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1.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 19(1): 226, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fungal Keratitis (FK) is an infective keratopathy with extremely high blindness rate. The damaging effect of this disease is not only the destruction of corneal tissue during fungal infection, but also the cornea scar formed during the healing period after infection control, which can also seriously affect a patient's vision. The purpose of the study was to observe the effect of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (uMSCs) on corneal scar formation in FK. METHODS: The FK mouse model was made according to a previously reported method. Natamycin eye drops were used for antifungal treatment 24 h after modeling. There are four groups involved in the study, including control group, FK group, vehicleinj FK group and uMSCsinj FK group. Mice in uMSCsinj FK group received repeated subconjunctival injections of uMSCs for 3 times at the 1d, 4d and 7d after FK modeling. At 14d, 21d and 28d after trauma, clinical observation, histological examination, second harmonic generation and molecular assays were performed. RESULTS: The uMSCs topical administration reduced corneal scar formation area and corneal opacity, accompanying with decreased corneal thickness and inflammatory cell infiltration, following down-regulated fibrotic-related factors α-SMA, TGFß1, CTGF, and COLI and finally inhibited phosphorylation of TGFß1/Smad2 signaling pathway during FK corneal fibrosis. CONCLUSION: The results confirmed that uMSCs can improve corneal opacity during the scar formation stage of FK, and exert anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects.

2.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 8179-8193, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31632026

RESUMO

Background: Chlamydia psittaci is a zoonotic bacteria closely associated with psittacosis/ornithosis. Vaccination has been recognized as the best way to inhibit the spread of C. psittaci due to the majority ignored of infections. The optimal Chlamydia vaccine was obstructed by the defect of single immunization route and the lack of availability of nontoxic and valid adjuvants. Methods: In this study, we developed a novel immunization strategy, simultaneous (SIM) intramuscular (IM) and intranasal (IN) administration of a C. psittaci antigens (Ags) adjuvanted with chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs). And SIM-CNPs-Ags were used to determine the different types of immune response and the protective role in vivo. Results: CNPs-Ags with zeta-potential values of 13.12 mV and of 276.1 nm showed excellent stability and optimal size for crossing the mucosal barrier with high 71.7% encapsulation efficiency. SIM-CPN-Ags mediated stronger humoral and mucosal responses by producing meaningfully high levels of IgG and secretory IgA (sIgA) antibodies. The SIM route also led to Ags-specific T-cell responses and increased IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α and IL-17A in the splenocyte supernatants. Following respiratory infection with C. psittaci, we found that SIM immunization remarkably reduced bacterial load and the degree of inflammation in the infected lungs and made for a lower level of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6. Furthermore, SIM vaccination with CNPs-Ags had obviously inhibited C. psittaci disseminating to various organs in vivo. Conclusion: SIM immunization with CNPs-adjuvanted C. psittaci Ags may present a novel strategy for the development of a vaccine against the C. psittaci infection.

3.
Inorg Chem ; 58(19): 12506-12510, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490674

RESUMO

One-step cyclization of a tetraazamacrocycle 5 with 70% yield in a 25-g scale was performed. Its chiral DOTA derivatives, L4, has ∼93% of TSAP coordination isomer in its Eu(III) and Yb(III) complexes in aqueous solution. [GdL4]5- exhibits a high relaxivity, making it a promising and efficient MRI contrast agent. High luminescence dissymmetry factor (glum) values of 0.285 (ΔJ = 1) for [TbL3]- and 0.241 (ΔJ = 1) for [TbL4]5- in buffer solutions were recorded.

4.
Avian Pathol ; : 1-12, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508993

RESUMO

The H7 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) has been reported to infect not only poultry but also humans. The haemagglutinin (HA) protein is the major surface antigen of AIV and plays an important role in viral infection. In this study, five monoclonal antibodies (mAbs, 2F8, 3F6, 5C11, 5E2 and 5C12) against the HA protein of H7 virus were produced and characterized. Epitope mapping indicated that 103RESGSS107 was the minimal linear epitope recognized by the mAbs 2F8/3F6/5C11, and mAbs 5E2/5C12 recognized the epitope 103-145aa. The protein sequence alignment of HA indicated that the two epitopes were not found in other subtypes of AIV, and none of the five mAbs cross-reacted with other subtypes, suggesting these mAbs are specific to H7 virus. The epitope 103RESGSS107 was highly conserved among Eurasian lineage strains of H7 AIV, whereas three amino acid substitutions (E104R, E104K and E104G) in the epitope occurred in 98.44% of North-American lineage strains. Any of these single mutations prevented the mutated epitope from being recognized by mAbs 2F8/3F6/5C11; thus, these mAbs can distinguish between Eurasian and North-American lineages of H7 strains. Furthermore, the mAbs 2F8, 3F6 and 5C11 could be highly blocked with H7-positive serum in blocking assays, revealing that 103RESGSS107 may be a dominant epitope stimulating the production of antibodies during viral infection. These results may facilitate future investigations into the structure and function of HA protein, as well as surveillance and detection of H7 virus. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS Five mAbs against HA protein of H7 AIV were generated and characterized. Two novel epitopes 103RESGSS107 and 103-145aa were identified. The epitope 103RESGSS107 differs between Eurasian and North-American lineages. The mAbs 2F8, 3F6 and 5C11 could distinguish two lineages of H7 strains.

5.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 7(4): e00509, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372229

RESUMO

The novel clopidogrel conjugate, DT-678, is an effective inhibitor of platelets and thrombosis in preclinical studies. However, a comparison of the bleeding risk with DT-678 and currently approved P2Y12 antagonists has yet to be determined. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bleeding tendency of animals treated with clopidogrel, ticagrelor, and DT-678. Ninety-one New Zealand white rabbits were randomized to one of 13 treatment groups (n = 7). Platelet activation was assessed by flow cytometry and light transmission aggregometry before and after the administration of various doses of DT-678, clopidogrel, and ticagrelor. Tongue template bleeding times were also measured before and after drug treatment. Treatment with P2Y12 receptor antagonists caused a dose-dependent reduction in markers of platelet activation (P-selectin and integrin αIIbß3) and aggregation in response to adenosine diphosphate stimulation. At the same doses required for platelet inhibition, clopidogrel and ticagrelor significantly prolonged bleeding times, while DT-678 did not. DT-678 and the FDA-approved P2Y12 antagonists clopidogrel and ticagrelor are effective inhibitors of platelet activation and aggregation. However, unlike clopidogrel and ticagrelor, DT-678 did not prolong bleeding times at equally effective antiplatelet doses. The results suggest a more favorable benefit/risk ratio for DT-678 and potential utility as part of a dual antiplatelet therapy regimen.

6.
BMC Nephrol ; 20(1): 297, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), a well-known immunomodulator, has recently been found to be a promising and safe anti-proteinuric agent for treating IgA nephropathy (IgAN). We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of HCQ and corticosteroid treatment in patients with IgAN. METHODS: This is a case-control study. Ninety-two patients with IgAN who received HCQ in addition to routine renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi) therapy were included. Ninety-two matched historical controls who received corticosteroids were selected by propensity score matching. The clinical data over 6 months were compared. RESULTS: Baseline proteinuria levels were comparable between the HCQ and corticosteroid groups (1.7 [1.2, 2.3] vs. 1.8 [1.3, 2.5] g/d, p = 0.96). The percentage reduction in proteinuria at 6 months was smaller in the HCQ group than in the corticosteroid group (- 48.5% [- 62.6, - 31.4] vs. -62.9% [- 81.1, - 34.9], p = 0.006). The time averaged proteinuria within the 6 months of observation was comparable for the HCQ and corticosteroid groups (1.1 [0.8, 1.5] vs. 1.1 [0.5, 1.8] g/d, p = 0.48). The cumulative frequency of patients with a 50% reduction in proteinuria during the study was also comparable between the two groups (52.2% vs. 62.0%, p = 0.25). However, six of the 92 (6.5%) patients suffered from severe adverse events (SAEs) in the corticosteroid group, while no SAEs were observed in the HCQ group (6.5% vs. 0%, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The antiproteinuric effect of HCQ might be slightly inferior to that of corticosteroids over 6 months in patients with IgAN who were deemed to be candidates for HCQ and not corticosteroids treatment. However, HCQ treatment was safer than corticosteroid treatment.

8.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 253, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Avian influenza virus (AIV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are important avian pathogens that can cause enormous economic loss on the poultry industry. Different respiratory etiological agents may induce similar clinical signs that make differential diagnosis difficult. Importantly, AIV brings about severe threat to human public health. Therefore, a novel method that can distinguish these viruses quickly and simultaneously is urgently needed. RESULTS: In this study, an oligonucleotide microarray system was developed. AIV, including H5, H7, and H9 subtypes; NDV; and IBV were simultaneously detected and differentiated on a microarray. Three probes specific for AIV, NDV, and IBV, as well as three other probes for differentiating H5, H7, and H9 of AIV, were first designed and jet-printed to predetermined locations of initiator-integrated poly(dimethylsiloxane) for the synchronous detection of the six pathogens. The marked multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were hybridized with the specific probes, and the results of hybridization were read directly with the naked eyes. No cross-reaction was observed with 10 other subtypes of AIV and infectious bursal disease virus, indicating that the oligonucleotide microarray assay was highly specific. The sensitivity of the method was at least 100 times higher than that of the conventional PCR, and the detection limit of NDV, AIV, H5, H7, and H9 can reach 0.1 EID50 (50% egg infective dose), except that of IBV, which was 1 EID50 per reaction. In the validation of 93 field samples, AIV, IBV, and NDV were detected in 53 (56.99%) samples by oligonucleotide microarray and virus isolation and in 50 (53.76%) samples by conventional PCR. CONCLUSIONS: We have successfully developed an approach to differentiate AIV, NDV, IBV, H5, H7, and H9 subtypes of AIV using oligonucleotide microarray. The microarray is an accurate, high-throughput, and relatively simple method for the rapid detection of avian respiratory viral diseases. It can be used for the epidemiological surveillance and diagnosis of AIV, IBV, and NDV.

9.
Hematol Oncol ; 37(4): 474-482, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325181

RESUMO

LncRNAs play critical roles in various pathophysiological and biological processes, such as protein translation, RNA splicing, and epigenetic modification. Indeed, abundant evidences demonstrated that lncRNA act as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) to participate in tumorigenesis. However, little is known about the underlying function of lncRNA in nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway 1 (LINP1) in pediatric and adolescent acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The expression of LINP1 was examined in AML patient samples by qRT-PCR. Cell proliferation was examined by CCK-8 and Edu assays. ß-Galactosidase senescence assay, mGlucose uptake assay, lactate production assay, and Gene Ontology (GO) analysis were performed for functional analysis. We found that LINP1 was significantly overexpressed in AML patients at diagnosis, whereas downregulated after complete remission (CR). Furthermore, knockdown of LINP1 expression remarkably suppressed glucose uptake and AML cell maintenance. Mechanistically, LINP1 was found to inhibit the glucose metabolism by suppressing the expression of HNF4a. Both LINP1 and HNF4a knockdown reduced the expression levels of AMPK phosphorylation and WNT5A, indicating for the first time that LINP1 strengthened the HNF4a-AMPK/WNT5A signaling pathway involved in cell glucose metabolism modulation and AML cell survival. Taken together, our results indicated that LINP1 promotes the malignant phenotype of AML cells and stimulates glucose metabolism, which can be regarded as a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target for AML.

10.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 7450151, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281589

RESUMO

Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been associated with lung inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) both may play important roles in lung inflammation and AHR. We investigated whether PM2.5-induced lung inflammation and AHR could be prevented by blocking TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels. Mice were injected intraperitoneally with AMG9810 (30 mg/kg, a TRPV1 antagonist) or A967079 (30 mg/kg, a TRPA1 antagonist) or their combination or vehicle (PBS) one hour before intranasal instillation of PM2.5 (7.8 mg/kg) or vehicle (PBS) for two consecutive days, and then the mice were studied 24 h later. All pretreatments inhibited PM2.5-induced AHR and inflammatory infiltration in the lung tissue and decreased inflammatory cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, together with oxidant levels in the lung. AMG9810 inhibited MFF expression and increased MFN2 expression while A967079 inhibited DRP1 expression and increased OPA1 expression; combined pretreatment reduced MFF and DPR1 expression and increased MFN2 and OPA1 expression. All pretreatments inhibited the activation of the TLR4/NF-κB pathway, while A967079 alone, and combined with AMG9810 also reduced the activation of the NLRP3/caspase-1 pathway. Both TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels play an important role in PM2.5-induced lung inflammation and AHR. However, inhibition of the TRPA1 channel or combined inhibition of TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels resulted in greater inhibitory effect on PM2.5-induced lung injury through regulating the mitochondrial fission/fusion proteins and inhibiting the TLR4/NF-κB and NLRP3/caspase-1 pathways.

11.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 13: 2153-2167, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308628

RESUMO

Purpose: There is an urgent need for the development of novel, effective, and less toxic drugs to treat leukemia. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have received much more attention as alternative chemotherapeutic agents. This study aimed to examined the cytotoxicity of a novel AMP myristoly-CM4 against chronic myeloid leukemia cells (K562/MDR) and acute lymphocytic leukemia cells (Jurkat), and further investigated its selectivity to clarify the cytotoxic mechanism. Materials and methods: In this study, the cytotoxicity and selectivity of myristoly-CM4 against K562/MDR and Jurkat cells were assessed in vitro, and the anticancer mechanism responsible for its cytotoxicity and selectivity was further investigated. Results: Myristoly-CM4 was cytotoxic to these leukemia cell lines (IC50 2-4 µM) and was less cytotoxic to normal cells (HEK-293, L02 cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and erythrocytes). Myristoyl-CM4 had stronger affinity to K562/MDR and Jurkat cells than to normal cells, while the contents of phosphatidylserine and sialic acids on the cell surfaces of K562/MDR and Jurkat cells were significantly higher than that of HEK293 cells. The myristoyl group effectively mediated the internalization of myristoyl-CM4 to leukemia cells. After internalization, myristoyl-CM4 could target mitochondria and affected mitochondrial function, including disruption of Δψm, increasing the accumulation of ROS, increasing the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, activating caspase 9 and 3, and PARP to induce mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in both K562/MDR and Jurkat cells. Myristoyl-CM4 also induced K562/MDR cell necrosis by directive membrane disruption, and significantly decreased the level of P-glycoprotein in K562/MDR cells. Conclusion: These results suggested that myristoyl-CM4 showed selective cytotoxicity to leukemia K562/MDR and Jurkat cells by apoptosis and/or necrosis pathway. Myristoyl-CM4, thus, appears to be a promising candidate for leukemia treatment, including multidrug-resistant leukemia.

12.
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi ; 36(3): 393-400, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232541

RESUMO

Traditionally, adequate tidal volume is considered to be a necessary condition to support respiratory patient breathing. But the high frequency ventilation (HFV) with a small tidal volume can still support the respiratory patient breathing well. In order to further explore the mechanisms of HFV, the pendelluft ventilation between left and right lungs was proposed in this paper. And a test platform by using two fresh sheep lungs was developed for investigating the pendelluft ventilation between the left and right lungs. Furthermore, considering the viscous resistance ( R), inertance ( I) and lung compliance ( C) in the lung, a second-order lung ventilation model was designed to inspect and evaluate the pendelluft ventilation between left lung and right lungs. On referring to both results of experiments in practice and simulation in MATLAB Simulink, between the left and right lungs, the phase difference in their airflow happens during HFV at some frequencies. And the pendelluft ventilation between the left and right lungs is resulted by the phase difference, even if the total airflow entering a whole lung is 0. Under HFV, the pendelluft ventilation between left and right lungs will benefit the lungs being more adequately ventilated, and will be improve the utilization rate of oxygen in the lungs.


Assuntos
Ventilação de Alta Frequência , Pulmão/fisiologia , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar , Animais , Humanos , Respiração Artificial , Ovinos , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar
13.
Free Radic Res ; 53(7): 780-790, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185753

RESUMO

Oxidative stress is a key mechanism underlying ozone-induced lung injury. Mitochondria can release mitochondrial reactive oxidative species (mtROS), which may lead to the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. The goal of this study was to examine the roles of mtROS and NLRP3 inflammasome in acute ozone-induced airway inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). C57/BL6 mice (n = 8/group) were intraperitoneally treated with vehicle (phosphate buffered saline, PBS) or mitoTEMPO (mtROS inhibitor, 20 mg/kg), or orally treated with VX-765 (caspse-1 inhibitor, 100 mg/kg) 1 h before the ozone exposure (2.5 ppm, 3 h). Compared to the PBS-treated ozone-exposed mice, mitoTEMPO reduced the level of total malondialdehyde in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and increased the expression of mitochondrial complexes II and IV in the lung 24 h after single ozone exposure. VX-765 inhibited ozone-induced BHR, BAL total cells including neutrophils and eosinophils, and BAL inflammatory cytokines including IL-1α, IL-1ß, KC, and IL-6. Both mitoTEMPO and VX-765 reduced ozone-induced mtROS and inhibited capase-1 activity in lung tissue whilst VX-765 further inhibited DRP1 and MFF expression, increased MFN2 expression, and down-regulated caspase-1 expression in the lung tissue. These results indicate that acute ozone exposure induces mitochondrial dysfunction and NLRP3 inflammasome activation, while the latter has a critical role in the pathogenesis of ozone-induced airway inflammation and BHR.

14.
EBioMedicine ; 44: 182-193, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) are prevalent, lethal cancers with especially grim prospects due to late-stage detection and chemoresistance. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that participate in tumor development. However, the role of circRNAs in NSCLC is not well known. This study investigated the role of one circRNA - circPTPRA- in NSCLC and characterized its molecular mechanism of action. METHODS: circPTPRA expression was analyzed in human NSCLC tumors and matched healthy lung tissue. We performed functional characterization in NSCLC cell lines and a mouse xenograft model of NSCLC to elucidate the molecular role of circPTPRA in epithelial-mesenchymal transitioning (EMT). We also assessed the regulatory action of circPTPRA on the microRNA miR-96-5p and its target the tumor suppressor Ras association domain-containing protein 8 (RASSF8). FINDINGS: circPTPRA was significantly downregulated in NSCLC tumors relative to matched healthy lung tissue. Lower circPTPRA levels correlated with metastasis and inferior survival outcomes in NSCLC patients. circPTPRA suppressed EMT in NSCLC cell lines and reduced metastasis in the murine xenograft model by sequestering miR-96-5p and upregulating RASSF8. Correlation analyses in patient-derived NSCLC tumor specimens supported the involvement of the circPTPRA/miR-96-5p/RASSF8/E-cadherin axis dysregulation in NSCLC tumor progression. INTERPRETATION: circPTPRA suppresses EMT and metastasis of NSCLC cell lines by sponging miR-96-5p, which upregulates the downstream tumor suppressor RASSF8. The circPTPRA/miR-96-5p/RASSF8/E-cadherin axis can be leveraged as a potential treatment avenue in NSCLC. FUND: The Key research and development projects of Anhui Province (201904a0720079), the Natural Science Foundation of Anhui Province (1908085MH240), the Graduate Innovation Program of Bengbu Medical College (Byycx1843), the National Natural Science Foundation of Tibet (XZ2017ZR-ZY033) and the Science and Technology Project of Shannan (SNKJYFJF2017-3) and Academic Subsidy Project for Top Talents in Universities of Anhui in 2019 (gxbjZD16).

15.
Analyst ; 144(14): 4233-4240, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210202

RESUMO

Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), a major component of the tumor microenvironment in liver cancer, play important roles in cancer progression as well as drug resistance. Here, we presented a microchannel plate-based co-culture model that integrated Hepa1-6 tumor spheroids with JS-1 stellate cells in three-dimensional (3D) concave microwells to mimic the in vivo tumor microenvironment by recapitulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition and chemoresistance. The expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related markers and factors was analyzed using immunofluorescent staining and the changes in viability following exposure to different concentrations of paclitaxel were measured. Cell spheroids formed 3D tumor spheroids within 3 days. Culture conditions were optimized for Hepa1-6 cells and JS-1 cells, and their appropriate interactions were confirmed by reciprocal activation. JS-1 under co-culture showed a change in cellular morphology and an increased expression of α-SMA. The expression of EMT-related markers, such as vimentin and TGF-ß1, was higher in the co-cultured Hepa1-6 spheroids compared to that in mono-cultured spheroids. Following paclitaxel exposure, JS-1 cells showed significant changes in survival under both mono- and co-culture conditions, while Hepa1-6 presented negligible changes. The proposed microfluidic platform makes it possible to observe the positioned three-dimensional cell spheroids, which would be extensively used not only for well-organized spheroid creation, but also for better quantitative and qualitative understanding of the cell-cell interaction effect.

16.
Analyst ; 144(14): 4250-4257, 2019 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215576

RESUMO

A fluorometric and colorimetric dual mode sensing platform based on hybridized carbon dots (Cdots) and gold-silver core-shell nanoparticles (Au@Ag NPs) has been established for the sensitive detection of trace Cu2+ ions in aqueous solution. In this system, the fluorescence of Cdots was quenched by Au@Ag NPs due to the surface plasmon-enhanced energy transfer. Due to the fact that Cu2+ could accelerate the etching process of Au@Ag NPs in the presence of thiosulfate, the fluorescence of Cdots was recovered. The limit of detection (LOD) is 4.81 nM for fluorometric measurements and 3.85 nM for colorimetric measurements. The dynamic range from these two modes is 0.005-1 µM. Importantly, Cu2+ in solution can also be directly visualized by this sensor via evident color change from the solution. Therefore, this dual mode nanosensor has potential applications for the efficient detection of Cu2+ ions in aqueous samples with great selectivity and high sensitivity.

17.
Anal Chem ; 91(12): 7639-7647, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144808

RESUMO

Steroid estrogens, including 17ß-estradiol (TE2), estrone (TE1), and ethinyl estradiol (TEE2), which are the strongest endocrine disruptors and coexist in the environment, seriously harm the health of organisms; thus, the monitoring of total steroid estrogens (TEs) has attracted growing attention. Herein, a method based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) group-targeting detection is established to detect TEs in natural water for the first time. The TEs response detection range and detection limit were 0.01-50 nM and 5 pM, respectively. An anti-interference ability was observed: even if coexisting interfering species were present in the system at 100-fold the concentration of estrogens, the detection error of the method was less than 0.276. In addition, the association constants between the aptamers and TE1, TE2, and TEE2 were similar, and therefore, the recognition of TE1, TE2, and TEE2 by the aptamers was consistent. Furthermore, the interaction sites A44, T72, and G69 between the aptamers and TE1, TE2, and TEE2 were investigated by molecular docking. On this basis, the estrogens in environmental water samples, including animal farm wastewater, maternity hospital wastewater, surface water from near an animal farm, and surface water from near a maternity hospital, were successfully determined.

18.
EBioMedicine ; 44: 403-418, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive disease with poor prognosis, and gemcitabine-based chemotherapy remains an effective option for the majority of PDAC patients. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1A) is a tumor-suppressor in PDAC, but its role in gemcitabine chemoresistance of PDAC has not been clarified. METHODS: The function of HNF1A in gemcitabine was detected by overexpression and knockdown of HNF1A in vitro and in vitro. The regulatory network between HNF1A and ABCB1 was further demonstrated by luciferase assays, deletion/mutation reporter construct assays and CHIP assays. FINDINGS: Here, we found that HNF1A expression is significantly associated with gemcitabine sensitivity in PDAC cell lines. Moreover, we identified that HNF1A overexpression enhanced gemcitabine sensitivity of PDAC both in vitro and in vitro, while inhibition of HNF1A had the opposite effect. Furthermore, by inhibiting and overexpressing HNF1A, we revealed that HNF1A regulates the expression of MDR genes (ABCB1 and ABCC1) in PDAC cells. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that HNF1A regulates ABCB1 expression through binding to its specific promoter region and suppressing its transcription levels. Finally, the survival analyses revealed the clinical value of HNF1A in stratification of gemcitabine sensitive pancreatic cancer patients. INTERPRETATION: Our study paved the road for finding novel treatment combinations using conventional cytotoxic agents with functional restoration of the HNF1A protein, individualized treatment through HNF1A staining and improvement of the prognosis of PDAC patients. FUND: National Natural Science Foundations of China and National Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province.

19.
EMBO Mol Med ; 11(6)2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036704

RESUMO

Mutations to KRAS are recurrent in lung adenocarcinomas (LUAD) and are daunting to treat due to the difficulties in KRAS oncoprotein inhibition. A possible resolution to this problem may lie with co-mutations to other genes that also occur in KRAS-driven LUAD that may provide alternative therapeutic vulnerabilities. Approximately 3% of KRAS-mutant LUADs carry functional mutations in NF1 gene encoding neurofibromin-1, a negative regulator of focal adhesion kinase 1 (FAK1). We evaluated the impact of Nf1 loss on LUAD development using a CRISPR/Cas9 platform in a murine model of Kras-mutant LUAD We discovered that Nf1 deactivation is associated with Fak1 hyperactivation and phosphoserine aminotransferase 1 (Psat1) upregulation in mice. Nf1 loss also accelerates murine Kras-driven LUAD tumorigenesis. Analysis of the transcriptome and metabolome reveals that LUAD cells with mutation to Nf1 are addicted to glutamine metabolism. We also reveal that this metabolic vulnerability can be leveraged as a treatment option by pharmacologically inhibiting glutaminase and/or Psat1. Lastly, the findings advocate that tumor stratification by co-mutations to KRAS/NF1 highlights the LAUD patient population expected to be susceptible to inhibiting PSAT1.

20.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(20): 1742-1752, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939089

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Opioids are the primary choice for managing chronic cancer pain. However, many nonopioid therapies are currently prescribed for chronic cancer pain with little published evidence comparing their efficacy. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing any systemic pharmaceutical intervention and/or combination thereof in treating chronic cancer pain. The primary outcome was global efficacy reported as an odds ratio (OR). The secondary outcome was change in pain intensity reported as a standardized mean difference (SMD). RESULTS: We included 81 RCTs consisting of 10,003 patients investigating 11 medication classes. Most RCTs (80%) displayed low risk of bias. The top-ranking classes for global efficacy were nonopioid analgesics (network OR, 0.30; 95% credibility interval [CrI], 0.13 to 0.67), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (network OR, 0.44; 95% CrI, 0.22 to 0.90), and opioids (network OR, 0.49; 95% CrI, 0.27 to 0.86), whereas the top-ranked interventions were lidocaine (network OR, 0.04; 95% CrI, 0.01 to 0.18; surface under the cumulative ranking curve analysis [SUCRA] score, 98.1), codeine plus aspirin (network OR, 0.22; 95% CrI, 0.08 to 0.63; SUCRA score, 81.1), and pregabalin (network OR, 0.29; 95% CrI, 0.08 to 0.92; SUCRA score, 73.8). In terms of reducing pain intensity, we found that no class was superior to placebo, whereas the following top-ranked interventions were superior to placebo: ziconotide (network SMD, -24.98; 95% CrI, -32.62 to -17.35; SUCRA score, 99.8), dezocine (network SMD, -13.56; 95% CrI, -23.37 to -3.69; SUCRA score, 93.5), and diclofenac (network SMD, -11.22; 95% CrI, -15.91 to -5.80; SUCRA score, 92.9). CONCLUSION: There are significant differences in efficacy among current regimens for chronic cancer pain. Our evidence suggests that certain nonopioid analgesics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can serve as effectively as opioids in managing chronic cancer pain.

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