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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803843

RESUMO

Heavy goods vehicle (HGV) driving is recognised as a highly hazardous occupation due to the long periods of sedentary behaviour, low levels of physical activity and unhealthy food options when working. These risk factors combine with shift work and concomitant irregular sleep patterns to increase the prevalence of fatigue. Fatigue is closely linked with stress and, subsequently, poor physiological and psychological health. In parallel, a wealth of evidence has demonstrated the health and wellbeing benefits of spending time in nature. Here, we sought to examine whether spending time in nature was associated with lower levels of fatigue, anxiety and depression in HGV drivers. 89 long-distance drivers (98.9% male, mean ± SD age: 51.0 ± 9 years, body mass index: 29.8 ± 4.7 kg/m2) participating in a wider health promotion programme reported time spent in nature (during and before the Covid-19 pandemic) and symptoms of occupational fatigue, depression and anxiety. After controlling for covariates, truck drivers who visited nature at least once a week exhibited 16% less chronic fatigue prior to the pandemic, and 23% less chronic fatigue and 20% less acute fatigue during the pandemic. No significant differences were observed for either anxiety or depression. As fatigue has a range of physical and mental health sequelae, we propose that increased exposure to natural settings may make a valuable contribution to interventions to promote the health and wellbeing of this underserved group.

2.
Biomedicines ; 9(3)2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808042

RESUMO

Oxygen availability varies throughout the human body in health and disease. Under physiological conditions, oxygen availability drops from the lungs over the blood stream towards the different tissues into the cells and the mitochondrial cavities leading to physiological low oxygen conditions or physiological hypoxia in all organs including primary lymphoid organs. Moreover, immune cells travel throughout the body searching for damaged cells and foreign antigens facing a variety of oxygen levels. Consequently, physiological hypoxia impacts immune cell function finally controlling innate and adaptive immune response mainly by transcriptional regulation via hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). Under pathophysiological conditions such as found in inflammation, injury, infection, ischemia and cancer, severe hypoxia can alter immune cells leading to dysfunctional immune response finally leading to tissue damage, cancer progression and autoimmunity. Here we summarize the effects of physiological and pathophysiological hypoxia on innate and adaptive immune activity, we provide an overview on the control of immune response by cellular hypoxia-induced pathways with focus on the role of HIFs and discuss the opportunity to target hypoxia-sensitive pathways for the treatment of cancer and autoimmunity.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690115

RESUMO

Low-cost ultrasound imaging systems are desired for many applications outside of radiology and cardiology departments. By making ultrasound systems smaller and lower cost, use of ultrasound has spread from these mainstays to other areas of the hospital such as emergency departments and critical care. To further miniaturize and reduce cost of ultrasound systems, we have investigated novel Fresnel-based beamforming methods to reduce front-end hardware requirements. Previous studies with linear and curvilinear arrays demonstrated comparable imaging performance using Fresnel-based beamforming versus delay-and-sum (DAS) beamforming. In this work, we extend Fresnel-based beamforming to phased arrays with beam steering. To accomplish this in transmit mode, we introduce a technique called a gated transmit beamformer where multicycle bursts are gated using multiplexers. In receive mode, a 64-element 2.5 MHz phased array is broken up into 4 16-element subapertures, each subaperture performs Fresnel beamforming before a final beamforming step is done. Timing errors are inevitable with Fresnel-based beamforming leading to higher sidelobe and clutter levels. To suppress sidelobe and clutter contributions, we also combine this with our previous technique, dual apodization with cross-correlation (DAX) to improve contrast. Field II simulations are performed to evaluate spatial resolution and contrast-to-noise ratio and compared to standard DAS beamforming. Fresnel-based and gated transmit beamforming are also implemented using synthetic aperture data from tissue-mimicking phantoms. Lastly, A hardware proof-of-concept (PoC) Fresnel beamformer was designed, assembled, and evaluated with images from tissue-mimicking phantoms and initial in vivo images.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647481

RESUMO

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is a frequently occurring renal cancer. Von Hippel-Lindau disease tumor suppressor (VHL), a known tumor suppressor, is frequently mutated in about 50% of patients with ccRCC. However, it is unclear whether VHL influences the progression of ccRCC tumors expressing wild-type VHL. In the present study, we found that higher expression of VHL was correlated with the better disease-free survival (DFS) in ccRCC patients using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets. We revealed that VHL overexpression in ccRCC cells inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1) regulated triglyceride synthesis, and cell proliferation. Proteomic analysis provided us a global view that VHL regulated four biological processes including metabolism, immune regulation, apoptosis, and cell movement. Importantly, we found that VHL overexpression led to upregulation of proteins associated with antigen processing and interferon-responsive proteins, rendering ccRCC cells with high VHL expression more sensitive to interferon treatment. We defined an interferon-responsive signature (IRS) with ten proteins, whose expression levels were positively correlated with DFS in ccRCC patients. Taken together, our results propose that the subset of ccRCC patients with high VHL expression benefit from immunotherapy.

5.
Blood Cancer J ; 11(3): 57, 2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714981

RESUMO

The constitutive activation of B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling, together with the overexpression of the Bcl-2 family anti-apoptotic proteins, represents two hallmarks of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) that drive leukemia cell proliferation and sustain their survival. TG02 is a small molecule multi-kinase inhibitor that simultaneously targets both of these facets of CLL pathogenesis. First, its inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 9 blocked the activation of RNA polymerase II and transcription. This led to the depletion of Mcl-1 and rapid induction of apoptosis in the primary CLL cells. This mechanism of apoptosis was independent of CLL prognostic factors or prior treatment history, but dependent on the expression of BAX and BAK. Second, TG02, which inhibits the members of the BCR signaling pathway such as Lck and Fyn, blocked BCR-crosslinking-induced activation of NF-κB and Akt, indicating abrogation of BCR signaling. Finally, the combination of TG02 and ibrutinib demonstrated moderate synergy, suggesting a future combination of TG02 with ibrutinib, or use in patients that are refractory to the BCR antagonists. Thus, the dual inhibitory activity on both the CLL survival pathway and BCR signaling identifies TG02 as a unique compound for clinical development in CLL and possibly other B cell malignancies.

6.
J Hazard Mater ; 415: 125615, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725550

RESUMO

Constructed wetlands (CWs) are commonly used for the treatment of wastewater. However, the removal of microplastics in CWs are poorly understood. In this work, the fate and behavior of microplastics of different shapes (film, fragment, and fiber) and sizes (0.5-1 mm and 2-4 mm) were studied. Results showed that the microplastic removal rate was 81.63% in surface flow constructed wetlands (SF-CWs) and 100% in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSF-CWs). Fragments and fibers with 2-4 mm sizes flowed out preferentially from SF-CWs. Retained microplastics accumulated dominantly near the inlet area. Biofilm attachment and physical filtration played an important role in the retention of microplastics. The microplastics' morphological features and the apertures of the substrate related to the transport of microplastics in the substrate. We observed the formation of holes, cracks, and weeny fibers on the surface of the microplastics extracted from the microcosms with a scanning electron microscope (SEM), but we detected no oxidation based on the Fourier transform infrared spectra. Our results suggest that CWs, especially HSF-CWs, are efficient for the removal of microplastic pollution. However, microplastics are persistent in CWs. The potential impacts of microplastics on the function of CWs should be further assessed.

7.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534144

RESUMO

After trauma, the formed fracture hematoma within the fracture gap contains all the important components (immune/stem cells, mediators) to initiate bone regeneration immediately. Thus, it is of great importance but also the most susceptible to negative influences. To study the interaction between bone and immune cells within the fracture gap, up-to-date in vitro systems should be capable of recapitulating cellular and humoral interactions and the physicochemical microenvironment (eg, hypoxia). Here, we first developed and characterized scaffold-free bone-like constructs (SFBCs), which were produced from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) using a macroscale mesenchymal condensation approach. SFBCs revealed permeating mineralization characterized by increased bone volume (µCT, histology) and expression of osteogenic markers (RUNX2, SPP1, RANKL). Fracture hematoma (FH) models, consisting of human peripheral blood (immune cells) mixed with MSCs, were co-cultivated with SFBCs under hypoxic conditions. As a result, FH models revealed an increased expression of osteogenic (RUNX2, SPP1), angiogenic (MMP2, VEGF), HIF-related (LDHA, PGK1), and inflammatory (IL6, IL8) markers after 12 and 48 hours co-cultivation. Osteogenic and angiogenic gene expression of the FH indicate the osteoinductive potential and, thus, the biological functionality of the SFBCs. IL-6, IL-8, GM-CSF, and MIP-1ß were detectable within the supernatant after 24 and 48 hours of co-cultivation. To confirm the responsiveness of our model to modifying substances (eg, therapeutics), we used deferoxamine (DFO), which is well known to induce a cellular hypoxic adaptation response. Indeed, DFO particularly increased hypoxia-adaptive, osteogenic, and angiogenic processes within the FH models but had little effect on the SFBCs, indicating different response dynamics within the co-cultivation system. Therefore, based on our data, we have successfully modeled processes within the initial fracture healing phase in vitro and concluded that the cross-talk between bone and immune cells in the initial fracture healing phase is of particular importance for preclinical studies. © 2021 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).

8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(3)2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535456

RESUMO

In this paper, a transmission-guided lightweight neural network called TGL-Net is proposed for efficient image dehazing. Unlike most current dehazing methods that produce simulated transmission maps from depth data and haze-free images, in the proposed work, guided transmission maps are computed automatically using a filter-refined dark-channel-prior (F-DCP) method from real-world hazy images as a regularizer, which facilitates network training not only on synthetic data, but also on natural images. A double-error loss function that combines the errors of a transmission map with the errors of a dehazed image is used to guide network training. The method provides a feasible solution for introducing priors obtained from traditional non-learning-based image processing techniques as a guide for training deep neural networks. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that, in terms of several reference and non-reference evaluation criteria for real-world images, the proposed method can achieve state-of-the-art performance with a much smaller network size and with significant improvements in efficiency resulting from the training guidance.

9.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 20: 100066, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631294

RESUMO

Plague is a zoonotic disease that primarily infects rodents via fleabite. Transmission from flea to host niches requires rapid adaption of Yersinia pestis to the outer environments to establish infection. Here, quantitative proteome and secretome analyses of Y. pestis grown under conditions mimicking the two typical niches, i.e., the mammalian host (Mh) and the flea vector (Fv), were performed to understand the adaption strategies of this deadly pathogen. A secretome of Y. pestis containing 308 proteins has been identified using TMT-labeling mass spectrometry analysis. Although some proteins are known to be secreted, such as the type III secretion substrates, PsaA and F1 antigen, most of them were found to be secretory proteins for the first time. Comparative proteomic analysis showed that membrane proteins, chaperonins and stress response proteins are significantly upregulated under the Mh condition, among which the previously uncharacterized proteins YP_3416∼YP_3418 are remarkable because they cannot only be secreted but also translocated into HeLa cells by Y. pestis. We further demonstrated that the purified YP_3416 and YP_3418 exhibited E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in in vitro ubiquitination assay and yp_3416∼3418 deletion mutant of Y. pestis showed significant virulence attenuation in mice. Taken together, our results represent the first Y. pestis secretome, which will promote the better understanding of Y. pestis pathogenesis, as well as the development of new strategies for treatment and prevention of plague.

10.
J Clin Nurs ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555622

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore factors of health behaviour maintenance from the perspective of coronary heart disease (CHD) patients. BACKGROUND: The majority of CHD patients do not achieve appropriate theory-based intervention to maintain health behaviours. Previous health behaviour change theories give little importance to behaviour maintenance. DESIGN: A qualitative descriptive study. METHODS: Thirty CHD patients were recruited purposively and interviewed from four hospitals in Beijing, China, during January 2017-August 2019. Data were analysed using template analysis methods. The COREQ checklist was used. RESULTS: Perceived enjoyment and perceived effectiveness from the newly adopted behaviours emerged as vital factors for maintaining health behaviour; contemplation-action-maintenance (CAM) model to explain the behaviour change and maintenance of CHD patients was constructed. CONCLUSIONS: The CAM model provides insight into the factors of health behaviour action and maintenance among CHD patients. Professionals can develop interventions from the perspective of patients' experiences to promote maintenance of behaviour. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Professionals need to consider that the goal of behavioural intervention should initially and continuously target patients' perseverance. Interventions of health behaviour that bring enjoyment may aid long-term maintenance. Also, healthcare providers can enhance patients' perception of effectiveness to motivate their behaviour maintenance in lifestyle change programmes.

11.
Plant Signal Behav ; 16(4): 1876379, 2021 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586611

RESUMO

When plants encounter environmental stresses, phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) accumulates quickly and efficiently reduces water loss by inducing stomatal closure. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important regulator in ABA-induced stomatal closure, and ROS generation is modulated by multiple components in guard-cell ABA signaling. ROP interactive CRIB-containing protein 7 (RIC7) has been found to negatively regulate ABA-induced stomatal closure. However, the molecular details of the RIC7 function in this process are unclear. Here, by using two RIC7 overexpressing mutants, we confirmed the negative role of RIC7 in ABA-induced stomatal closure and found that guard cells of RIC7 overexpressing mutants generated less H2O2 than the wild type with ABA treatment, which were consistent with the reduced expression levels of ROS generation related NADPH oxidase genes AtRBOHD and AtRBOHF, and cytosolic polyamine oxidase genes PAO1 and PAO5 in the RIC7 overexpressing mutants. Furthermore, external applied H2O2 failed to rescue the defects of stomatal closure in RIC7 overexpressing mutants. These results suggest that RIC7 affects H2O2 generation in guard cells, and the function of H2O2 is dependent on RIC7 in ABA-induced stomatal closure, indicative of interdependency between RIC7 and H2O2 in ABA guard-cell signaling.

12.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(2)2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513678

RESUMO

Previous genetic mapping helped detect a ~7.52 Mb putative genomic region for the pollen fertility trait on peach Chromosome 06 (Chr.06), which was too long for candidate gene characterization. In this study, using the whole-genome re-sequencing data of 201 peach accessions, we performed a genome-wide association study to identify key genes related to peach pollen fertility trait. The significant association peak was detected at Chr.06: 2,116,368 bp, which was in accordance with the previous genetic mapping results, but displayed largely improved precision, allowing for the identification of nine candidate genes. Among these candidates, gene PpABCG26, encoding an ATP-binding cassette G (ABCG) transporter and harboring the most significantly associated SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) marker in its coding region, was hypothesized to control peach pollen fertility/sterility based on the results of gene function comparison, gene relative expression, and nucleotide sequence analysis. The obtained results will help us to understand the genetic basis of peach pollen fertility trait, and to discover applicable markers for pre-selection in peach.

13.
J Ultrasound Med ; 40(3): 569-581, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410183

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To quantify the bias of shear wave speed (SWS) measurements between different commercial ultrasonic shear elasticity systems and a magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) system in elastic and viscoelastic phantoms. METHODS: Two elastic phantoms, representing healthy through fibrotic liver, were measured with 5 different ultrasound platforms, and 3 viscoelastic phantoms, representing healthy through fibrotic liver tissue, were measured with 12 different ultrasound platforms. Measurements were performed with different systems at different sites, at 3 focal depths, and with different appraisers. The SWS bias across the systems was quantified as a function of the system, site, focal depth, and appraiser. A single MRE research system was also used to characterize these phantoms using discrete frequencies from 60 to 500 Hz. RESULTS: The SWS from different systems had mean difference 95% confidence intervals of ±0.145 m/s (±9.6%) across both elastic phantoms and ± 0.340 m/s (±15.3%) across the viscoelastic phantoms. The focal depth and appraiser were less significant sources of SWS variability than the system and site. Magnetic resonance elastography best matched the ultrasonic SWS in the viscoelastic phantoms using a 140 Hz source but had a - 0.27 ± 0.027-m/s (-12.2% ± 1.2%) bias when using the clinically implemented 60-Hz vibration source. CONCLUSIONS: Shear wave speed reconstruction across different manufacturer systems is more consistent in elastic than viscoelastic phantoms, with a mean difference bias of < ±10% in all cases. Magnetic resonance elastographic measurements in the elastic and viscoelastic phantoms best match the ultrasound systems with a 140-Hz excitation but have a significant negative bias operating at 60 Hz. This study establishes a foundation for meaningful comparison of SWS measurements made with different platforms.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368211

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore associations between breast and ovarian tumors among the general healthcare population. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional retrospective study that enrolled 47 951 consecutive Chinese women who took health check-ups between January 2015 and July 2018 and accepted both breast and gynecologic ultrasound scans during one healthcare examination in The Quality Control Center of Health Examination in Chongqing (China). Prevalence of breast and ovarian tumors was addressed. Multivariable logistic regressions were applied to assess the association between breast and ovarian lesions after adjusting for age, height, and body mass index, using ultrasonographic reports. RESULTS: Among participants, 8481 (17.7%) had breast masses (BM), and 2994 (6.2%) had ovarian masses (OM). After adjusting for age, height and body mass index (BMI), women with OM had an increased risk of BM (odds ratio [OR] 1.139, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.040-1.249, P = 0.005) than those without OM. Furthermore, subgroup analysis based on menopausal status revealed a positive association between the occurrence of OM and BM in premenopausal women (adjusted OR 1.155, 95% CI 1.052-1.269, P = 0.012) but this was not significant in perimenopausal or postmenopausal women. In subgroup analysis on BMI, positive correlations between OM and BM were found in women with an underweight BMI (OR 1.433, 95% CI 1.048-1.960, P = 0.024) and with a normal BMI (OR 1.130, 95% CI 1.018-1.253, P = 0.021), but this was not significant in overweight or obese cohorts. CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of ultrasound-revealed breast and ovarian tumors were found in Chinese women. Women with OM or BM have an increased prevalence of BM or OM, particularly among younger women and women with a lower BMI.

15.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220424

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis is a reversible wound-healing response to acute or chronic liver injury that can progress to cirrhosis and liver cancer. Finding new strategies for prevention and management of liver fibrosis is urgently needed. It is known that hepatic stellate cell (HSC) is the primary source of extracellular matrix that drives liver fibrosis progression. Herein, we carried out a comprehensive secretome profiling to identify NMN-induced changes in secretory proteins and found that NMN suppressed the secretion of profibrotic protein and oxidoreductase in activated HSC (LX-2) cells, while real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that NMN downregulated profibrotic gene expression, resulting in HSC inactivation. Next, we demonstrated that nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) reduced the accumulation of liver extracellular matrix in thioacetamide (TAA) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced mouse models for liver fibrosis. Furthermore, we determined that NMN inhibited oxidation-mediated 15-PGDH degradation to promote prostaglandin E2 degradation and suppress HSC activation. In summary, our results propose that NMN supplementation is a new therapeutic approach for liver fibrosis prevention.

16.
Mikrochim Acta ; 187(12): 661, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201301

RESUMO

A post-synthetic integration of polypyrrole onto NU-1000 MOF (PPy@NU-1000) was done by pyrrole adsorption, followed by oxidative polymerization. The synthesized materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, BET, and FTIR. The ultra-high specific surface area with high-density catalytic sites of NU-1000 (2223 m2 g-1) was combined with the electrical conductivity of PPy (2-100 S cm-1). PPy@NU-1000 provides superior electrocatalytic activity and charge transfer properties compared to an individual component. The PPy@NU-1000-modified GCE was applied to detect the biomolecule Levodopa (LD). The DPV oxidation peak of LD was strongest at 272 ± 10 mV vs. Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Under the optimized experimental condition, the fabricated electrochemical sensor exhibited a wide quantification range of 0.005-70 µM with a sub-nanomolar detection limit of 0.0001 µM (S/N 3). The described sensor exhibits high sensitivity (2.08 µA µM-1 cm-2) with reasonable stability, reproducibility, and selectivity for the detection LD in the presence of potentially interfering compounds. Furthermore, human serum analysis showed excellent recovery values within the range 99.3-101.6%. Validation of the method was performed against HPLC.Graphical abstract.

17.
Genomics ; 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171205

RESUMO

Polygalacturonase (PG) is a hydrolase that participates in pectin degradation, pod shattering and fruit softening. Here, we identified 2786 PG genes across 54 plants, which could be divided into three groups. Evolutionary analysis suggested that PG family originated from the charophyte green algae, and Subgroups A2-A4 evolved from the Subgroup A1 after the tracheophyte-angiosperm split. Whole-genome duplication was the major force leading to PG gene expansion. Interestingly, the PG genes continuously expanded in eudicots, whereas it contracted in monocots after the eudicot-monocot split. PG genes in Group A are expressed at high levels in floral organs, whereas genes in Groups B and C are expressed at high levels in various tissues. Moreover, three BnaPG15 members were found for their potential possibility in pod shattering in Brassica napus. Our results provide new insight into the evolutionary history of PG family, and their potentially functional role in plants.

18.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155438

RESUMO

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in the respiratory tract leads to pneumonitis in immunocompromised hosts without available vaccine. Considering cytomegalovirus (CMV) mainly invades through the respiratory tract, CMV-specific pulmonary mucosal vaccine development that provides a long-lasting protection against CMV challenge gains our attention. In this study, N-terminal domain of GP96 (GP96-NT) was used as a mucosal adjuvant to enhance the induction of pulmonary-resident CD8 T cells elicited by MCMV glycoprotein B (gB) vaccine. Mice were intranasally co-immunized with 50 µg pgB and equal amount of pGP96-NT vaccine 4 times at 2-week intervals, and then i.n. challenged with MCMV at 16 weeks after the last immunization. Compared with pgB immunization alone, co-immunization with pgB/pGP96-NT enhanced a long-lasting protection against MCMV pneumonitis by significantly improved pneumonitis pathology, enhanced bodyweight, reduced viral burdens and increased survival rate. Moreover, the increased CD8 T cells were observed in lung but not spleen from pgB/pGP96-NT co-immunized mice. The increments of pulmonary CD8 T cells might be mainly due to non-circulating pulmonary-resident CD8 T-cell subset expansion but not circulating CD8 T-cell populations that home to inflammation site upon MCMV challenge. Finally, the deterioration of MCMV pneumonitis by depletion of pulmonary site-specific CD8 T cells in mice that were pgB/pGP96-NT co-immunization might be a clue to interpret the non-circulating pulmonary-resident CD8 T subset expansion. These data might uncover a promising long-lasting prophylactic vaccine strategy against MCMV-induced pneumonitis.

19.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(21): 21890-21903, 2020 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159023

RESUMO

Proteomics have long been applied into characterization of molecular signatures in aging. Due to different methods and instrumentations employed for proteomic analysis, inter-dataset validation needs to be performed to identify potential biomarkers for aging. In this study, we used comparative proteomics analysis to profile age-associated changes in proteome and glutathionylome in mouse kidneys. We identified 108 proteins that were differentially expressed in young and aged mouse kidneys in three different datasets; from these, 27 proteins were identified as potential renal aging biomarkers, including phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck1), CD5 antigen-like protein (Cd5l), aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (Aldh1a1), and uromodulin. Our results also showed that peroxisomal proteins were significantly downregulated in aged mice, whereas IgGs were upregulated, suggesting that peroxisome deterioration might be a hallmark for renal aging. Glutathionylome analysis demonstrated that downregulation of catalase and glutaredoxin-1 (Glrx1) significantly increased protein glutathionylation in aged mice. In addition, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) administration significantly increased the number of peroxisomes in aged mouse kidneys, indicating that NMN enhanced peroxisome biogenesis, and suggesting that it might be beneficial to reduce kidney injuries. Together, our data identify novel potential biomarkers for renal aging, and provide a valuable resource for understanding the age-associated changes in kidneys.

20.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e038993, 2020 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099498

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to systematically review and summarise the literature on cardiometabolic risk factors, lifestyle health behaviours and mental health status of truck drivers globally to ascertain the scale of these health concerns. DESIGN: Systematic review reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO and Web of Science were searched in January 2019 and updated in January 2020, from the date of inception to 16 January 2020. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Papers were included if they (1) reported independent data on truck drivers, (2) included quantitative data on outcomes related to cardiometabolic markers of health, mental health and/or health behaviours, (3) were written in English and (4) were published in a peer-reviewed journal. Grey literature was ineligible for this review. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: One reviewer independently extracted data and assessed methodological quality using a checklist based on the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Quality Assessment tool. 20% were independently assessed for eligibility and quality by a second reviewer. Due to heterogeneity of the outcomes, results were narratively presented. RESULTS: 3601 titles and abstracts were screened. Seventy-three studies met the inclusion criteria. Truck driving is associated with enforced sedentarism, long and irregular working hours, lack of healthy foods, social isolation and chronic time pressures. Strong evidence was observed for truck drivers to generally exhibit poor cardiometabolic risk profiles including overweight and obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, high blood glucose, poor mental health and cigarette smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Improving truck driver health is vital for the longevity of the trucking industry, and for the safety of all road users. The workplace plays a vital role in truck driver health; policies, regulations and procedures are required to address this health crisis. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019124499.

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