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1.
Mar Environ Res ; 185: 105892, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36689845

RESUMO

This paper presents a case study of red tide hazards around the Pearl River Estuary (PRE). Red tide hazards, meteorological data, and seawater monitoring data were collected from 1996 to 2020 at different locations around the PRE to investigate the internal and external factors influencing the occurrence of red tides. The enhancement of the assessment of estuarine trophic status (ASSETS) method enables us to evaluate the effects of meteorological factors and seawater eutrophication status on the red tide risk level. Using ASSETS, we established a framework for red tide risk assessment of the Pearl River Estuary. We analysed the external and internal factors causing the red tide based on meteorological data and seawater monitoring data in the PRE. The results show that the temperature was higher than the annual monthly average temperature of 1.265 °C, and east and north winds at velocities of 3-4 m/s could result in the formation of red tides. However, precipitation inhibits the formation of the red tide in PRE.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 866: 161358, 2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36603627

RESUMO

Mitigating the loss and negative impacts of reactive N from fertilized soils remains a global environmental challenge. To optimize N retention by biochar, bamboo and pig manure biochars were modified as MgO- and sepiolite-biochar composites and characterized. Novel soil application of the modified biochars and their raw forms were comparatively evaluated for N-retention in a fertilized soil leached for 90 days in a column experiment. Changes in N-cycling-related enzyme and bacterial structure were also reported after 90 days. Results revealed low leaching losses of NH4+, which reduced over time across all the treatments. However, while sole fertilizer (F) increased the initial and cumulative NO3- leached from the soil, the MgO-bamboo biochar (MgOBF) and sepiolite-bamboo biochar (SBF) treatments reduced leachate NO3- by 22.1 % and 10.5 % compared to raw bamboo biochar (BBF) treatment. However, 15.5 % more NO3- was leached from the MgO-pig manure biochar-treated soil (MgOPF) compared to its raw biochar treatment (PMBF) after 90 days. Dissolved organic N leached was reduced by 9.2 % and 0.5 % in MgOBF and SBF, as well as 15.4 % and 40.5 % in MgOPF and SPF compared to their respective raw forms. The total N of the biochars, adjustment of surface charges, cation exchange capacity, surface area, pore filling effects, and the formation of potential MgN precipitates on the modified-biochar surfaces regulated N leaching/retention. In addition, the modified biochar treatments reduced the hydrolysis of urea and stimulated some nitrate-reduction-related bacteria crucial for NO3- retention. Hence, unlike the raw biochar and MgOPF treatments, MgOBF, SBF, and SPF hold promise in mitigating inorganic-N losses from fertilized soils while improving the soil's chemical properties.

3.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 13(1)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36671941

RESUMO

In photoacoustic (PA) imaging, tissue absorbs specific wavelengths of light. The absorbed energy results in thermal expansion that generates ultrasound waves that are reconstructed into images. Existing commercial PA imaging systems for preclinical brain imaging are limited by imprecise positioning capabilities and inflexible user interfaces. We introduce a new visible charge-coupled device (CCD) camera-guided photoacoustic imaging (ViCPAI) system that integrates an ultrasound (US) transducer and a data acquisition platform with a CCD camera for positioning. The CCD camera accurately positions the US probe at the measurement location. The programmable MATLAB-based platform has an intuitive user interface. In vitro carbon fiber and in vivo animal experiments were performed to investigate the precise positioning and imaging capabilities of the ViCPAI system. We demonstrated real-time capturing of bilateral cerebral hemodynamic changes during (1) forelimb electrical stimulation under normal conditions, (2) forelimb stimulation after right brain focal photothrombotic ischemia (PTI) stroke, and (3) progression of KCl-induced cortical spreading depression (CSD). The ViCPAI system accurately located target areas and achieved reproducible positioning, which is crucial in animal and clinical experiments. In animal experiments, the ViCPAI system was used to investigate bilateral cerebral cortex responses to left forelimb electrical stimulation before and after stroke, showing that the CBV and SO2 in the right primary somatosensory cortex of the forelimb (S1FL) region were significantly changed by left forelimb electrical stimulation before stroke. No CBV or SO2 changes were observed in the bilateral cortex in the S1FL area in response to left forelimb electrical stimulation after stroke. While monitoring CSD progression, the ViCPAI system accurately locates the S1FL area and returns to the same position after the probe moves, demonstrating reproducible positioning and reducing positioning errors. The ViCPAI system utilizes the real-time precise positioning capability of CCD cameras to overcome various challenges in preclinical and clinical studies.


Assuntos
Técnicas Fotoacústicas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Ratos , Animais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Neuroimagem
4.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 30(1): 62-71, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36593310

RESUMO

Protein post-translational modification (PTM) regulates nearly every aspect of cellular processes in eukaryotes. However, the identification of new protein PTMs is very challenging. Here, using genetically encoded unnatural amino acids as chemical probes, we report the identification and validation of a previously unreported form of protein PTM, aminoacylated lysine ubiquitination, in which the modification occurs on the α-amine group of aminoacylated lysine. We identify more than 2,000 ubiquitination sites on all 20 aminoacylated lysines in two human cell lines. The modifications can mediate rapid protein degradation, complementing the canonical lysine ubiquitination-mediated proteome degradation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBE2W acts as a writer of aminoacylated lysine ubiquitination and facilitates the ubiquitination event on proteins. More broadly, the discovery and validation of aminoacylated lysine ubiquitination paves the way for the identification and verification of new protein PTMs with the genetic code expansion strategy.


Assuntos
Lisina , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Humanos , Lisina/química , Ubiquitinação , Proteoma/genética , Proteoma/metabolismo , Código Genético , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/genética , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/metabolismo
5.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0295522, 2023 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36700635

RESUMO

The maternal gut microbiome affects the duration of pregnancy, delivery, and lactation. It also coordinates the stability of maternal metabolism by regulating and modulating inflammatory cytokines and reproductive hormones. This has been shown in several species; however, the situation in ruminants remains a black box. Here, we aimed to elucidate the relationship between the hindgut microbiota, metabolism, and reproductive hormones in domestic goats (Capra hircus) during nonpregnancy, pregnancy, and lactation stages. The hindgut microbiota was altered during these three stages, with a drastic decrease in the abundance of Family_XIII_AD3011_group in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Additionally, a decline in the abundance of Christensenellaceae_R-7_group and Turicibacter was observed from the nonpregnancy stage to late gestation. Family_XIII_AD3011_group and Paeniclostridium were strongly correlated with decreased fecal estradiol and progesterone. Furthermore, we generated a metabolome atlas of the gut and serum from nonpregnancy to lactation to reveal the specific metabolic fingerprints of each physiological stage. Several specific gut metabolites, including carnitine C8:1, γ-aminobutyric acid, and indole-3-carboxylic acid, were negatively correlated with the fecal and serum estradiol concentrations. In contrast, 2'-deoxyinosine, deoxyadenosine, and 5'-deoxyadenosine were positively correlated with the fecal and serum estradiol concentrations. The levels of 2'-deoxyinosine, deoxyadenosine, and 5'-deoxyadenosine in fecal samples were positively correlated with Family_XIII_AD3011_group. Other serum metabolites, such as (±)12-HEPE (hydroxy eicosapentaenoic acid), (±)15-HEPE, (±)18-HEPE, cytidine, uracil, and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid, were negatively correlated with the serum concentrations of estradiol and progesterone. Finally, Corynebacterium and Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1 in the fecal samples were positively correlated with the abundance of 11,12-EET (epoxy-eicosatrienoic acid), (±)18-HEPE, (±)15-HEPE, and (±)12-HEPE in the serum. IMPORTANCE Our findings revealed that the activity of Family_XIII_AD3011_group and Corynebacterium is strongly correlated with the beneficial regulation of physiological hormones and metabolic changes during pregnancy and lactation. These findings are key for guiding targeted microbial therapeutic approaches to modulate microbiomes in gestating and lactating mammals.

6.
Chemosphere ; 313: 137531, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36509188

RESUMO

Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) is considered to be a promising alternative of perfluorooctane sulfonates (PFOS), while it is also hazardous. The UV/S (Ⅳ) system has been confirmed to be effective for PFOS removal from water, while it is inefficient for PFBS decomposition. A hybrid vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV)/S (Ⅳ)/KI process was investigated for the degradation of PFBS in aqueous solution. With KI involvement, the degradation rate of PFBS was boosted from 1.8802 µg h-1 up to 3.5818 µg h-1 in the VUV/S (Ⅳ) process. Alkaline conditions significantly increased the degradation efficiency of PFBS, which can be explained that S (Ⅳ) was dominated by SO32- rather than HSO3- and H2SO3 in alkaline conditions. Cl-, HCO3-, NO3-, NO2-, and HA would inhibit the performance of the VUV/S (Ⅳ)/KI process via various reactions. In addition, the toxicity of PFBS was significantly reduced by the VUV/S (Ⅳ)/KI process. Even in actual waters, the VUV/S (Ⅳ)/KI process also presented a satisfying performance in the degradation of PFBS.


Assuntos
Iodetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Vácuo , Água , Alcanossulfonatos , Raios Ultravioleta , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Oxirredução
7.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 1326, 2022 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36463319

RESUMO

Fibroblasts and myofibroblasts are major mesenchymal cells in the lamina propria of colon mucosa and in colon cancer tissues. Detailed insight into the highly specific populations of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts is required to understand the integrity and homeostasis of human colon mucosa and colon cancer. Based on gene expression profiles of single cells, we identified fibroblast populations that produce extracellular matrix components, Wnt ligand- and BMP-secreting fibroblasts, chemokine- and chemokine ligand-generating fibroblasts, highly activated fibroblasts, immune-modulating fibroblasts, epithelial cell-modulating myofibroblasts, stimuli-responsive myofibroblasts, proliferating myofibroblasts, fibroblast-like myofibroblasts, matrix producing myofibroblasts, and contractile myofibroblasts in human colon mucosa. In colon cancer tissue, the compositions of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts were highly altered, as were the expressing patterns of genes including BMPs, Wnt ligands, chemokines, chemokine ligands, growth factors and extracellular matrix components in fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Our work expands the working atlas of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts and provides a framework for interrogating the complexity of stromal cells in human healthy colon mucosa and colon cancer tissues.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Fibroblastos , Humanos , Ligantes , Miofibroblastos , Neoplasias do Colo/genética
8.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 2022 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36582153

RESUMO

This is the first study to investigate the annual fluxes, environmental fate and ecological risks of five categories of antibiotics from the Wuhan section of the Yangtze River (WYR). All 24 antibiotics were detected in waters with total concentrations of 17.11-867.2 ng/L (mean: 63.69 ng/L), and 19 antibiotics were detected in sediments (0.02-287.7 ng/g, mean: 16.54 ng/g). Sulfonamides, amphenicols, and macrolides were the three prominent antibiotic classes in water despite fluoroquinolones in sediment. Farming activities (animal husbandry and aquaculture) were proposed as the largest contributors to antibiotic pollution in WYR according to the Unmix model, followed by municipal wastewater and mixed sources. Higher pollution levels were observed in the downstream with the combined discharge of these sources. Monthly monitoring data (12 months) was used to estimate antibiotic annual fluxes, with 101.5 t (uncertainty: 5.6%) in WYR. Risk assessments showed erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin posed medium and high ecological risks with 9-35% and 1.8-3.7% of all water samples, respectively, while enrofloxacin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, florfenicol, and thiamphenicol posed medium resistance risks in 1.9-16.7% of waters in WYR. This study was expected to fill data gaps on antibiotic sources, annual fluxes and resistance risk in WYR and demonstrated the importance of further management of antibiotic use in the studied areas. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Environ Toxicol Chem 2022;00:0-0. © 2022 SETAC.

9.
Nat Immunol ; 2022 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36543960

RESUMO

T cell dysfunctionality prevents the clearance of chronic infections and cancer. Furthermore, epigenetic programming in dysfunctional CD8+ T cells limits their response to immunotherapies, including immune checkpoint blockade (ICB). However, it is unclear which upstream signals drive acquisition of dysfunctional epigenetic programs, and whether therapeutically targeting these signals can remodel terminally dysfunctional T cells to an ICB-responsive state. Here we innovate an in vitro model system of stable human T cell dysfunction and show that chronic TGFß1 signaling in posteffector CD8+ T cells accelerates their terminal dysfunction through stable epigenetic changes. Conversely, boosting bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling while blocking TGFß1 preserved effector and memory programs in chronically stimulated human CD8+ T cells, inducing superior responses to tumors and synergizing the ICB responses during chronic viral infection. Thus, rebalancing TGFß1/BMP signals provides an exciting new approach to unleash dysfunctional CD8+ T cells and enhance T cell immunotherapies.

10.
Microorganisms ; 10(12)2022 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36557575

RESUMO

The intestine is a complex micro-ecosystem, and its stability determines the health of animals. Different dietary nutritional levels affect the intestinal microbiota and health. In this study, the nutritional levels of energy and protein in the diet of goats were changed, and the body weight was measured every 15 days. In the late feeding period, 16 S rRNA sequencing technology was used to detect the content of microorganisms. A meteorological chromatograph was used to detect volatile fatty acids in the cecum and colon of goats. In the feeding stage, reducing the nutritional level of the diet significantly reduced the weight of the lamb (p < 0.05). In the cecum, the abundance of potentially harmful bacteria, such as Sphingomonas, Marvinbryantia, and Eisenbergiella, were significantly enriched in goats fed with the standard nutritional level diets (p < 0.05). Additionally, the contents of acetate (p = 0.037) and total VFAs (p = 0.041) increased. In the colon, the abundance of SCFAs-producing bacteria, such as Ruminococcaceae, Christensenellaceae, and Papillibacter, decreased as the nutritional level in the diet increased (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the increase in nutritional level could affect the growth performance and composition of intestinal microbiota.

11.
BMC Microbiol ; 22(1): 273, 2022 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myostatin (MSTN) negatively regulates the muscle growth in animals and MSTN deficient sheep have been widely reported previously. The goal of this study was to explore how MSTN inactivation influences their gut microbiota composition and potential functions. RESULTS: We compared the slaughter parameters and meat quality of 3 MSTN-edited male sheep and 3 wild-type male sheep, and analyzed the gut microbiome of the MSTN-edited sheep (8 female and 8 male sheep) and wild-type sheep (8 female and 8 male sheep) through metagenomic sequencing. The results showed that the body weight, carcass weight and eye muscle area of MSTN-edited sheep were significantly higher, but there were no significant differences in the meat quality indexes. At the microbial level, the alpha diversity was significantly higher in the MSTN-edited sheep (P < 0.05), and the microbial composition was significantly different by PCoA analysis in the MSTN-edited and wild-type sheep. The abundance of Firmicutes significantly increased and Bacteroidota significantly decreased in the MSTN-edited sheep. At genus level, the abundance of Flavonifractor, Subdoligranulum, Ruthenibacterium, Agathobaculum, Anaerotignum, Oribacterium and Lactobacillus were significantly increased in the MSTN-edited sheep (P < 0.05). Further analysis of functional differences was found that the carotenoid biosynthesis was significantly increased and the peroxisome, apoptosis, ferroptosis, N-glycan biosynthesis, thermogenesis, and adipocytokines pathways were decreased in the MSTN-edited sheep (P < 0.05). Moreover, carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) results certified the abundance of the GH13_39, GH4, GH137, GH71 and PL17 were upregulated, and the GT41 and CBM20 were downregulated in the MSTN-edited sheep (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested that MSTN inactivation remarkably influenced the composition and potential function of hindgut microbial communities of the sheep, and significantly promoted growth performance without affecting meat quality.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Miostatina , Ovinos , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Miostatina/genética , Carne , Expressão Gênica
12.
Mol Biol Evol ; 39(12)2022 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36382357

RESUMO

Understanding the genetic mechanism of how animals adapt to extreme conditions is fundamental to determine the relationship between molecular evolution and changing environments. Goat is one of the first domesticated species and has evolved rapidly to adapt to diverse environments, including harsh high-altitude conditions with low temperature and poor oxygen supply but strong ultraviolet radiation. Here, we analyzed 331 genomes of domestic goats and wild caprid species living at varying altitudes (high > 3000 m above sea level and low < 1200 m), along with a reference-guided chromosome-scale assembly (contig-N50: 90.4 Mb) of a female Tibetan goat genome based on PacBio HiFi long reads, to dissect the genetic determinants underlying their adaptation to harsh conditions on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Population genomic analyses combined with genome-wide association studies (GWAS) revealed a genomic region harboring the 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate synthase 2 (PAPSS2) gene showing strong association with high-altitude adaptability (PGWAS = 3.62 × 10-25) in Tibetan goats. Transcriptomic data from 13 tissues revealed that PAPSS2 was implicated in hypoxia-related pathways in Tibetan goats. We further verified potential functional role of PAPSS2 in response to hypoxia in PAPSS2-deficient cells. Introgression analyses suggested that the PAPSS2 haplotype conferring the high-altitude adaptability in Tibetan goats originated from a recent hybridization between goats and a wild caprid species, the markhor (Capra falconeri). In conclusion, our results uncover a hitherto unknown contribution of PAPSS2 to high-altitude adaptability in Tibetan goats on QTP, following interspecific introgression and natural selection.

13.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 12(21)2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364594

RESUMO

Enhanced scattering from local surface plasmon resonance by light has attracted much attention due to its special applications in sensor, cell, and biological imaging . Here, we investigate the ratio of scattering to absorption in bimetallic three-layered nanoshells with different geometrical parameters using quasi-static theory. We show that the ratio of scattering to absorption strongly depends on the inner radius, shell thickness, middle dielectric function, and surrounding medium function. To gain insight into the effect of such geometrical parameters on the plasmonic scattering, we also provide a comparison between silver-dielectric-gold nanoshells and gold-dielectric-silver nanoshells. This work provides an alternative approach to analyze the optical properties of bimetallic three-layered nanoshells with potential applications in sensors and photo-detectors.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36345240

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This article aims to establish a liquid biopsy system for gene detection of circulating tumor cells (CTC) in lung cancer, so as to systematically analyze the significance of osimertinib resistance and formulating an individualized diagnosis and treatment plan. METHODS: Liposome-contained magnetic microspheres coated with Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized using microemulsion, and the surface was modified with EGFR antibody to form EGFR/EpCAM multi-site liposome-contained immunomagnetic microspheres (IMMSs). The CTCs were isolated and identified from peripheral blood samples and cell lines of patients with lung cancer collected by the multi-site liposome-contained IMMSs. The effects of the order of use of IMMSs with different sites on the sorting and trapping efficiency of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells were investigated. The preliminary verification of drug-resistant gene function and dynamic monitoring of CTCs in 20 patients with EGFR-positive NSCLC were screened and statistically analyzed before and after osimertinib treatment. Sensitivity analysis and drug resistance evaluation of oxitidine were detected in vitro. RESULTS: Results showed the prepared multi-site liposome-contained IMMSs had high stability and specificity. The number of CTCs in blood samples of the patients with NSCLC was detected, revealing high sorting efficiency, and positive sorting rate reaching more than 90%. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that the prepared multi-site liposome-contained IMMSs can efficiently isolate CTCs from the peripheral blood in lung cancer. The combination of NGS data can effectively identify the resistant genes of NSCLC including EGFR, which will provide new scientific support for guiding clinical medication and the formulation of individualized treatment plan.

16.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(21)2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36363284

RESUMO

Recently, the hexagonal phase of ternary transition metal pnictides TT'X (T = Zr, Hf; T' = Ru; X = P, As), which are well-known noncentrosymmetric superconductors, were predicted to host nontrivial bulk topology. In this work, we systematically investigate the electronic responses of ZrRuAs to external pressure. At ambient pressure, ZrRuAs show superconductivity with Tc ~ 7.74 K, while a large upper critical field ~ 13.03 T is obtained for ZrRuAs, which is comparable to the weak-coupling Pauli limit. The resistivity of ZrRuAs exhibits a non-monotonic evolution with increasing pressure. The superconducting transition temperature Tc increases with applied pressure and reaches a maximum value of 7.93 K at 2.1 GPa, followed by a decrease. The nontrivial topology is robust and persists up to the high-pressure regime. Considering both robust superconductivity and intriguing topology in this material, our results could contribute to studies of the interplay between topological electronic states and superconductivity.

17.
Opt Express ; 30(22): 40809-40819, 2022 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36299008

RESUMO

Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with nanoscale spatial resolution (Nano-ARPES) is a powerful tool for the investigation of electronic structures of materials and their spatial configurations. In order to capture the area of interest in Nano-ARPES measurements effectively, an optical microscope can be used to provide real space optical images as a reference. In this work, a new type of optical microscope for Nano-APRES spectrometer with a large tilt angle of ∼30 degrees and a long focal length of ∼12 mm has been designed. Large magnifications by 7 × to 20 × and a spatial resolution of 3 um have been achieved, which can effectively assist optical alignment for Nano-ARPES. In addition, the strong boundary sensitivity observed in such a tilt design demonstrates its special capability in detecting the fine features of surface coarseness.

18.
Environ Pollut ; 314: 120254, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152706

RESUMO

This study proposes a red tide risk assessment method based on intercriteria correlation (CRITIC), technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS), assessment of estuarine trophic status (ASSETS) methods and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) to calculate the probability of each risk level. The integrated TOPSIS-ASSETS method is used to calculate the risk levels of each year, where index weight is determined by CRITIC method. MCS method is employed to calculate the probability of each risk level. The results showed that level III to level V indicates high possibility of red tides in the case study area (Tolo Harbor). The highest risk rating was level V in 1988. The change of the risk level of red tide is consistent with the real situation of the occurrence of red tide. Another case of the east part of Skagerrak Strait shows that the results of this method are consistent with field situation. When there is an error between the evaluation results and the real situation, MCS can further suggest the probability of error in the evaluation results. Meanwhile, sensitivity analysis was used to test the performance of the evaluation model and two comparative methods. The results show that the proposed risk assessment method has better performance than other methods and can provide an effective risk evaluation for red tide management.


Assuntos
Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Método de Monte Carlo , Medição de Risco
19.
Genet Sel Evol ; 54(1): 61, 2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36085023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After domestication, the evolution of phenotypically-varied sheep breeds has generated rich biodiversity. This wide phenotypic variation arises as a result of hidden genomic changes that range from a single nucleotide to several thousands of nucleotides. Thus, it is of interest and significance to reveal and understand the genomic changes underlying the phenotypic variation of sheep breeds in order to drive selection towards economically important traits. REVIEW: Various traits contribute to the emergence of variation in sheep phenotypic characteristics, including coat color, horns, tail, wool, ears, udder, vertebrae, among others. The genes that determine most of these phenotypic traits have been investigated, which has generated knowledge regarding the genetic determinism of several agriculturally-relevant traits in sheep. In this review, we discuss the genomic knowledge that has emerged in the past few decades regarding the phenotypic traits in sheep, and our ultimate aim is to encourage its practical application in sheep breeding. In addition, in order to expand the current understanding of the sheep genome, we shed light on research gaps that require further investigation. CONCLUSIONS: Although significant research efforts have been conducted in the past few decades, several aspects of the sheep genome remain unexplored. For the full utilization of the current knowledge of the sheep genome, a wide practical application is still required in order to boost sheep productive performance and contribute to the generation of improved sheep breeds. The accumulated knowledge on the sheep genome will help advance and strengthen sheep breeding programs to face future challenges in the sector, such as climate change, global human population growth, and the increasing demand for products of animal origin.


Assuntos
Genômica , , Animais , Domesticação , Humanos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais , Nucleotídeos , Fenótipo , Ovinos/genética
20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(20): 14439-14451, 2022 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36169941

RESUMO

This study conducted the first extensive and comprehensive investigation of the whole-scale sedimentary antibiotic concentration, possible drivers, environmental fate, and potential ecological risks in the Yangtze River. Totally, 20 antibiotics were detected in the sediments. Results revealed that the order of antibiotic abundance in sediment was fluoroquinolones > tetracyclines > macrolides > sulfonamides > amphenicols. The total antibiotic concentrations were 0.10-134.4 ng/g (mean: 11.88 ng/g). Of these, fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines were the two dominant antibiotic categories. The dominant occurrence of fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines in sediments suggested that the distribution coefficient (Kd) was one of the important factors to determine their fate. Correlation analysis demonstrated that antibiotic contamination was largely influenced by the local scale of animal husbandry, and the positive correlation between antibiotics and heavy metals was likely driven by their common source of contamination and the complexation. Environmental risk assessment showed that tetracycline and chlortetracycline exhibited potential risks from medium to high in the Yangtze River, although most of the compounds posed minimal and low risks. This work provided a valuable large-scale data set across the whole Yangtze River and revealed the contamination profile of antibiotics. Mitigation and management measures to reduce antibiotic inputs are needed for the Yangtze River basin.


Assuntos
Clortetraciclina , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Antibacterianos , Ásia , China , Cloranfenicol/análise , Clortetraciclina/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fluoroquinolonas/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Macrolídeos/análise , Medição de Risco , Rios , Sulfonamidas/análise , Tetraciclina , Tetraciclinas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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