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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273949

RESUMO

Dosage is essential for studying the compatibility and effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine. Danggui and Chuanxiong are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for ailments and treatment of various disorders. 628 traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions containing Danggui and Chuanxiong were extracted from the self-built prescription database and screened for the three groups of prescriptions, i.e., irregular menstruation, sores, and stroke. We processed and tested the dosage of Danggui and Chuanxiong and selected the optimal copula function, Gumbel copula function, from the Archimedes function family and elliptical copula function family to establish the data model. To establish the presence of a correlation between the dose of Danggui and Chuanxiong, a graph of the joint distribution function of rank correlation coefficients, Kendall's rank correlation coefficient and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, was used. Our results suggest that the model using the Gumbel copula function better reflects the correlation between the dose of Danggui and Chuanxiong. For irregular menstruation, sores, and strokes, Kendall's rank correlation coefficients were 0.6724, 0.5930, and 0.7757, respectively, and Spearman's correlation coefficients were 0.8536, 0.7812, and 0.9285, respectively. In all three prescription groups, the dose of Danggui and Chuanxiong was positively correlated, implying that, as the dosage of one drug increases, the dosage of the other increases as well. From the perspective of data mining and mathematical statistics, the use of the copula function model to evaluate the correlation between the prescribed dosage of the two drugs was innovative and provided a new model for the scientific interpretation of the compatibility of traditional drugs. This might also serve to guide the clinical use of traditional Chinese medicine.

2.
Chin Med ; 15(1): 114, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spleen-deficiency syndrome, an important pathological change in traditional Chinese medicine, has been proven to attribute to intestinal dysbacteriosis. Shengmai Yin (SMY), a classic formula for replenishing qi and restoring pulse, is a common medicine for critical emergencies in traditional Chinese Medicine. Interestingly, our previous study established a spleen-deficiency rat model and verified the potency of SMY formula in curing spleen-deficiency rats. Our goal herein was to explore whether SMY can modulate the composition of intestinal flora and alleviate spleen-deficiency in rats. METHODS: This experiment was randomly divided into three groups, namely the normal control group (NC), model control group (MC), and the Shengmai Yin group (SMY). After the treatment, the weight and symptom indexes of the rats were recorded, histological changes in the colon were observed, levels of serum D-xylose, gastrin (GAS), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) were measured, and gut microbiota profiling was conducted by 16S rRNA sequencing. RESULTS: The body mass of the spleen-deficiency model rats significantly decreased compared with that of the NC group, and SMY treatment significantly increased body mass compared with the MC group (P < 0.01). Colon histopathology revealed that SMY treatment alleviated colonic mucosal damage in spleen-deficiency rats. The serum levels of D-xylose and gastrin (GAS) were significant increased by SMY (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was reduced by SMY (P < 0.01) compared with MC. Furthermore, alpha diversity was significantly decreased in the model rats compared to the normal rats (P < 0.05) and increased with SMY treatment (P < 0.01). The most abundant phyla were Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, followed by Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Actinobacteria. At the genus level, there was a lower relative abundance of Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, Akkermasia, and Allobaculum, and a higher relative abundance of Lachnospiraceae NK4A 136 group, Ruminococcaceae UCG-014, and Sphingomonas in the MC group. The relative abundance of Actinobacteria, Alistipes, Bifidobacterium, Bifidobacterium, Bifidobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae NK4A136group, Lactobacillus, Lactobacillaceae, Bacilli, Verrucomicrobiae, and Akkermansia were significantly abundant in the treatment groups, and thus may be singled out as potential biomarkers for SMY in the treatment of spleen deficiency. In addition, analysis on the correlation between species and physicochemical indexes showed that the abundance of Parasutterella was negatively correlated with the change in GAS, and positively correlated with the change in VIP (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Our findings have provided preliminary evidence that modulating the gut microbiota may play a role in the treatment of spleen deficiency with SMY. However, further studies are needed to clarify the mechanism by which SMY regulation of related gut microbiota occurs.

3.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e042085, 2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371042

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To date, no specific antivirus drugs or vaccines have been available to prevent or treat the COVID-19 pandemic. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy may be a promising therapeutic approach that reduces the high mortality in critical cases. This protocol is proposed for a systematic review and meta-analysis that aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of MSC therapy on patients with COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Ten databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Journals Database (VIP), Wanfang database, China Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) and Chinese Biomedical Literature Service System (SinoMed) will be searched from inception to 1 December 2020. All published randomised controlled trials, clinical controlled trials and case series that meet the prespecified eligibility criteria will be included. The primary outcomes include mortality, incidence and severity of adverse events, respiratory improvement, days from ventilator, duration of fever, progression rate from mild or moderate to severe, improvement of such serious symptoms as difficulty breathing or shortness of breath, chest pain or pressure, and loss of speech or movement, biomarkers of laboratory examination and changes in CT. The secondary outcomes include dexamethasone doses and quality of life. Two reviewers will independently perform study selection, data extraction and assessment of bias risk. Data synthesis will be conducted using RevMan software (V.5.3.5). If necessary, subgroup and sensitivity analysis will be performed. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system will be used to assess the strength of evidence. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not necessary since no individual patient or privacy data have been collected. The results of this review will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal or an academic conference presentation. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020190079.


Assuntos
/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(47): e23038, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217804

RESUMO

BACKGROUD: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease that involves the rectum, colon and ileum. Gancao Xiexin decoction (GCXXD) is a classic herbal formula in Shanghanlun. More and more research evidence shows that GCXXD has a certain therapeutic effect on UC. Therefore, we designed this study protocol aim to evaluate the efficacy and safety of GCXXD combine with mesalazine for UC. METHODS: We will systematically search 6 databases, including PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CNKI, VIP, Wang-fang database up to July 2020 to obtain eligible studies. The primary outcomes will focus on the clinical effectiveness. Review Manager 5.3 software will be used for data analysis. RESULTS: This study will provide the systematic evidence of UC treated with GCXXD combine with mesalazine. CONCLUSION: The findings of this meta-analysis will provide evidence to judge whether GCXXD combine with mesalazine is a more effective intervention compare to mesalazine only for patient of UC. INPLASY REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202080008.

5.
Chin Med ; 15: 114, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33133231

RESUMO

Background: Spleen-deficiency syndrome, an important pathological change in traditional Chinese medicine, has been proven to attribute to intestinal dysbacteriosis. Shengmai Yin (SMY), a classic formula for replenishing qi and restoring pulse, is a common medicine for critical emergencies in traditional Chinese Medicine. Interestingly, our previous study established a spleen-deficiency rat model and verified the potency of SMY formula in curing spleen-deficiency rats. Our goal herein was to explore whether SMY can modulate the composition of intestinal flora and alleviate spleen-deficiency in rats. Methods: This experiment was randomly divided into three groups, namely the normal control group (NC), model control group (MC), and the Shengmai Yin group (SMY). After the treatment, the weight and symptom indexes of the rats were recorded, histological changes in the colon were observed, levels of serum D-xylose, gastrin (GAS), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) were measured, and gut microbiota profiling was conducted by 16S rRNA sequencing. Results: The body mass of the spleen-deficiency model rats significantly decreased compared with that of the NC group, and SMY treatment significantly increased body mass compared with the MC group (P < 0.01). Colon histopathology revealed that SMY treatment alleviated colonic mucosal damage in spleen-deficiency rats. The serum levels of D-xylose and gastrin (GAS) were significant increased by SMY (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was reduced by SMY (P < 0.01) compared with MC. Furthermore, alpha diversity was significantly decreased in the model rats compared to the normal rats (P < 0.05) and increased with SMY treatment (P < 0.01). The most abundant phyla were Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, followed by Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Actinobacteria. At the genus level, there was a lower relative abundance of Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, Akkermasia, and Allobaculum, and a higher relative abundance of Lachnospiraceae NK4A 136 group, Ruminococcaceae UCG-014, and Sphingomonas in the MC group. The relative abundance of Actinobacteria, Alistipes, Bifidobacterium, Bifidobacterium, Bifidobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae NK4A136group, Lactobacillus, Lactobacillaceae, Bacilli, Verrucomicrobiae, and Akkermansia were significantly abundant in the treatment groups, and thus may be singled out as potential biomarkers for SMY in the treatment of spleen deficiency. In addition, analysis on the correlation between species and physicochemical indexes showed that the abundance of Parasutterella was negatively correlated with the change in GAS, and positively correlated with the change in VIP (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Our findings have provided preliminary evidence that modulating the gut microbiota may play a role in the treatment of spleen deficiency with SMY. However, further studies are needed to clarify the mechanism by which SMY regulation of related gut microbiota occurs.

6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(48): e23375, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33235110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common disease among oral mucous membrane diseases. Erosive oral lichen planus (EOLP) is a type of OLP, it has a potential tendency of cancerization. There have been some randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to treat EOLP. No systematic review on the RCTs of TCM for EOLP has been reported, so we would propose a study protocol that aims to evaluate the evidence the efficacy and safety of TCM for treating patients with EOLP. METHODS: The following databases from the inception to June 30, 2020 electronically, including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP, Wanfang database, China Biomedical Literature Database will be searched. RCTs that meet the pre-specified eligibility criteria will be included. RevMan software (V5.3) will be performed data synthesis following data extraction and publication risk assessment. Subgroup and sensitivity analysis will be performed according to the condition of included RCTs. The primary outcomes include visual analogy scale, laboratory immune indicators, and scores of oral lesions and signs. Additional outcomes are clinical effective rate, adverse event rate, and recurrence rate. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system will be used to assess the strength of the evidence. RESULTS: This study will provide a well-reported synthesis of RCTs on the efficacy and safety of TCM in the treatment of EOLP. CONCLUSION: This systematic review protocol will be helpful for providing evidence of whether TCM is an effective and safe therapeutic approach for patients with EOLP. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not necessary as this protocol is only for systematic review and it does not involve privacy data or conduct an animal experiment. This protocol will be disseminated by a peer-review journal or conference presentation. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020172366.

7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22401, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing body of clinical trials has demonstrated that traditional Chinese medicine Shaoyao Gancao Tang may improve restlessness leg syndrome (RLS). This review aims to systematically assess its effectiveness and safety in the treatment of patients with RLS. METHODS: Eight databases will be searched from the inception to 31 August 2020, including the Chinese Biological Medicine Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Database, VIP Information Database, the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, and the Web of Science. All published randomized controlled trials that meet the prespecified eligibility criteria will be included. The primary outcomes include the changes in the International Restless Legs Syndrome Rating Scale and the restless sensation assessed by visual analog scales, and the secondary outcomes include effective rate, adverse event rate, quality of life measures, and improvement in the sleep quality index. Study selection, data extraction, and assessment of bias risk will be conducted independently by 2 reviewers. Data synthesis will be carried out with RevMan software (V.5.3.5). Subgroup and sensitivity analysis will be performed when necessary. The strength of the evidence will be assessed by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation System. RESULTS: A high-quality synthesis of current evidence of Shaoyao Gancao Tang's effectiveness and safety for patients with RLS will be provided. CONCLUSION: This systematic review will provide evidence of whether Shaoyao Gancao Tang is an effective and safe intervention for RLS.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Sono/fisiologia
8.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 559729, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33101081

RESUMO

Objective: Decreased homotopic connectivity of brain networks such as the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuits may contribute to the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, little is known about interhemispheric functional connectivity (FC) at rest in OCD. In this study, the voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) method was applied to explore interhemispheric coordination at rest in OCD. Methods: Forty medication-free patients with OCD and 38 sex-, age-, and education level-matched healthy controls (HCs) underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The VMHC and support vector machine (SVM) methods were used to analyze the data. Results: Patients with OCD had remarkably decreased VMHC values in the orbitofrontal cortex, thalamus, middle occipital gyrus, and precentral and postcentral gyri compared with HCs. A combination of the VMHC values in the thalamus and postcentral gyrus could optimally distinguish patients with OCD from HCs. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the contribution of decreased interhemispheric FC within and outside the CSTC circuits in OCD and provide evidence to the pathophysiology of OCD.

9.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 14: 3803-3813, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32982184

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the pharmacological mechanisms of antiviral drugs against the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the study designs in clinical trials registered with the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). Methods: Clinical trials involving antiviral drugs for treating COVID-19 were retrieved from the ICTRP database. For each trial, the study design, number of participants, primary endpoints, source register, antiviral mechanism, and results were evaluated. Results: On June 10, 2020, 145 eligible clinical trials were retrieved from the ICTRP, of which 99 (68.3%) were randomized trials, 109 (75.2%) were parallel assignment trials, 38 (26.2%) were double or single blinded, 130 (89.7%) involved two groups, and 75 (51.6%) included more than 100 participants; and clinical improvement or recovery and virus-negative conversion were the two most common endpoints, accounting for 40.7% and 18.6%, respectively. The drugs were divided according to the antiviral mechanism into HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitors, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors, HIV protease inhibitors (PIs), hepatitis C virus NS3 PIs, and anti-influenza drugs. Conclusion: The design characteristics of clinical trials of antiviral drugs for treating COVID-19 as well as the mechanism of action and antiviral efficacy of the drugs were evaluated in this study. The results of these trials could constitute a reference for future clinical trials to be executed on COVID-19 treatment and prevention.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema de Registros , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Coleta de Dados , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Gerenciamento de Dados , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Pandemias , Projetos de Pesquisa
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891947

RESUMO

Anorethidrani disuccinate (ACP) is a domestically designed A-decarbonized steroid that is currently being investigated in Phase I clinical trials for the treatment of solid tumors. Only the parent drug exhibited antitumor activity; its sterol metabolite M2 showed obvious antiestrogenic effects. We have developed a rapid, sensitive, and robust liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the direct quantification of ACP and a chemical derivatization method that can be used to quantify M2 derivatized with glycidyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (GTMA). A simple protein precipitation procedure was performed to quantify ACP. Injections were obtained within 3.5 min on an Eclipse Plus Phenyl-Hexyl column (50 mm × 2.1 mm i.d., 1.8 µm) with gradient elution; the calibration curve was linear over the range of 2.00-8000 ng/mL. For quantification of M2 in plasma, analytes were extracted by protein precipitation and converted to their GTMA derivatives at 60 °C for 2 h at pH 12; the analytes and coelutants were separated on a Luna C8(2) column (50 mm × 2.0 mm i.d., 5.0 µm). The precision (RSD) and accuracy (RE) of the intra- and interday determinations were within 10%. The derivatization procedure is a novel method for sterol determination by LC-MS/MS. The results confirmed the usefulness of this method for characterizing the pharmacokinetic profiles of ACP and its major metabolite M2 in a Phase I pharmacokinetic study.

11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e20781, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No specific anti-virus drugs or vaccines have been available for the treatment of COVID-19. Integrative traditional Chinese and western medicine has been proposed as a therapeutic option with substantial applications in China. This protocol is proposed for a systematic review and meta-analysis that aims to evaluate the efficacy of integrative traditional Chinese and western medicine treatment on patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Ten databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CIHAHL, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Journals Database (VIP), Wanfang database, China Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) and Chinese Biomedical Literature Service System (SinoMed) will be searched. All published randomized controlled trials, clinical controlled trials, case-control, and case series that meet the pre-specified eligibility criteria will be included. Primary outcome measures include mortality, clinical recovery rate, duration of fever, progression rate from mild or moderate to severe, improvement of symptoms, biomarkers of laboratory examination and changes in computed tomography. Secondary outcomes include dosage of hormonotherapy, incidence and severity of adverse events and quality of life. Study selection, data extraction and assessment of bias risk will be conducted by 2 reviewers independently. RevMan software (V.5.3.5) will be used to perform data synthesis. Subgroup and sensitivity analysis will be performed when necessary. The strength of evidence will be assessed by the GRADE system. RESULTS: This study will provide a well-reported and high-quality synthesis on the efficacy of integrative traditional Chinese and western medicine treatment on patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: This systematic review protocol will be helpful for providing evidence of whether integrative traditional Chinese and western medicine treatment is an effective therapeutic approach for patients with COVID-19. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is unnecessary as no individual patient or privacy data is collected. The results of this study will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed scientific journal and/or conference presentation. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020167205.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Biomarcadores/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(15): e19669, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Traditional Chinese formula Danggui Shaoyao San (DSS) has been considered a potential therapeutic approach for AD. However, no systemic review regarding its efficacy and safety has been conducted. Herein, we propose a protocol for the study that aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DSS in patients with AD. METHODS: Sixteen electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane database, Web of science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP, Wanfang database, China Biomedical Literature Database, Chinese Clinical Trial Registry System, Koreanstudies Information Service System, Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System, Research Information Sharing Service, DBpia, Korean Traditional Knowledge Portal, Japanese CiNii databases and J-STAGE databases will be searched from the inception up to February 29, 2020. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that meet the pre-specified eligibility criteria will be included. RevMan software (V.5.3.5) will be used to perform data synthesis following data extraction and publication risk assessment. Subgroup and sensitivity analysis will be performed according to the condition of included RCTs. The primary outcomes include changes in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog), and Activities of Daily Living scale (ADL). Additional outcomes are clinical effective rate and adverse event rate. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system will be used to assess the strength of the evidence. RESULTS: This study will provide a well-reported and high-quality synthesis of RCTs on the efficacy and safety of DSS for the treatment of AD. CONCLUSION: This systematic review protocol will be helpful for providing evidence of whether DSS is an effective and safe therapeutic approach for patients with AD. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not necessary as this protocol is only for systematic review and does not involve privacy data or conduct an animal experiment. This protocol will be disseminated by a peer-review journal or conference presentation. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020150450.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Atividades Cotidianas , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/etiologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Segurança , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 254: 112717, 2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114166

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Amygdalin is commonly distributed in plants of the Rosaceae, such as peach, plum, loquat, apple and bayberry, but most notably in the seeds (kernels) of apricot almonds. As a naturally aromatic cyanogenic compound, it has long been used in Asia, Europe and other regions for the treatment of various diseases including cough, asthma, nausea, leprosy and leukoderma. Importantly, in recent years, an increasing attention has been paid to its antitumor effect. AIM OF THE STUDY: The paper aims to review the pharmacological activities and toxicological effects of amygdalin and provide a reference and perspective for its further investigation. METHODS: Electronic databases including the Web of Science, Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, the Chinese Biological Medicine Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang database and VIP information database were searched up to November 2019 to identify eligible studies. A meticulous review was performed, an in-depth analysis on the pharmacological activity and toxicology of amygdalin was conducted, and perspectives for future research were also discussed. RESULTS: A total of 110 papers about in vitro/in vivo studies on amygdalin have been reviewed. Analysis on the data suggested that this compound presented pharmacological activities of anti-tumor, anti-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, immunomodulatory, anti-atherosclerosis, ameliorating digestive system and reproductive system, improving neurodegeneration and myocardial hypertrophy, as well as reducing blood glucose. In addition, studies revealed that amygdalin's toxicity was caused by its poisonous decomposite product of benzaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide after oral ingestion, toxicity of intravenous administration route was far less than the oral route, and it can be avoidable with an oral dose ranging from 0.6 to 1 g per day. CONCLUSION: This paper has systematically reviewed the pharmacology and toxicology of amygdalin and provided comprehensive information on this compound. We hope this review highlights some perspectives for the future research and development of amygdalin.

14.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 104: 103691, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174435

RESUMO

Titanium-niobium (Ti-Nb) alloys have great potential for biomedical applications due to their superior biocompatibility and mechanical properties that match closely to human bone. Powder metallurgy is an ideal technology for efficient manufacture of titanium alloys to generate net-shape, intricately featured and porous components. This work reports on the effects of Nb concentrations on sintered Ti-xNb alloys with the aim to establish an optimal composition in respect to mechanical and biological performances. Ti-xNb alloys with 33, 40, 56 and 66 wt% Nb were fabricated from elemental powders and the sintering response, mechanical properties, microstructures and biocompatibility assessed and compared to conventional commercial purity titanium (CPTi). The sintered densities for all Ti-xNb compositions were around 95%, reducing slightly with increasing Nb due to increasing open porosity. Higher Nb levels retarded sintering leading to more inhomogeneous phase and pore distributions. The compressive strength decreased with increasing Nb, while all Ti-xNb alloys displayed higher strengths than CPTi except the Ti-66Nb alloy. The Young's moduli of the Ti-xNb alloys with ≥40 wt% Nb were substantially lower (30-50%) than CPTi. In-vitro cell culture testing revealed excellent biocompatibility for all Ti-xNb alloys comparable or better than tissue culture plate and CPTi controls, with the Ti-40Nb alloy exhibiting superior cell-material interactions. In view of its mechanical and biological performance, the Ti-40Nb composition is most promising for hard tissue engineering applications.

15.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 98, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32194450

RESUMO

Abnormal functional connectivity (FC) within discrete brain networks is involved in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with inconsistent results. In the present study, we investigated the FC patterns of 40 drug-naive patients with OCD and 38 healthy controls (HCs) through an unbiased voxel-wise global brain FC (GFC) analysis at rest. Compared with HCs, patients with OCD showed decreased GFC within the default mode network (DMN) (i.e., left posterior cingulate cortex/lingual gyrus) and sensorimotor network (i.e., left precentral gyrus/postcentral gyrus) and increased GFC within the executive control network (ECN) (i.e., left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex and left inferior parietal lobule). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses further indicated that the altered GFC values within the DMN, ECN, and sensorimotor network may be used as neuroimaging markers to differentiate patients with OCD from HCs. These findings indicated the aberrant FC patterns of the DMN, ECN, and sensorimotor network associated with the pathophysiology of OCD and provided new insights into the changes in brain organization function in OCD.

16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(10): e19313, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growing body of scientific researches in recent years have suggested the promising effect of meditation on improving cognitive impairment of Alzheimer disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This paper aims to provide a protocol for systematic review to evaluate the efficacy of meditation on cognition performance of patient with AD and MCI. METHODS: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Chinese Biological Medicine Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang database, and VIP information database will be searched systematically and electronically from establishment to March 2020. All published randomized controlled trials related will be included. Assessment of bias risk and data analyses will be implemented by Review Manager (V.5.3.5). The strength of the evidence will be assessed by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. RESULTS: A high-quality synthesis of current evidence of meditation for patient with AD and mild cognitive impairment will be provided in this study. CONCLUSION: This protocol of systematic review will be helpful for providing evidence of whether meditation is an effective and safe intervention for cognitive impairment of patient with AD and MCI. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is unnecessary since this protocol is only for systematic review and does not involve privacy data or conduct an animal experiment. This protocol will be disseminated by a peer-review journal or conference presentation. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42019145932.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Meditação , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
17.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 270(8): 1015-1024, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570980

RESUMO

Abnormalities of the cerebellum and default-mode network (DMN) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been widely reported. However, alterations of reciprocal functional connections between the cerebellum and DMN at rest in OCD remain unclear. Forty patients with OCD and 38 gender-, age-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. Seed-based functional connectivity (FC) and support vector machine (SVM) were applied to analyze the imaging data. Compared with HCs, patients with OCD exhibited increased FCs between the left Crus I-left superior medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and between the right Crus I-left superior MPFC, left middle MPFC, and left middle temporal gyrus (MTG). A significantly negative correlation was observed between the right Crus I-left MTG connectivity and the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale compulsion subscale scores in the OCD group (r = - 0.476, p = 0.002, Bonferroni corrected). SVM classification analysis indicated that a combination of the left Crus I-left superior MPFC connectivity and the right Crus I-left middle MPFC connectivity can be used to discriminate patients with OCD from HCs with a sensitivity of 85.00%, specificity of 68.42%, and accuracy of 76.92%. Our study highlights the contribution of the cerebellar-DMN connectivity in OCD pathophysiology and provides new findings to OCD research.

18.
Behav Brain Res ; 379: 112335, 2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697986

RESUMO

Major depression disorder (MDD) is characterized by the lack of self-serving bias, which may inherently underlie the onset and maintenance of depression. Emerging neuroimaging evidences have indicated that the altered self-processing in MDD may be germane to the dysfunctional static resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Although static RSFC studies provide tremendous amounts of evidences on functional changes in depression, explorations of dynamic RSFC among the PFC and other brain regions may elucidate the temporal changes of neural activities associated with depression. To further explore the behavioral and neural correlates of self-serving bias, 21 depressed and 23 non-depressed individuals underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan and completed a self-serving bias task. Static and dynamic RSFC analyses were conducted for specific subregions of the PFC, including the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the ventral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex. Depressed patients showed an attenuated self-serving bias as compared with controls, and aberrant static and dynamic RSFC among these subregions of the PFC. In particular, the self-serving bias was associated with static dmPFC-to-OFC RSFC and dynamic vlPFC-to-OFC RSFC for MDD group. The aberrant RSFC of the PFC may serve as a predictor for self-serving bias in depression.

19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(28): e16443, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) is a common disease in children, which is also known as the common cold. Pediatric Tuina is a common treatment that Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) doctors commonly use for URTIs. However, there has no relevant systematic review studied on its effects and safety been reported. We plan to perform a systematically reviewing of all the clinical evidence on the effectiveness and safety of Tuina for URTIs in children. METHODS: We will conduct the literature searching in the following electronic databases: Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP, Wanfang, China Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), Chinese Clinical Trial Registry System. The time limit for retrieving studies is from establishment to July 2019 for each database. All published randomized controlled trials (RTCs) related to this review will be included. Review Manager (V.5.3.5) will be implemented for the assessment of bias risk and data analyses. Subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis will be performed based on the conditions of included data. RESULTS: A high-quality synthesis of current evidence of Tuina for children with URTIs will be provided in this study. CONCLUSION: This systematic review will provide evidence of whether Tuina is an effective intervention for children with URTIs. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019126963.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Metanálise como Assunto , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Infecções Respiratórias/terapia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Default-mode network (DMN) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the network homogeneity (NH) of DMN in OCD remains equivocal. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate abnormalities in the NH of the DMN at rest and the correlation between the NH of DMN and clinical variables in patients with OCD. METHODS: This study used the independent component analysis and unbiased hypothesis-driven NH method to analyze the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 40 drug-naive patients with OCD and 40 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs). RESULTS: Patients with OCD exhibited decreased NH values in the left ventral medial prefrontal cortex and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus (PCu) compared with HCs. Furthermore, analyses of receiver operating characteristic curves indicated that the decreased NH values in the right PCC/PCu may be used as a candidate neuroimaging marker to distinguish patients with OCD from HCs. CONCLUSION: These findings contribute new evidence of the participation of the altered NH of the DMN in the pathophysiology of OCD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Study on the mechanism of brain network in obsessive-compulsive disorder with multi-model magnetic resonance imaging (ChiCTR-COC-17013301).


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neuroimagem , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Parietal/fisiopatologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia
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