diet, 3) early weaned and fed the basal diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg PT, or with 4) 300 mg/kg RSV. Early weaning increased plasma alanine aminotransferase (P = 0.004) and aspartate aminotransferase (P = 0.009) activities and hepatic apoptotic rate (P = 0.001) in piglets compared with the sow-reared piglets. Early weaning decreased hepatic adenosine triphosphate (ATP; P = 0.006) content and mitochondrial complexes III (P = 0.019) and IV activities (P = 0.038), but it increased superoxide anion accumulation (P = 0.026) and the expression levels of ER stress markers, such as glucose-regulated protein 78 (P < 0.001), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (P = 0.001), and activating transcription factor (ATF) 4 (P = 0.006). PT was superior to RSV at mitigating liver injury and oxidative stress after early weaning, as indicated by decreases in the number of apoptotic cells (P = 0.036) and the levels of superoxide anion (P = 0.002) and 8-hydroxy-2 deoxyguanosine (P < 0.001). PT increased mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid content (P = 0.031) and the activities of citrate synthase (P = 0.005), complexes I (P = 0.004) and III (P = 0.011), and ATP synthase (P = 0.041), which may contribute to the mitigation of hepatic ATP deficit (P = 0.017) in the PT-treated weaned piglets. PT also prevented increases in the ER stress marker and ATF 6 expression levels and in the phosphorylation of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 alpha caused by early weaning (P < 0.05). PT increased sirtuin 1 activity (P = 0.031) in the liver of early-weaned piglets than those in the early-weaned piglets fed a basal diet. In conclusion, PT supplementation alleviates liver injury in weanling piglets probably by inhibiting mitochondrial dysfunction and ER stress.

6.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 64(14): e2000105, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529694

RESUMO

SCOPE: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is widely recognized as a critical factor linked to lipid metabolic disorders in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. However, its pathogenesis remains elusive, and therapeutic options are limited. This study investigates the potential of resveratrol (RSV) to alleviate hepatic steatosis and injury in a tunicamycin (TM)-induced murine ER stress model and provides detailed evidence. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male C57BL/6J mice were orally administered either RSV or vehicle for 2 weeks before the TM challenge. Results indicated that TM induced ER morphological damage and severe unfolded protein reaction (UPR), accompanied by increases in lipid accumulation, oxidative damage, and inflammatory response. Administering RSV decreased the expression of ER stress markers, partially normalized the active levels of UPR sensors, and facilitated sirtuin 1 activity in the liver under ER stress. Notably, the TM-induced hepatic steatosis was also alleviated by RSV, possibly by regulating the expression pattern of genes involving lipid oxidation and delivery. Consistently, RSV attenuated the TM-induced increases in lipid peroxidation, hepatocyte apoptosis, and the overactivation of inflammatory signals. CONCLUSION: RSV may have an auxiliary therapeutic potential to prevent the development of steatosis and its progression to steatohepatitis in the liver by alleviating severe ER stress.

7.
J Anim Sci Biotechnol ; 11: 52, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514341

RESUMO

Background: Evidence indicates that early weaning predisposes piglets to intestinal oxidative stress and increases the risk of intestinal dysfunction; however, there are minimal satisfactory treatment strategies for these conditions. This study investigated the potential of resveratrol and its analog, pterostilbene, as antioxidant protectants for regulating intestinal morphology, barrier function, and redox status among weanling piglets. Methods: A total of 144 piglets were selected at 21 days of age and randomly allocated into one of four treatment groups, each of which included six replicates. Piglets in a sow-reared control group were suckling normally between ages 21 and 28 days, while those in weaned groups were fed a basal diet, supplemented with either 300 mg/kg of resveratrol or with 300 mg/kg of pterostilbene. Parameters associated with intestinal injury and redox status were analyzed at the end of the feeding trial. Results: Early weaning disrupted the intestinal function of young piglets, with evidence of increased diamine oxidase activity and D-lactate content in the plasma, shorter villi, an imbalance between cell proliferation and apoptosis, an impaired antioxidant defense system, and severe oxidative damage in the jejunum relative to suckling piglets. Feeding piglets with a resveratrol-supplemented diet partially increased villus height (P = 0.056) and tended to diminish apoptotic cell numbers (P = 0.084) in the jejunum compared with those fed a basal diet. Similarly, these beneficial effects were observed in the pterostilbene-fed piglets. Pterostilbene improved the feed efficiency of weanling piglets between the ages of 21 and 28 days; it also resulted in diminished plasma diamine oxidase activity and D-lactate content relative to untreated weaned piglets (P < 0.05). Notably, pterostilbene restored jejunal antioxidant capacity, an effect that was nearly absent in the resveratrol-fed piglets. Pterostilbene reduced the malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxy-2´-deoxyguanosine contents of jejunal mucosa possibly through its regulatory role in facilitating the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 and the expression levels of NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 and superoxide dismutase 2 (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The results indicate that pterostilbene may be more effective than its parent compound in alleviating early weaning-induced intestinal damage and redox imbalance among young piglets.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Icariin has been shown to enhance bone formation. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to investigate whether icariin also promotes bone fracture healing and its mechanisms. METHODS: First, we isolated and cultured rat bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSCs) with icariin-containing serum at various concentrations (0%, 2.5%, 5% and 10%) and then measured alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the expression of Corebinding factor, alpha 1 (Cbfα1), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) in the rBMSCs. Second, we established a model of fracture healing in rats and performed gavage treatment for 20 days. Then, we detected bone biochemical markers (ELISA kits) in the serum, fracture healing (digital radiography, DR), and osteocalcin expression (immunohistochemistry). RESULTS: Icariin treatment increased ALP activity and induced the expression of Cbfα1, BMP-2 and BMP-4 in rBMSCs in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, Icariin increased the serum levels of osteocalcin (OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX-1), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-1) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP-5b); promoted osteocalcin secretion at the fracture site; and accelerated fracture healing. CONCLUSIONS: Icariin can promote the levels of bone-formation markers, accelerate fracture healing, and activate the WNT1/ß-catenin osteogenic signaling pathway.

9.
Poult Sci ; 99(6): 3158-3167, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475452

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of pterostilbene (PT) supplementation on growth performance, hepatic injury, and antioxidant variables in a broiler chicken model with diquat (DQ)-induced oxidative stress. There were 192 one-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups: 1) broilers fed a basal diet and 2) broilers fed a diet supplemented with 400 mg/kg PT. At 20 D of age, half of the broilers in each group were intraperitoneally injected with DQ (20 mg per kg BW), whereas the other half were injected with an equivalent amount of sterile saline. Diquat induced a rapid loss of BW (P < 0.001) 24 h post-injection, but dietary PT supplementation improved the BW change of broilers (P = 0.014). Compared with unchallenged controls, the livers of DQ-treated broilers were in severe cellular damage and oxidative stress, with the presence of higher plasma transaminase activities (P < 0.05), a greater number of apoptotic hepatocytes (P < 0.001), and an increased malondialdehyde content (P = 0.007). Pterostilbene supplementation prevented the increases in plasma aspartate aminotransferase activity (P = 0.001), the percentage of hepatocyte apoptosis (P < 0.001), and the hepatic malondialdehyde accumulation (P = 0.011) of the DQ-treated broilers. Regarding the hepatic antioxidant function, PT significantly increased total antioxidant capacity (P = 0.007), superoxide dismutase activity (P = 0.016), reduced glutathione content (P = 0.011), and the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione (P = 0.003), whereas it reduced the concentration of oxidized glutathione (P = 0.017). Pterostilbene also boosted the expression levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (P = 0.010), heme oxygenase 1 (P = 0.037), superoxide dismutase 1 (P = 0.014), and the glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (P = 0.001), irrespective of DQ challenge. In addition, PT alleviated DQ-induced adenosine triphosphate depletion (P = 0.010). In conclusion, PT attenuates DQ-induced hepatic injury and oxidative stress of broilers presumably by restoring hepatic antioxidant function.

10.
Food Funct ; 11(5): 4202-4215, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352466

RESUMO

This study investigated the potential of resveratrol (RSV) and its derivative pterostilbene (PT) to prevent diquat (DQ)-induced hepatic oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in piglets. Seventy-two weanling piglets were randomly divided into the following treatment groups: non-challenged control group, DQ-challenged control group, and DQ-challenged groups supplemented with either 300 mg RSV per kg of diet or an equivalent amount of PT. Each treatment group consisted of six replicates with three piglets per replicate (n = 6). After a two-week feeding trial, piglets were intraperitoneally injected with either 10 mg DQ per kg of body weight or sterile saline. At 24 hours post-injection, one piglet from each replicate (six piglets per treatment) was randomly selected for sample collection and biochemical analysis. Compared with the DQ-challenged control group, PT attenuated the growth loss of piglets after the DQ challenge (P < 0.05). Administration of PT was more effective than its parent compound in inhibiting the DQ-induced hepatic apoptosis and the increased generation of total cholesterol, superoxide anion, and lipid peroxidation products (P < 0.05). Specifically, PT facilitated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 signals and the expression and activity of manganese superoxide dismutase, while it also prevented mitochondrial swelling, membrane potential collapse, and adenosine triphosphate depletion, possibly through the activation of sirtuin 1 (P < 0.05). These results indicate that PT may be superior to RSV as an antioxidant to protect the liver of young piglets from oxidative insults.

11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(23): 29000-29008, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424752

RESUMO

Heat stress is a major concern in broiler's production, which can damage liver of broilers. This study investigated the protective effects of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) on heat stress-induced hepatic injury in broilers. A total of 144 day-old male chicks were allocated into three treatment groups. Broilers raised under normal ambient temperature were fed a basal diet (control group), and broilers under heat stress (32-33 °C for 8 h daily) were given the basal diet supplemented without MOS (heat stress group) or with 1 g/kg MOS (MOS group) for 42 days. Compared with the control group, heat stress reduced liver weight, whereas increased aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities in the serum. It also reduced glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in the serum and liver, GSH content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the liver, but increased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in the serum and liver. Dietary MOS decreased serum ALT activity in heat-stressed broilers. MOS inclusion also decreased serum MDA content, but elevated hepatic GSH-Px and SOD activities, with MDA content and GSH-Px activity still being different from the control group, and SOD activity being similar to the control group. Heat stress increased concentrations of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in the serum and liver, interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) in the liver, and mRNA abundances of HSP70, TLR4, MyD88, TNF-α, and IL-1ß in the liver of broilers. Serum TNF-α content and mRNA abundances of hepatic TLR4 and TNF-α in MOS group were lower than the heat stress group, whereas these indexes were still higher than the control group. Our results indicated that dietary MOS ameliorated hepatic damage in heat-stressed broilers through alleviation of oxidative stress and inflammation.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Mananas , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Fígado , Masculino , Oligossacarídeos , Estresse Oxidativo
12.
Poult Sci ; 99(3): 1400-1408, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111314

RESUMO

This research investigated effects of dietary ß-sitosterol addition at different levels on serum lipid levels, immune function, oxidative status, and intestinal morphology in broilers. One-day-old broiler chicks were allocated to 5 groups of 6 replicates. Chickens in the 5 groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with 0 (control group), 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg/kg of ß-sitosterol for 42 D, respectively. ß-Sitosterol linearly decreased (P < 0.05) concentrations of serum total cholesterol, jejunal tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and ileal interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) and mRNA relative expressions levels of jejunal TLR4 and ileal MyD88, whereas it linearly increased (P < 0.05) contents of jejunal immunoglobulin G (IgG), ileal secreted IgA and glutathione, jejunal catalase activity and Nrf2 mRNA relative expression level, villus height (VH), and VH-to-crypt depth (CD) ratio (VH:CD) in the jejunum and ileum. Linear and quadratic increases (P < 0.05) in absolute and relative spleen weight were observed by dietary ß-sitosterol, whereas malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in the jejunum and ileum followed the opposite trend (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, dietary ß-sitosterol at higher than or equal to 60 mg/kg level decreased (P < 0.05) contents of serum total cholesterol, ileal MDA, and jejunal TLR4 mRNA relative expression level, whereas it increased (P < 0.05) absolute spleen weight and ileal glutathione content. Higher than or equal to 80 mg/kg level of ß-sitosterol enhanced (P < 0.05) jejunal IgG concentration, VH, catalase activity, and Nrf2 relative expression level and ileal secreted IgA content, but reduced (P < 0.05) ileal IL-1ß content and MyD88 mRNA relative expression level. ß-Sitosterol addition at 60 and 80 mg/kg levels increased (P < 0.05) relative spleen weight, whereas it decreased (P < 0.05) jejunal MDA accumulation. Moreover, 100 mg/kg level of ß-sitosterol reduced (P < 0.05) jejunal TNF-α level, but it increased (P < 0.05) VH in the jejunum and VH:CD in the jejunum and ileum. Accordingly, dietary ß-sitosterol supplementation could regulate serum cholesterol level, promote immune function, and improve intestinal oxidative status and morphology in broilers.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/sangue , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sitosteroides/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/sangue , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Sitosteroides/administração & dosagem
13.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(4): 3486-3501, 2020 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039832

RESUMO

This work aimed to investigate tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TIICs) and immune-associated genes in the tumor microenvironment of osteosarcoma. An algorithm known as ESTIMATE was applied for immune score assessment, and osteosarcoma cases were assigned to the high and low immune score groups. Immune-associated genes between these groups were compared, and an optimal immune-related risk model was built by Cox regression analyses. The deconvolution algorithm (referred to as CIBERSORT) was applied to assess 22 TIICs for their amounts in the osteosarcoma microenvironment. Osteosarcoma cases with high immune score had significantly improved outcome (P<0.01). The proportions of naive B cells and M0 macrophages were significantly lower in high immune score tissues compared with the low immune score group (P<0.05), while the amounts of M1 macrophages, M2 macrophages, and resting dendritic cells were significantly higher (P<0.05). Important immune-associated genes were determined to generate a prognostic model by Cox regression analysis. Interestingly, cases with high risk score had poor outcome (P<0.01). The areas under the curve (AUC) for the risk model in predicting 1, 3 and 5-year survival were 0.634, 0.781, and 0.809, respectively. Gene set enrichment analysis suggested immunosuppression in high-risk osteosarcoma patients, in association with poor outcome.

14.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(6): 2656-2663, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31997359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the effect of dietary betaine supplementation on growth performance, meat quality, muscle anaerobic glycolysis and antioxidant capacity of transported broilers, 1-day-old partridge-shank-broiler-chickens (n = 192) were randomly divided into three groups for a 50-day feeding trial. The broilers in the control group were fed a basal diet, and experienced 0.75-h transport before slaughter. The broilers in the other three groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with 0, 500 or 1000 mg kg-1 betaine, respectively, and experienced 3-h transport before slaughter (T, T + BET500 or T + BET1000 groups). RESULTS: Dietary betaine supplementation increased (P < 0.05) average daily gain of broilers, and feed conversion ratio was also improved (P < 0.05) by 500 mg kg-1 betaine supplementation. Compared with the control group, 3-h transport increased (P < 0.05) live weight loss, serum corticosterone and cortisol concentrations, as well as muscle lactate and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, and decreased (P < 0.05) muscle pH24h , glycogen content and total superoxide dismutase activity. Compared with the T group, betaine supplementation decreased (P < 0.05) serum corticosterone and cortisol concentrations and muscle MDA content, and increased (P < 0.05) muscle a*24 h . In addition, 1000 mg kg-1 betaine supplementation further decreased (P < 0.05) muscle drip loss, lactate content and lactate dehydrogenase activity, and increased (P < 0.05) muscle glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase activity. CONCLUSION: Betaine supplementation not only improved growth performance of broilers, but also alleviated meat quality deterioration of transported broilers through altering muscle anaerobic glycolysis and antioxidant capacity. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Betaína/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Galinhas/metabolismo , Corticosterona/sangue , Dieta/veterinária , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Masculino , Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Estresse Fisiológico , Transportes
15.
J Anim Sci ; 98(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822918

RESUMO

The present study explored the potential effect of pterostilbene as a prophylactic treatment on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal injury of broiler chickens by monitoring changes in mucosal injury indicators, redox status, and inflammatory responses. In total, 192 one-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly divided into four groups. This trial consisted of a 2 × 2 factorial design with a diet factor (supplemented with 0 or 400 mg/kg pterostilbene from 1 to 22 d of age) and a stress factor (intraperitoneally injected with saline or LPS at 5.0 mg/kg BW at 21 da of age). The results showed that LPS challenge induced a decrease in BW gain (P < 0.001) of broilers during a 24-h period postinjection; however, this decrease was prevented by pterostilbene supplementation (P = 0.031). Administration of LPS impaired the intestinal integrity of broilers, as indicated by increased plasma diamine oxidase (DAO) activity (P = 0.014) and d-lactate content (P < 0.001), reduced jejunal villus height (VH; P < 0.001) and the ratio of VH to crypt depth (VH:CD; P < 0.001), as well as a decreased mRNA level of jejunal tight junction protein 1 (ZO-1; P = 0.002). In contrast, pterostilbene treatment increased VH:CD (P = 0.018) and upregulated the mRNA levels of ZO-1 (P = 0.031) and occludin (P = 0.024) in the jejunum. Consistently, pterostilbene counteracted the LPS-induced increased DAO activity (P = 0.011) in the plasma. In addition, the LPS-challenged broilers exhibited increases in nuclear accumulation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 (P < 0.001), the protein content of tumor necrosis factor α (P = 0.033), and the mRNA abundance of IL-1ß (P = 0.042) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3; P = 0.019). In contrast, pterostilbene inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 (P = 0.039) and suppressed the mRNA expression of IL-1ß (P = 0.003) and NLRP3 (P = 0.049) in the jejunum. Moreover, pterostilbene administration induced a greater amount of reduced glutathione (P = 0.017) but a lower content of malondialdehyde (P = 0.023) in the jejunum of broilers compared with those received a basal diet. Overall, the current study indicates that dietary supplementation with pterostilbene may play a beneficial role in alleviating the intestinal damage of broiler chicks under the conditions of immunological stress.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Estilbenos/administração & dosagem , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/imunologia , Dieta/veterinária , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Ocludina/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Distribuição Aleatória
16.
Animals (Basel) ; 9(12)2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835456

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of fucoidan in ameliorating hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress to porcine intestinal epithelial cell line (IPEC-1). The cell viability test was initially performed to screen out appropriate concentrations of H2O2 and fucoidan. After that, cells were exposed to H2O2 in the presence or absence of pre-incubation with fucoidan. Hydrogen peroxide increased the apoptotic and necrotic rate, boosted reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and disturbed the transcriptional expression of genes associated with antioxidant defense and apoptosis in IPEC-1 cells. Pre-incubation with fucoidan inhibited the increases in necrosis and ROS accumulation induced by H2O2. Consistently, in the H2O2-treated IPEC-1 cells, fucoidan normalized the content of reduced glutathione as well as the mRNA abundance of NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 and superoxide dismutase 1 while it prevented the overproduction of malondialdehyde. Moreover, H2O2 stimulated the translocation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 to the nucleus of IPEC-1 cells, but this increase was further promoted by fucoidan pre-treatment. The results suggest that fucoidan is effective in protecting IPEC-1 cells against oxidative damage induced by H2O2, which may help in developing appropriate strategies for maintaining the intestinal health of young piglets.

17.
Animals (Basel) ; 9(11)2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683981

RESUMO

The study investigated the effects of dietary zeolite supplementation as an antibiotic alternative on growth performance, intestinal integrity, and cecal antibiotic resistance genes abundances of broilers. One-day-old chicks were assigned into three groups and fed a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with antibiotics (50 mg/kg) or zeolite (10 g/kg). Antibiotic or zeolite increased (p < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG) from 1 to 42 days and duodenal villus height to crypt depth ratio (VH:CD) at 21 days. Zeolite increased (p < 0.05) ADG and average daily feed intake from 1 to 21 days, jejunal VH:CD at 21 and 42 days, ileal VH and VH:CD at 42 days, zonula occludens-1 mRNA abundance at 21 days, and duodenal occludin mRNA abundance at 42 days, whereas reduced (p < 0.05) jejunal CD and malondialdehyde levels in ileum at 21 days and duodenum at 42 days, serum D-lactic acid and diamine oxidase levels at 42 days, and plasma lipopolysaccharide content at 21 and 42 days. Antibiotics reduced (p < 0.05) duodenal claudin-2 mRNA abundance at 21 days, whereas increased (p < 0.05) cecal tetB abundance at 42 days. These findings suggested that the beneficial effects of zeolite in broilers were more pronounced than that of antibiotics.

18.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 7518-7526, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Ischemic stroke is a dominant contributor to disability and mortality worldwide and is recognized as an important health concern. As a transcription factor triggered via stress, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) has a crucial impact on differentiation, cell death, and cell growth. However, the role of PPAR-γ and its precise mechanism in cerebral ischemia injury (CII) remain unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS The male C57Bl/6 mice (12 weeks old, n=52) were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Infarct volume was evaluated by 2, 3, 5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Cell apoptosis was measured by terminal dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining. The expression of apoptotic-related protein was examined by Western blotting. Neuron2A cells were transfected with PPAR-γ-specific siRNA and then were subjected to oxygen-glucose exhaustion and reoxygenation. RESULTS It was observed that PPAR-γ-deficient mice displayed extended infarct trigon in the MCAO stroke model. Neuronal deficiency was more severe in PPAR-γ-deficient models. Additionally, expression of cell death-promoting Bcl-2 associated X and active caspase-3 was reinforced, while that of cell death-counteracting Bcl-2 was repressed in PPAR-γ-deficient mice. This was characterized by reinforced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress reactions in in vivo brain specimens as well as in vitro neurons in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. CONCLUSIONS This research proved that PPAR-γ protected the brain from cerebral I/R injury by repressing ER stress and indicated that PPAR-γ is a potential target in the treatment of ischemia.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Retículo Endoplasmático/fisiologia , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/fisiologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo
19.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 571, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: RNA-Seq is currently the most widely used tool to analyze whole-transcriptome profiles. There are numerous commercial kits available to facilitate preparing RNA-Seq libraries; however, it is still not clear how some of these kits perform in terms of: 1) ribosomal RNA removal; 2) read coverage or recovery of exonic vs. intronic sequences; 3) identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs); and 4) detection of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). In RNA-Seq analysis, understanding the strengths and limitations of commonly used RNA-Seq library preparation protocols is important, as this technology remains costly and time-consuming. RESULTS: In this study, we present a comprehensive evaluation of four RNA-Seq kits. We used three standard input protocols: Illumina TruSeq Stranded Total RNA and mRNA kits, a modified NuGEN Ovation v2 kit, and the TaKaRa SMARTer Ultra Low RNA Kit v3. Our evaluation of these kits included quality control measures such as overall reproducibility, 5' and 3' end-bias, and the identification of DEGs, lncRNAs, and alternatively spliced transcripts. Overall, we found that the two Illumina kits were most similar in terms of recovering DEGs, and the Illumina, modified NuGEN, and TaKaRa kits allowed identification of a similar set of DEGs. However, we also discovered that the Illumina, NuGEN and TaKaRa kits each enriched for different sets of genes. CONCLUSIONS: At the manufacturers' recommended input RNA levels, all the RNA-Seq library preparation protocols evaluated were suitable for distinguishing between experimental groups, and the TruSeq Stranded mRNA kit was universally applicable to studies focusing on protein-coding gene profiles. The TruSeq protocols tended to capture genes with higher expression and GC content, whereas the modified NuGEN protocol tended to capture longer genes. The SMARTer Ultra Low RNA Kit may be a good choice at the low RNA input level, although it was inferior to the TruSeq mRNA kit at standard input level in terms of rRNA removal, exonic mapping rates and recovered DEGs. Therefore, the choice of RNA-Seq library preparation kit can profoundly affect data outcomes. Consequently, it is a pivotal parameter to consider when designing an RNA-Seq experiment.


Assuntos
Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Análise de Dados , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Padrões de Referência , Análise de Sequência de RNA/normas
20.
Animals (Basel) ; 9(8)2019 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357589

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effects of chitooligosaccharide (COS) inclusion as an alternative to antibiotics on growth performance, intestinal morphology, barrier function, antioxidant capacity, and immunity in broilers. In total, 144 one-day-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly assigned into 3 groups and fed a basal diet free from antibiotics (control group) or the same basal diet further supplemented with either chlortetracycline (antibiotic group) or COS, for 21 days. Compared with the control group, inclusion of COS reduced the feed to gain ratio, the jejunal crypt depth, the plasma diamine oxidase activity, and the endotoxin concentration, as well as jejunal and ileal malondialdehyde contents, whereas increased duodenal villus height, duodenal and jejunal ratio of villus height to crypt depth, intestinal immunoglobulin G, and jejunal immunoglobulin M (IgM) contents were observed, with the values of these parameters being similar or better to that of the antibiotic group. Additionally, supplementation with COS enhanced the superoxide dismutase activity and IgM content of the duodenum and up-regulated the mRNA level of claudin three in the jejunum and ileum, when compared with the control and antibiotic groups. In conclusion, dietary COS inclusion (30 mg/kg), as an alternative to antibiotics, exerts beneficial effects on growth performance, intestinal morphology, barrier function, antioxidant capacity, and immunity in broilers.

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