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1.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030495

RESUMO

Isotopic-labeling quantitative N-glycoproteomics characterization of cell-surface differentially expressed N-glycosylation in MCF-7/ADR cancer stem cells (CSCs) relative to MCF-7/ADR cells was carried out at the intact N-glycopeptide level with trypsin digestion, ZIC-HILIC enrichment, isotopic diethyl labeling, RPLC-MS/MS analysis of the 1:1 mixture, and GPSeeker DB search. With a spectrum-level false discovery rate of ≤ 1%, 1,336 intact N-glycopeptides from the combination of 301 unique peptide backbones and 169 putative N-glycan linkages (52 monosaccharide compositions) were identified; the corresponding intact N-glycoproteins and N-glycosites were 289 and 305, respectively, among which 176 N-glycosites were confirmed with GlcNAc-containing site-determining b/y fragment ion pairs. The N-glycan moieties in 546 intact N-glycopeptide IDs were identified with more than one structure-diagnostic fragment ions where multiple linkage structures exist for each of the monosaccharide compositions. With the criteria of ≥ 1.5-fold change and p value < 0.05, 72 cell-surface differentially expressed intact N-glycopeptides (DEGPs) were found in MCF-7/ADR CSCs relative to MCF-7/ADR cells, where 8 and 64 were downregulated and upregulated, respectively. Graphical abstract.

2.
J Int Med Res ; 48(2): 300060520903873, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046556
3.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 59(1): 146-149, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039784

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We present mosaic double trisomy involving trisomy 7 and trisomy 20 at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome. CASE REPORT: A 41-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 16 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a result of 48,XY,+7,+20[6]/46,XY[26] in cultured amniocytes. At 19 weeks of gestation, repeat amniocentesis was performed, which revealed a result of 48,XY,+7,+20[4]/46,XY[21] in cultured amniocytes. Simultaneous molecular cytogenetic analyses on uncultured amniocytes at repeat amniocentesis revealed no genomic imbalance in array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis, no trisomy 7 and no trisomy 20 signals in 114/114 cells in interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, and no uniparental disomy (UPD) 7 and no UPD 20 in quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) analysis. Interphase FISH analysis on cultured amniocytes revealed double trisomy of trisomy 7 and trisomy 20 in 5/105 cells (4.7%) compared with 0/100 cells (0%) in the normal control. Prenatal ultrasound findings were unremarkable. The parental karyotypes were normal. The woman decided to continue the pregnancy, and a healthy 2880-g phenotypically normal male baby was delivered at 34 weeks of gestation without any structural abnormality. The cord blood had a normal karyotype. Interphase FISH analysis of the urinary cells revealed no trisomy 7 and no trisomy 20 signals in 51/51 urinary cells. CONCLUSION: Cytogenetic discrepancy between cultured amniocytes and uncultured amniocytes can occur in mosaicism for double trisomy involving trisomy 7 and trisomy 20 at amniocentesis. Molecular cytogenetic analyses such as aCGH, FISH and QF-PCR on uncultured amniocytes are useful for rapid distinguishing true mosaicism from pseudomosaicism under such a circumstance.

4.
Environ Pollut ; 260: 114080, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041082

RESUMO

Inhalation of size-dependent particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been extensively studied, whereas dermal absorption has not been adequately investigated. To address this knowledge gap, dermal absorption of size-dependent particle-bound PAHs was characterized through the collection of indoor air and forearm wipe samples in the setting of an indoor barbecue. The mass of size-fractioned PAHs associated with particulate matter was greater in fine particles (<1.8 µm) than in coarse particles (>1.8 µm). Gas-particle distribution of specific PAHs from barbecue fume was ascribed to both adsorption and absorption which would probably be close to equilibrium, while that from background air was dominated by absorption. Forearm-deposited amounts of particulate PAHs suggested that removal of coarse and fine particles could minimize exposure to low and high molecular-weight (MW) PAHs, respectively. Besides, the concentrations of particulate PAHs in forearms wipe were significantly correlated to their dry deposition fluxes with coarse particles, but weakly correlated to those with fine particles. This indicated that particle size would influence dermal absorption efficiency of particle-bound PAHs with fine particles prolonging dermal exposure to PAHs. Overall, higher MW particle-bound PAHs derived from barbecue fume may pose higher risk to human health by dermal absorption than lower MW PAHs.

5.
Eur J Med Chem ; 190: 112092, 2020 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014679

RESUMO

Harboring MYD88 L265P mutation triggers tumors growth through the activation of NF-κB by interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), highlighting IRAK4 as a therapeutic target for tumors driven by aberrant MYD88 signaling. Herein, we report the design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationships of imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazines as potent IRAK4 inhibitors. The representative compound 5 exhibited excellent IRAK4 potency (IRAK4 IC50 = 1.3 nM) and favorable kinase selectivity profile. It demonstrated cellular selectivity for activated B cell-like (ABC) subtype DLBCL with MYD88 L265P mutation in cytotoxicity assay. The kinase inhibitory efficiency of compound 5 was further validated by Western blot analysis of phosphorylation of IRAK4 and downstream signaling in OCI-LY10 and TMD8 cells. Besides, combination of compound 5 and BTK inhibitor ibrutinib synergistically reduced the viability of TMD8 cells. These results indicated that compound 5 could be a promising IRAK4 inhibitor for the treatment of mutant MYD88 DLBCL.

6.
Analyst ; 145(4): 1376-1383, 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32021994

RESUMO

Histone post-translational modification (PTM) is a marker for gene transcription and is involved in a range of cancers, such as breast cancer. Most importantly, different modifications of a specific site (e.g., mono-, di- and tri-methylations and acetylation at a lysine residue) are individually enriched in particular regions of the genome, indicating that they may serve distinct functions. How these patterns are built and whether downstream events are dependent on the precise site-specific modification status are still poorly understood. One of the prerequisites is to obtain quantitative information on individual modification forms. Currently, the low abundance of these forms creates a great challenge. In this study, a targeted proteomics assay based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with single template oriented molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) was developed to attempt to simultaneously quantify site-specific histone mono-, di- and tri-methylated and acetylated forms. Surrogate peptides, including an unmodified one, were selected as targets in both MIP enrichment and subsequent LC-MS/MS detection. As a consequence, a limit of quantification (LOQ) of ∼0.5 nM was achieved, which was 10-fold more sensitive than without MIPs and much more sensitive than mass spectrometry involving a scanning mode. Finally, the assay was employed to quantitatively analyze the H3K79, H3K122 and H4K31 modification status in human breast cell lines.

7.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; : 127021, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057583

RESUMO

Aberrant activation of NLRP3 inflammasome is present in a subset of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. The NLRP3 inflammasome has been recognized as an attractive therapeutic target for developing novel and specific anti-inflammatory inhibitors. Cellular structure-activity relationship-guided optimization resulted in the identification of 4-oxo-2-thioxo-thiazolidinone derivative 9 as a selective and direct small-molecule inhibitor of NLRP3 with IC50 of 2.4 µM, possessing favorable ex vivo and in vivo pharmacokinetic properties. Compound 9 may represent a lead for the development of anti-inflammatory therapeutics for treating NLRP3-driven diseases.

8.
Environ Toxicol ; 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061153

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the protective effects of the Bauhinia championii (BC) against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced injury in an isolated heart model. Langendorff-perfused C57BL/6JNarl mice hearts were performed with 30 minutes ischemia and 60 minutes reperfusion by left anterior descending artery ligation. Before reperfusion, boiling water extracts of BC (10 mg/L) was pretreated for 15 minutes. During reperfusion, BC significantly decreased the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias by lead II electrocardiogram (ECG). Electrophysiological effect of BC was further determined in isolated ventricular myocytes by whole-cell patch clamp technique. The underlying mechanism may result from its Na+ channel blocking activity characterized with reduced rise slope of action potential and Na+ current density. Moreover, BC dramatically reduced I/R-caused infarct size, which was accessed by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) assay. Since BC decreased I/R-induced myoglobin release and oxidation of Ca2+ -calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, inhibition of myocardial necroptosis may account for the protective effects of BC on myocytes lose. This study indicated that BC may prevent I/R induced ventricular arrhythmias and myocyte death by blocking Na+ channels and decreasing necroptosis, respectively. Since most of the available antiarrhythmic remedies have unwanted adverse actions, BC could be a novel candidate for the treatment of myocardial infarction and ventricular arrhythmia.

9.
Biomaterials ; 237: 119827, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036302

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT), as a non-invasive therapeutic modality that is alternative to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, is extensively investigated for cancer treatments. Although conventional organic photosensitizers (PSs) are still widely used and have achieved great progresses in PDT, the disadvantages such as hydrophobicity, poor stability within PDT environment and low cell/tissue specificity largely limit their clinical applications. Consequently, nano-agents with promising physicochemical and optical properties have emerged as an attractive alternative to overcome these drawbacks of traditional PSs. Herein, the up-to-date advances in the fabrication and fascinating applications of various nanomaterials in PDT have been summarized, including various types of nanoparticles, carbon-based nanomaterials, and two-dimensional nanomaterials, etc. In addition, the current challenges for the clinical use of PDT, and the corresponding strategies to address these issues, as well as future perspectives on further improvement of PDT have also been discussed.

10.
ISA Trans ; 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067751

RESUMO

This study verifies the H∞ filter design for sampled-data systems with quantization and event-triggered schemes. Firstly, an event-triggered mechanism is presented to detect the release of the necessary sampled-data packet, which significantly reduces the limited network resources compared with the conventional time-triggered mechanism. Secondly, by considering the impact of quantization on the sampled-data system and using the time interval analysis approach, a new sampled-data filtering error model is presented. Then, the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) approach is utilized to derive the required conditions to ensure the asymptotical stability and attain the prescribed H∞ performance for the mentioned system by solving a group of linear matrix inequality (LMIs). Consequently, the corresponding event-triggered and H∞ parameters are co-designed. Finally, the efficiency and the advantage of the presented approach are demonstrated via a mass-spring system example.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026371

RESUMO

It is necessary to study the contamination of antibiotics in natural water bodies and assess its impact on ecological and human risks because of the large-scale use in the world. The occurrence and distribution characteristics of 45 antibiotics in reservoirs in Dongguan were investigated. Approximately, 77.8% of the detectable concentration of 35 antibiotics were found in the evaluation samples with concentration ranged from not detected (ND) to 729.59 ng/L, and dehydrated erythromycin was the highest one that appeared in Tongsha Reservoir. Fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines were the most abundant antibiotics with the detection frequency of 100% at sum concentration of 7.23-212.43 ng/L and 13.46-72.66 ng/L, respectively. Macrolides had a lower detected frequency but with highest concentration level at five kinds of antibiotics. Sulfamethoxazole, lincomycin, dehydrated erythromycin, pefloxacin, and panofloxacin were selected as important evaluation indicators. Sulfaguanidine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole, dehydrated erythromycin, and clarithromycin that showed a significant correlation with Cl- and SO42- indicated that the pollution source of these antibiotics may be related to wastewater treatment plants. Among detected antibiotics, trimethoprim, norfloxacin, sarafloxacin, lincomycin, oxytetracycline, novobiocin, dehydrated erythromycin, and clarithromycin presented high risk to aquatic ecosystem in the reservoirs. There was no risk to humans at different ages of detected antibiotics, but it should attract attention because of the cumulative effects of antibiotics, which may cause potential risks to the human body.

12.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 28(1): 230-234, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027282

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to explore the value of capillary electrophoresis in screening ß- thalassemia of children, and to establish the cutoff values of HbA2 and HbF in our laboratory. METHODS: The data of hemoglobin capillary electrophoresis and genetic diagnosis of ß- thalassemia from 886 examined children were retrospectively analyzed. The cutoff values of HbA2 and HbF were determined by ROC curve. RESULTS: The cutoff value of HbA2 screening minor ß- thalassemia was 3.65%, the specificity was 0.996, and the sensitivity was 0.995. The cut-off value of HbF for screening minor ß- thalassemia was 1.45%, specificity was 0.751 and sensitivity was 0.675. Thus, 1 case with codon5 (CCT→C) mutation, 1 case with SEA -HPFH ß deletion, 1 case with - 28 (A→G) merger IVS-Ι-128 (T→G) double heterozygous mutations yet were found out, 1 case with 47 bp ß gene missing has not yet been reported in literature. CONCLUSION: Capillary electrophoresis has more high sensitivity and specificity in the screening of ß- thalassemia in children, especially for the detection of rare ß- thalassemia.

13.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015409

RESUMO

The low magnetic saturation of iron oxide nanoparticles, which are developed primarily as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, limits the sensitivity of their detection using magnetic particle imaging (MPI). Here, we show that FeCo nanoparticles that have a core diameter of 10 nm and bear a graphitic carbon shell decorated with poly(ethylene glycol) provide an MPI signal intensity that is sixfold and fifteenfold higher than the signals from the superparamagnetic iron oxide tracers VivoTrax and Feraheme, respectively, at the same molar concentration of iron. We also show that the nanoparticles have photothermal and magnetothermal properties and can therefore be used for tumour ablation in mice, and that they have high optical absorbance in a broad near-infrared region spectral range (wavelength, 700-1,200 nm), making them suitable as tracers for photoacoustic imaging. As sensitive multifunctional and multimodal imaging tracers, carbon-coated FeCo nanoparticles may confer advantages in cancer imaging and hyperthermia therapy.

14.
Brain ; 143(2): 430-440, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040555

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal and incurable neurodegenerative disease caused by motor neuron loss, resulting in muscle wasting, paralysis and eventual death. A key pathological feature of ALS is cytoplasmically mislocalized and aggregated TDP-43 protein in >95% of cases, which is considered to have prion-like properties. Historical studies have predominantly focused on genetic forms of ALS, which represent ∼10% of cases, leaving the remaining 90% of sporadic ALS relatively understudied. Additionally, the role of astrocytes in ALS and their relationship with TDP-43 pathology is also not currently well understood. We have therefore used highly enriched human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived motor neurons and astrocytes to model early cell type-specific features of sporadic ALS. We first demonstrate seeded aggregation of TDP-43 by exposing human iPSC-derived motor neurons to serially passaged sporadic ALS post-mortem tissue (spALS) extracts. Next, we show that human iPSC-derived motor neurons are more vulnerable to TDP-43 aggregation and toxicity compared with their astrocyte counterparts. We demonstrate that these TDP-43 aggregates can more readily propagate from motor neurons into astrocytes in co-culture paradigms. We next found that astrocytes are neuroprotective to seeded aggregation within motor neurons by reducing (mislocalized) cytoplasmic TDP-43, TDP-43 aggregation and cell toxicity. Furthermore, we detected TDP-43 oligomers in these spALS spinal cord extracts, and as such demonstrated that highly purified recombinant TDP-43 oligomers can reproduce this observed cell-type specific toxicity, providing further support to a protein oligomer-mediated toxicity hypothesis in ALS. In summary, we have developed a human, clinically relevant, and cell-type specific modelling platform that recapitulates key aspects of sporadic ALS and uncovers both an initial neuroprotective role for astrocytes and the cell type-specific toxic effect of TDP-43 oligomers.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041882

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of bipolar disorder (BD) has remained enigmatic, largely because genetic animal models based on identified susceptible genes have often failed to show core symptoms of spontaneous mood cycling. However, pedigree and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-based analyses have implicated that dysfunction in some key signaling cascades might be crucial for the disease pathogenesis in a subpopulation of BD patients. We hypothesized that the behavioral abnormalities of patients and the comorbid metabolic abnormalities might share some identical molecular mechanism. Hence, we investigated the expression of insulin/synapse dually functioning genes in neurons derived from the iPSCs of BD patients and the behavioral phenotype of mice with these genes silenced in the hippocampus. By these means, we identified synaptotagmin-7 (Syt7) as a candidate risk factor for behavioral abnormalities. We then investigated Syt7 knockout (KO) mice and observed nocturnal manic-like and diurnal depressive-like behavioral fluctuations in a majority of these animals, analogous to the mood cycling symptoms of BD. We treated the Syt7 KO mice with clinical BD drugs including olanzapine and lithium, and found that the drug treatments could efficiently regulate the behavioral abnormalities of the Syt7 KO mice. To further verify whether Syt7 deficits existed in BD patients, we investigated the plasma samples of 20 BD patients and found that the Syt7 mRNA level was significantly attenuated in the patient plasma compared to the healthy controls. We therefore concluded that Syt7 is likely a key factor for the bipolar-like behavioral abnormalities.

16.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is frequently associated with cancer. This study aimed to assess patients with acute PE and identify diagnostic predictors of new cancer after 1 year of follow-up. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-one patients with PE were enrolled consecutively from the emergency department of a single medical center in Taiwan. Data from computed tomography angiography, echocardiogram, electrocardiogram and for baseline comorbidities, clinical presentation, and laboratory parameters were recorded. The surviving discharged patients without a cancer diagnosis were followed-up for 1 year, and new malignancies were recorded. RESULTS: Of 121 patients with acute PE, 44 (36 %) had an underlying cancer history (cancer group), and 77 (64 %) did not (non-cancer group). Baseline demographic characteristics, comorbidities, clinical symptoms, biochemical parameters, echocardiogram data, and electrocardiogram data of the two groups were similar except for a higher hospital mortality rate (56.8 % vs. 9.1 %, p<0.001), lower body mass index (22.6 ± 4.1 vs. 25.5 ± 4.9, p =0.02), higher systolic blood pressure (139.7 ± 33.7 vs. 125.4 ± 24.1, p =0.02), lower low-density lipoprotein level (67.4 ± 38.3 vs. 90.4 ± 33.8, p =0.04), lower creatinine kinase (CK) (43.0 ± 43.0 vs. 83.5 ± 83.1, p =0.01), higher myocardial band (MB) form of CK ratio (0.2 ± 0.2 vs. 0.1 ± 0.1, p <0.01), higher partial pressure of arterial oxygen (122.81 ± 81.2 vs. 90.2 ± 59.4, p =0.03), and less presentation of chest pain (15.9 % vs. 40.3 %, p =0.01) in the cancer group. Kaplan-Meier curve analysis revealed that the 30-day survival rate was higher in the non-cancer group than in the cancer group (log-rank p =0.04). After 1 year of follow-up, 6 of 59 (10.17 %) initial non-cancer-related PE survivors were diagnosed with malignancies. After multivariate analysis, only the initial CK-MB level was associated with a diagnosis of new cancer (hazard ratio (HR): 1.37, 95 % confidence interval (CI) [1.029-1.811], p =0.03). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the CK-MB level is associated with future malignancy in patients with PE. Patients with cancer-related PE had a worse 30-day survival rate.

17.
Analyst ; 145(4): 1294-1301, 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909779

RESUMO

Compared with normal cells, cancer or tumor cells have a specific microenvironment and apparently possess a relatively large amount of ROS/RNS, and their overexpression is one of the important reasons for tumor development and deterioration. Therefore, monitoring the changes of intracellular ROS/RNS can improve the awareness of the clinical manifestations of the disease, which will be beneficial for the early diagnosis of cancer and improving treatment efficiency. Herein, in this study we have exploited and constructed a novel strategy based on the SiC@C nanowire electrode for intracellular electrochemical analysis to monitor ROS levels in cancer or tumor cells. Firstly, the SiC@C nanowire electrode was utilized to detect the intracellular ROS radical changes involved in the relevant biological processes of cancer cells where fluorescent zinc nanoclusters were biosynthesized in situ in target cancer cells by using the intracellular microenvironment and specificity of these cancer cells. By combining a confocal fluorescence microscopy study simultaneously, our observations illustrate that accompanied by the apparent change of the intracellular ROS, these in situ biosynthesized fluorescent nanoclusters gradually accumulate inside the cytosolic area with the increase of the reaction time. Moreover, it is evident that the size of the SiC@C nanoelectrodes can match the single cell dimensions, and its unique high spatial resolution provides the possibility of relevant intracellular molecular detection. These nanoelectrochemical biosensors can be adopted to quantitatively determine the change of the ROS content in target single cells in the relevant biological microenvironment or during the in situ biosynthesis process, and are also beneficial for understanding the related mechanism of some specific biological processes including the in situ synthesis at the single cell level.

18.
Qual Life Res ; 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950329

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Echinococcosis is a chronic neglected zoonotic disease with high endemic in western China. The aim of the study was to evaluate the Health-related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in patients with echinococcosis in Tibetan communities for investigating the physical and mental health challenges faced by the echinococcosis patients and meeting community health needs. METHODS: The HRQoL was measured with 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire in the case-control study. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) method was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: 50 echinococcosis patients were collected in study group and divided into three subgroups by the duration of staying on albendazole tablets. 52 healthy individuals were collected in control group. In physical quality of life, the duration of staying on albendazole tables influenced the PF (F = 6.661, P < 0.001), RP (F = 3.130, P = 0.029), and GH (F = 4.105, P = 0.008). In mental quality of life, the duration of staying on albendazole tables influenced the SF (F = 10.764, P < 0.001) and RE (F = 5.573, P = 0.001). The income level was the important confounder in PF (F = 11.515, P = 0.001), GH (F = 10.315, P = 0.002), VT (F = 5.984, P = 0.016), and MH (F = 5.565, P = 0.020). CONCLUSIONS: The HRQoL in people with echinococcosis is reduced in comparison with the healthy individuals. It is necessary to shorten the duration of treatment and adopt the special methods adapting the local culture to improve the health-related quality of life in Tibetan communities. Meanwhile, the economic improvement is the foundation.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951153

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the antioxidative properties of Lycium barbarum (LB) fruits in the eyes and to study whether LB fruits prepared with new nanotechnology have stronger antioxidative effects. Methods: Fourteen days post-supplementation with milled or blended LB fruits, intravitreal paraquat (PQ) was injected into Wistar rats to create oxidative stress. After an additional 14-day supplementation with LB fruits, the rats were sacrificed. An electroretinogram (ERG) was performed to evaluate retinal function before and after the PQ injection. Expression levels of antioxidative responders' mRNA in retina were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase activity in the aqueous humor (AqH) were analyzed by ELISA. Immunohistochemistry was conducted to evaluate the morphological changes of retina and the levels of oxidative biomarkers. The levels of cell apoptosis were assessed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in AqH were measured by chemiluminescence methods. Results: The murine eyes supplemented with LB fruits exhibited several changes compared with the control group. The ERGs revealed significant improvement in retinal function. The mRNA expression levels of oxidative responders were downregulated in the retinas. The ROS was significantly reduced in the retinas, but the SOD meaningfully increased in the AqH. Immunohistochemistry staining and TUNEL assays showed decreased incidences of oxidative biomarkers and apoptosis in the retinas. Milled LB fruits exhibited better antioxidative effects than blended fruits. Conclusions: Milled LB fruits demonstrated superior protection against oxidative threats than blended fruits. Thus, these fruits could be an inexpensive supplement for many oxidative stress-related ocular diseases.

20.
Waste Manag ; 103: 305-313, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923839

RESUMO

In this paper, three sets of laboratory tests were conducted on high-food-waste-content (HFWC-), no-food-waste-content (NFWC-) and decomposed (D-) MSWs to characterize their compression behaviors. The immediate compression ratios C'c were 0.30, 0.23 and 0.18 for HFWC-MSW, NFWC-MSW and D-MSW respectively, and tended to increase with the increasing food waste content of MSW. The release of intra-particle water contained in food waste contributed over 23.6-29.2% to immediate compression for HFWC-MSW. The mechanical creep ratios C'sc were 0.02, 0.015 and 0.01 for HFWC-MSW, NFWC-MSW and D-MSW respectively. A prediction model for C'sc was proposed which incorporated the effects of moisture content, dry unit weight and organic waste content. The bio-compression ratios C'sbI, C'sbII and C'sbIII in response to degradation stage I, II and III were 0.12, 0.10 and 0.02 for HFWC-MSW, and were 0.01, 0.15 and 0.01 for NFWC-MSW. Bio-compression is dominant in stage I and II and mechanical creep is the major contributor in stage III for HFWC-MSW, but to NFWC-MSW, mechanical creep is dominant in stage I and III, and bio-compression takes the main position in stage II. The bio-compression tended to increase linearly with leachate draining rate for HFWC-MSW, and the release of intra-particle water contributed 61.9-65.6% to bio-compression. A new model was proposed that can well capture the highly non-linear behavior of bio-compression for both HFWC-MSW and NFWC-MSW. Based on the above findings, the settlement behavior of HFWC-MSW and NFWC-MSW landfills was compared, and suggestions for technique-efficient and cost-effective design of a NFWC-MSW landfill were discussed.

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