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1.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 58(5): 403-407, 2020 May 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392957

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the value of nucleic acid detection methods in pharyngeal swabs in the etiological diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) infection in children. Methods: Four hundred and fifty-four (male 210, female 244) children with pneumonia in Department of Pulmonology, Children's Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine were enrolled from July, 2018 to October, 2018. Pharyngeal swabs and venous blood were obtained on the first or the second day after hospitalization. Fluorescence detection quantitative amplification of DNA, thermostatic amplification of RNA, MP culture and MP-IgM were used to detect MP simultaneously. MP infection is diagnosed if MP culture is positive or the two of the other three methods are positive. Pharyngeal swabs were acquired and detected using fluorescence quantitative amplification of DNA, thermostatic amplification of RNA and MP culture again for children with confirmed MP infection before discharge. The detection rates and quantitative changes of the three methods were compared, and χ(2) test was used for comparison among groups. Results: A total of 454 hospitalized children with pneumonia were included in this study. The detection rates of fluorescence quantitative amplification of DNA, thermostatic amplification of RNA, MP culture and MP-IgM IgM were 43.6% (198/454), 43.2% (196/454), 40.0% (180/454) and 30.6% (139/454) respectively. The difference of detection rates of the four methods was statistically significant (χ(2)=20.8, P<0.05),but no significant difference between the detection rates of fluorescence quantitative amplification of DNA and thermostatic amplification of RNA was found (χ(2)=0.018, P=0.900). They both had higher detection rates than MP-IgM or MP culture. MP infection is diagnosed if MP culture is positive or the two of the other three methods are positive, and two hundred and nine children were diagnosed as MP infection. In the second test of MP infection in 209 children before discharge, the positive rate of MP culture was 67.5% (141/209), with 39.4% (13/33) changed from negative to positive, and 27.3% (48/176) changed from positive to negative. The positive rate of thermostatic amplification of RNA was 82.3% (172/209), with 16.2% (31/191) turned from positive to negative, and 66.7% (12/18) turned from negative to positive. The positive rate of fluorescence quantitative amplification of DNA was 67.0% (140/209), with 52.9% (18/34) cases changed from negative to positive, and 30.3% (53/175) cases changed from positive to negative. MP-DNA load decreased in 141 cases (67.5%) and increased in 68 cases (32.5%) in the second test among the positive samples tested by fluorescence quantitative amplification of DNA. The detection rates of the four methods in the non-severe group and the severe group were similar, and the differences among the groups were not statistically significant (all P>0.05). In the second test, the proportion of changing from negative to positive in the severe group was higher than that in the non-severe group, but only the difference in the thermostatic amplification of RNA was statistically significant (P=0.038) and the cases of changing from negative to positive of thermostatic amplification of RNA in the severe group and non-severe group are 7 and 5 respectively. Conclusions: The methods of pharyngeal swab nucleic acid detection have high sensitivity and application value in the etiological diagnosis of acute MP infection in children. The results of fluorescence quantitative amplification of DNA and thermostatic amplification of RNA are highly consistent, and they are both more advantageous than MP-IgM. Repeated testing in the acute phase is helpful to find MP infection children whose first test is negative. The load of MP-DNA did not decrease in some children in the acute stage after antibiotic treatment.

3.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(1): 48-54, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062942

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the association between the frequency of bowel movement (BMF) and the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: In this study, 510 134 participants from the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) were included after excluding those who reported to had been diagnosed with cancer at baseline survey. The baseline survey was conducted from 2004 to 2008. The study used the data from the baseline survey and follow-up until December 31, 2016. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the HRs and the 95%CIs of risk of PD diagnosis with BMF. Results: During an average follow-up period of (9.9±1.9) years, 808 participants were diagnosed with PD. Compared with participants who had bowel movements every day, the multivariable-adjusted HR (95%CI) for those who had bowel movements<3 times/week, once every 2-3 days, and>1 time/day were 3.62 (2.88-4.54), 2.13 (1.74-2.60), and 0.81 (0.63-1.05), respectively. The linear trend test results of the association between BMF and risk of PD diagnosis was significant (P<0.001). Compared with the participants who had bowel movements ≥1 time/day, the multivariable-adjusted HR (95%CI) for those who had bowel movements<1 time/day was 3.13 (2.32-4.23) within the 5 years of follow- up and was 2.48 (2.05-3.01) beyond the 5 years of follow-up. The gender specific results were similar. The association of BMF<1 time/day with risk of PD diagnosis was stronger in older participants. Conclusions: The participants with low BMF at baseline survey would have higher risk for PD diagnosis in the subsequent 10 years on average. Since abnormal decrease of BMF is easy to be found, programs could be set up for the early screening of PD in older people, along with other early symptoms of PD.


Assuntos
Defecação , Doença de Parkinson , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
4.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 58(1): 25-29, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905472

RESUMO

Objective: To improve the diagnosis and therapy of childhood pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) by analyzing the clinical features of this rare condition. Methods: A total of 8 pediatric patients (4 males, 4 females) with PTE diagnosed in the Children's Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine from March, 2014 to March, 2019 were enrolled. The clinical manifestation, laboratory results, imaging findings, diagnosis and treatment were summarized. Results: Among these 8 cases, aged from 9 hours to 14 years and 10 months. Fever was found in 4 cases, cough aggravation in 4, short of breath in 3, chest pain in 2, abdominal and back pain in one, hemoptysis in 2, cyanosis in 1, and edema of lower extremities in 2. Physical examination found decreased breath sound in 2 cases, phlegm rale in 3, and pleural friction rub in one. Pleural effusion was found in 5 cases by ultrasound. Plasma D-dimer increased in 6 cases (0.66-9.96 mg/L) and hypersensitive C-reactive protein elevated in 5 cases (10.78-78.00 mg/L). Chest enhanced CT showed pulmonary artery or venous filling defects, including pulmonary artery embolism in 7 cases and pulmonary vein embolism in one. The primary disease of these patients included Mycoplasma Pneumoniae pneumonia in 4 cases, nephritis in 2 and postoperative congenital heart disease in 2. Apart from one case who withdrew the treatment and was discharged, the other 7 patients received anticoagulant treatment had good outcome. Conclusions: For children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia, immune disorders, long-term hormone therapy, cardiovascular invasive operation or other high-risk factors, PTE should be considered when fever, cough aggravation, short of breath, chest and back pain with pleural effusion are present. Chest enhanced CT scan should be performed as soon as possible, and anticoagulation should be started once the diagnosis is confirmed.


Assuntos
Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/complicações , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Dor no Peito/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Derrame Pleural , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 917-923, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484254

RESUMO

Objective: To describe the characteristics of habitual snoring among adults from 10 regions engaged in the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) study. Methods: The baseline survey of CKB was conducted from 2004 to 2008. Data was collected regarding the information on socio- demographic characteristics, lifestyle, sleeping habits, and results from the physical examination of the participants. Logistic regression models were used to compare the regional differences and to estimate the associations of other baseline characteristics on snoring habit. Results: A total of 512 713 participants were included in this study. The overall prevalence of habitual snoring was 21.2%, higher among men, in south regions and urban areas, but no difference observed among people with different socioeconomic status after adjusting for age, regions, BMI, waist circumference or lifestyle factors. Results showed that the prevalence of habitual snoring under the multivariable adjusted model increased among current and ever smokers, also among current and ever alcohol consumers. The risk of habitual snoring was increased by 19% per 1 kg/m(2) and 6% per 1 cm increment in BMI or waist circumference, respectively. Among participants with similar BMI, central obese individuals were more likely to be habitual snorers. For individuals with similar waist circumference, the prevalence of habitual snoring was higher among those with higher BMI. Conclusion: The prevalence of habitual snoring varied across regions. Substantial differences in habitual snoring were also seen among people with different lifestyles and body sizes.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Ronco/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura
6.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 57(8): 625-630, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352749

RESUMO

Objective: To compare the characteristics of Mycoplasma pneumoniae necrotizing pneumonia (MPNP) and bacterial necrotizing pneumonia (BNP), and explore the biomarkers for differentiation of MPNP from BNP. Methods: A retrospective, observational study of 52 necrotizing pneumonia (NP) cases who were hospitalized in our hospital from January 2008 to December 2017 was conducted. According to the pathogen causing NP, patients were divided into two groups, BNP and MPNP, and the clinical manifestations, laboratory data, imaging findings, hospital course and prognosis between these groups were analyzed. Results: This study enrolled 19 boys and 33 girls, and the median ages of patients were 4.4 (0.1-13.8) years old. Of the totally of 52 NP patients, 19 were in the BNP group (9 boys and 10 girls), 33 were in the MPNP group (10 boys and 23 girls). The mean age of MPNP patients was much older than that of BNP patients (5.2 (2.3-13.2) years vs. 1.8 (0.1-13.8) years, Z=-0.128, P<0.01). The number of patients with tachypnea and pleural effusion septation were significantly higher in BNP patients than those in MPNP patients (15 cases vs. 4 cases, χ(2)=23.222, P<0.01; 14 cases vs. 1 case, χ(2)=29.326, P<0.01), which more needed to oxygentherapy (18 cases vs. 12 cases, χ(2)=16.833, P<0.01) and undergo chest drainage (9 cases vs. 4 cases, χ(2)=5.829, P=0.022); while the number of patients required bronchoalveolar lavage was higher in MPNP patients than that in BNP patients (5 cases vs. 32 cases, χ(2)=29.326, P<0.01). The values of white blood cell (WBC) (23.2 (5.2-67.1)×10(9)/L vs. 9.7 (6.3-18.7)×10(9)/L, Z=-4.855, P<0.01), procalcitonin (PCT) (3.69 (0.23-90.15) mg/L vs. 0.28 (0.02-1.44) mg/L, Z=-3.207, P=0.001), C reactive protein (CRP) (160 (94-220) mg/L vs. 90 (5-134) mg/L, Z=-4.337, P<0.01), interleukin (IL)-10 (11.7 (4.2-401.5) ng/L vs. 4.8 (2.0-23.4) ng/L, Z=-2.278, P=0.023), pleural fluid cell count (5 200 (120-50 000)×10(6)/L vs. 790 (68-6 920)×10(6)/L, Z=-3.125, P=0.002), pleural fluid lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) (3 990 (589-29 382) U/L vs. 2 211 (673-3 993) U/L, Z=-2.488, P=0.013) in BNP group were significantly higher than those in MPNP group; while the values of pleural fluid glucose(0.43 (0.03-18.00) mmol/L vs. 5.95 (4.27-7.87) mmol/L, Z=-2.795, P=0.005), serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (2.3 (1.0-2.8) ng/L vs. 2.6 (1.3-109.2) ng/L, Z=-2.113, P=0.035) and interferon (IFN)-γ (4.8 (2.6-7.7) ng/L vs. 11.9 (2.9-154.6) ng/L, Z=-2.455, P=0.014) were lower in BNP group than those in MPNP group. Meanwhile, the mean time from the onset of symptoms to the discovery of necrotic lesions was longer in MPNP group than that in BNP group ((20.6±6.4) days vs. (14.6±6.2) days, t=3.029, P=0.004). After treatments, all patients were discharged without death, WBC and PCT recovered more quickly in MPNP group than those in BNP group (12 (0-24) days vs. 0 (0-23) days, Z=-4.484, P<0.01; 10 (5-15) days vs. 0 (0-23) days, Z=-3.244, P=0.001). As to prognosis, 34 cases were followed up, and the results showed that patients recovered without surgical intervention, and chest lesions were resolved within 3.0 (1.0-8.0) months, and the time to necrosis disappearance was similar in the BNP group and MPNP greup (3.0 (1.0-8.0) months vs. 3.0 (1.0-8.0) months, Z=-0.128, P=0.001). In receiver operator characteristic curve analysis, the cut-off values for the age, WBC, CRP, PCT, pleural fluid cell count and pleural fluid glucose were set at 2.4 years of age, 17.2×10(9)/L, 157 mg/L, 1.505 mg/L, 2 630×10(6)/L and 3.73 mmol/L, respectively. Conclusions: NP is found to be severe and prolonged, yet, reversible through proper therapy, such as rational antibiotics application. The age, WBC, CRP, PCT, pleural fluid cell count and pleural fluid glucose could be used as biomarkers to differentiate MPNP from BNP in children.


Assuntos
Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Necrose/patologia , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Necrosante/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Pneumonia Necrosante/microbiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(7): 759-764, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357794

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the correlation between alcohol consumption and obesity in adults in China. Methods: The information about alcohol consumption were collected at the baseline survey of the China Kadoorie Biobank. The general obesity and central obesity were defined by BMI and waist circumference (WC) respectively. Logistic regression model was employed to examine the relationship of drinking behavior with general obesity and central obesity. Results: A total of 249 873 adults were included. A J-shaped relationship was observed between alcohol consumption and obesity measurement index (BMI and WC) in men. Compared with non-drinkers, the proportion of general obesity and central obesity were lower in light drinkers (men: OR=0.65, 95%CI: 0.59-0.71 and OR=0.93, 95%CI: 0.88-0.98; women: OR=0.77, 95%CI: 0.65-0.91 and OR=0.89, 95%CI: 0.80-0.99). In men, the proportion of general obesity and central obesity was highest in heavy drinkers (OR=1.21, 95%CI: 1.12-1.32; OR=1.33, 95%CI: 1.27-1.40). BMI and WC were higher in those with a drinking frequency of 3-5 d/week, with largest of proportion of central obesity (men: OR=1.23, 95%CI: 1.16-1.31; women: OR=1.13, 95%CI: 0.99-1.28). The risk for central obesity in men who began drinking every week before 20 years old was 1.24 times higher than non-drinkers (95%CI: 1.16-1.33). Those who drank beer had lower proportion of general obesity (men: OR=0.74, 95%CI: 0.67-0.82; women: OR=0.54, 95%CI: 0.43-0.68). Conclusion: The proportion of obesity was lower in light drinkers but higher in heavy drinkers; and the earlier drinking started, the higher the risk for obesity was.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
8.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(5): 510-514, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177729

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the characteristics of adulthood weight change through the analysis on data from China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) Study of 0.5 million adults from ten areas in China. Methods: An electronic questionnaire was used to collect the information about the body weight at age 25 years, social-demographic characteristics and lifestyle of the study subjects and their body weight were measured. After excluding the adults with self-reported histories of coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer or diabetes and those who had no data of body weight at age 25 years and those aged outside of 35-70 years, a total of 360 903 adults were included in the analysis. Adulthood weight change were defined as difference value between current body weight and body weight at age 25 years. Results: The mean adulthood weight change of the participants was 4.9 kg. The adults living in urban area showed more body weight increase compared with those living in rural area, so did the adults in northern area compared with those in southern area. Among the ten areas in China, Qingdao reported the highest adulthood weight increase (9.3 kg), and Gansu reported the lowest adulthood weight increase (1.5 kg). Older adults had higher BMI at early adulthood (25 years old), but the adults aged 45-50 years had the highest adulthood body weight increase. Adults with higher educational level, higher household income level, but lower physical activity level had more body weight increase, while current smokers, farmers and workers had less body weight increase. BMI at age 25 years was negatively associated with adulthood body weight change, but current BMI was positively associated with adulthood body weight change (P<0.001). Conclusion: Adulthood body weight change varied greatly among population with different demographic characteristics and lifestyle and in ten areas in China.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Peso Corporal , Exercício Físico , Estilo de Vida , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(5): 515-520, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177730

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the fruit consumption of adults of Qingdao and examine the association between fruit consumption and stroke. Methods: We analyzed baseline data and stroke incidence of the participants who were aged 30-79 years and had been enrolled into the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) study from Qingdao city. Cox proportional hazards regression model was conducted to estimate the association of fruit consumption with risk of stroke. Results: A total of 35 509 participants were investgated in the baseline survey. Ratio of male to female was 1∶1.27, and the average age was (50.3±10.2) years. Respondents with higher frequency of fruit consumption were younger, more women, with higher education level and higher income (P<0.05). A total of 1 011 new cases of stroke were observed, with a stroke incidence of 387.63/100 000 person-years. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that fruit consumption had a protective effect on stroke incidence. Compared to the respondents who never consumed fruit, respondents who consumed fruit more than 4 days per week had a 44% lower risk of stroke incidence (HR=0.56, 95%CI: 0.50-0.62, P<0.05), and the risk reduced by 46% (HR=0.54, 95%CI: 0.46-0.64, P<0.05) and 42% (HR=0.58, 95%CI: 0.52-0.69, P<0.05) in male and female, respectively. Further adjustment for WC, BMI, SBP and random blood glucose did not change the association. Conclusion: Increasing fruit consumption can effectively decrease the risk of stroke. People should increase fruit consumption advisably to set up reasonable and healthy dietary habits.


Assuntos
Frutas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
10.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(4): 376-381, 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006194

RESUMO

Objective: To describe the regional and population-related differences in skeletal muscle mass and handgrip strength across the 10 regions of China. Methods: 24 533 participants aged 38-88 years from the second resurvey of China Kadoorie Biobank were included in our analyses. Appendicular and trunk skeletal muscle mass were assessed using the bioelectrical impedance analysis (TANITA). Handgrip strength was measured using Jamar hand-held dynamometer. Low muscle mass and low muscle strength were defined as the lowest quintile of height-adjusted appendicular muscle mass or handgrip strength according to the Consensus Report of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. We analyzed the mean value of absolute muscle mass, height-adjusted muscle mass, weight-adjusted muscle mass and handgrip strength. We also reported the prevalence of low muscle mass and low muscle strength. Results: The average appendicular and total skeletal muscle mass were (22.0±0.02) kg and (49.7±0.05) kg in men, which were higher than in women [(15.9±0.02) kg and (37.2±0.04) kg, respectively]. The handgrip strength was (32.6±0.06) kg in men, which was higher than (19.9±0.05) kg in women. The absolute muscle mass was higher in north area and urban region (P<0.001). The weight-adjusted muscle mass showed reverse patterns of regional difference compared with height-adjusted muscle mass. Both muscle mass and handgrip strength decreased by age (trend P<0.001), with a larger decline observed in handgrip strength. According to AWGS criteria, the proportions of low muscle mass and strength increased by age. Among participants over 80 years old, the prevalence of low muscle mass and strength were 56.2% and 74.5% in men, and 35.7% and 66.0% in women. Conclusions: Levels of skeletal muscle mass and strength varied greatly among people from 10 regions and among participants with different demographic characteristics. The prevalence of low muscle mass and strength was extremely high in elderly.


Assuntos
Força da Mão , Músculo Esquelético , Sarcopenia/etnologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Peso Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia
11.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(4): 382-388, 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006195

RESUMO

Objective: To examine the association between the frequencies of bowel movement (BMF) and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: In this study, 510 134 participants from the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) were included, after excluding those who reported as having been diagnosed with cancer at the baseline survey. The baseline survey was conducted from June 2004 to July 2008. The present study included data from baseline and follow-up until December 31, 2016. We used the Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate the HR and the 95%CI of incident CRC with BMF. Results: During an average follow-up period of 9.9 years, 3 056 participants were documented as having developed colorectal cancer. In the site-specific analysis, 1 548 colon cancer and 1 475 rectal cancer were included. Compared with participants who had bowel movements on the daily base, the multivariable-adjusted HR (95%CI) for those who had more than once of BMF were 1.24 (1.12-1.39) for CRC, 1.12 (0.95-1.31) for colon cancer, and 1.37 (1.18-1.59) for rectal cancer. We further examined the association between BMF and CRC, according to the stages of follow-up, the corresponding HR (95%CI) for CRC, colon and rectal cancer were 1.59 (1.36-1.86), 1.43 (1.14- 1.80), and 1.76 (1.41-2.19) for the first five years, while such associations became statistically insignificant in the subsequent follow-up (P for all interactions were <0.05), as time went on. As for CRC, colon or rectal cancers among participants who had lower bowel movements, the risks were not significantly different from those who had bowel movements everyday. Conclusions: Participants who had BMF more than once a day, appeared an increased risk of CRC in the subsequent five years. Since abnormal increase of bowel movements is easily recognizable, programs should be set up on health self- management and early screening for CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Constipação Intestinal/complicações , Defecação , Neoplasias Retais/epidemiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Constipação Intestinal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Fatores de Risco
12.
13.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(2): 136-141, 2019 Feb 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744261

RESUMO

Objective: To examine the prevalence of 'healthy lifestyle' from data extracted from the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) of 0.5 million adults from ten areas across China. Methods: After excluding participants with self-reported histories of coronary heart disease, stroke or cancer, a total of 487 198 participants at baseline (2004-2008) and 22 604 participants at second survey (2013- 2014), were included for analysis. 'Healthy lifestyle' was defined as haing the following characteristics: a) never smoking or having stopped smoking for reasons other than illness; b) alcohol drinking <25 g/day (men)/<15 g/day (women); c) diet rich in vegetables, fruits, legumes and fish, but low in red meat; d) upper quarter of the physical activity level; e) body mass index of 18.5-23.9 kg/m(2) and waist circumstance <85 cm (men)/80 cm (women). We calculated the healthy lifestyle scores (HLS) by counting the number of all the healthy lifestyle factors, with a range from 0 to 6. Results: At baseline, prevalence rates of the above five healthy lifestyles (except physical activity) were 70.6%, 92.6%, 8.7%, 52.6% and 59.0%, respectively, with the mean HLS being 3.1±1.2. Most participants (81.4%) had2-4 healthy components, while only 0.7% (0.2% in men and 1.0% in women) of all the participants had all six healthy lifestyles. Participants who were women, at younger age, with more schooling and rural residents, were more likely to adhere to the healthy lifestyle. After ten years, the mean HLS showed a slight decrease. Conclusion: The prevalence of optimal lifestyles in Chinese adults appeared extremely low. Levels of 'healthy lifestyle' varied greatly among those populations with different socio-demographic characteristics across the ten areas in China.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
14.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(2): 142-146, 2019 Feb 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744262

RESUMO

Objective: To study the relationship between the age of menarche and the near-term/long-term obesity in adult women. Methods: We analyzed the baseline data of 30 895 women with complete data on menarche and body measurement that was from the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) study from 2004 to 2008. The age of menarche was divided into three groups: ≤12, 13-16 and ≥17 years old. Prematurity was set at age ≤12 years. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the effects of menarche age on the near/long-term obesity in female adults. Results: The average menarche age of respondent appeared as (15.64±1.92) years old, with prematurity number as 1 421, accounting for 4.6% of the total numbers. Regarding the postponing of dates of birth, the age of menarche in women showed an advancing tendency. Among all the adult women under study, 803 developed near-term obesity, with the prevalence as 2.6%, while the number of long-term obesity was 3 738, accounting for 12.1%. Refining factors of age, lifestyle, menopausal status, hypertension and diabetes showed that the menarche age was related to the risks of both short-term and long-term obesity in women and the ORs (95%CI) were 2.45 (1.74-3.45) and 1.99 (1.69-2.34), respectively. There was no multiplicative interaction shown between the menarche age and menopausal status on long-term obesity (P=0.324). Conclusion: Premature menarche appeared a risk factor for near-term/long-term obesity in adult females.


Assuntos
Menarca , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , China/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(1): 20-25, 2019 Jan 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30669726

RESUMO

Objective: To describe the genetic structure of populations in different areas of China, and explore the effects of different strategies to control the confounding factors of the genetic structure in cohort studies. Methods: By using the genome-wide association study (GWAS) on data of 4 500 samples from 10 areas of the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB), we performed principal components analysis to extract the first and second principal components of the samples for the component two-dimensional diagram generation, and then compared them with the source of sample area to analyze the characteristics of genetic structure of the samples from different areas of China. Based on the CKB cohort data, a simulation data set with cluster sample characteristics such as genetic structure differences and extensive kinship was generated; and the effects of different analysis strategies including traditional analysis scheme and mixed linear model on the inflation factor (λ) were evaluated. Results: There were significant genetic structure differences in different areas of China. Distribution of the principal components of the population genetic structure was basically consistent with the geographical distribution of the project area. The first principal component corresponds to the latitude of different areas, and the second principal component corresponds to the longitude of different areas. The generated simulation data showed high false positive rate (λ=1.16), even if the principal components of the genetic structure was adjusted or the area specific subgroup analysis was performed, λ could not be effectively controlled (λ>1.05); while, by using a mixed linear model adjusting for the kinship matrix, λ was effectively controlled regardless of whether the genetic structure principal component was further adjusted (λ=0.99). Conclusions: There were large differences in genetic structure among populations in different areas of China. In molecular epidemiology studies, bias caused by population genetic structure needs to be carefully treated. For large cohort data with complex genetic structure and extensive kinship, it is necessary to use a mixed linear model for association analysis.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Análise de Componente Principal , China , Estruturas Genéticas , Humanos , Modelos Lineares
16.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(1): 26-32, 2019 Jan 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30669727

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the association of educational level with anthropometric measurements at different adult stages and their long-term changes in adults who participated in the second re-survey of China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB). Methods: The present study excluded participants who were aged >65 years, with incomplete or extreme measurement values, or with major chronic diseases at baseline survey or re-survey. The weight at age 25 years was self-reported. Body height, body weight and waist circumference at baseline survey (2004-2008) and re-survey (2013-2014) were analyzed. Results: The present study included 3 427 men and 6 320 women. Both body weight and waist circumference (WC) increased with age. From age 25 years to baseline survey (mean age 45.2±6.5), the mean weight change per 5-year was (1.70±2.63) kg for men and (1.27±2.10) kg for women. From baseline survey to re-survey (53.2±6.5), the mean changes per 5-year for body weight were (1.12±2.61) kg for men and (0.90±2.54) kg for women; and that for WC was (3.20±3.79) cm for men and (3.83±3.85) cm for women. Among women, low educational level was consistently associated with higher body mass index (BMI) and WC at age 25 years, baseline survey and re-survey. Among men, low educational level was associated with higher BMI at age 25 years. At baseline survey and re-survey, the educational level in men was not statistically associated with BMI; but men who completed junior or senior high school showed slight higher WC and increase of WC from baseline survey to re-survey than other male participants. Conclusions: Body weight and WC increased with age for both men and women. The associations of educational level with BMI and WC were different between men and women.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Escolaridade , Obesidade/etnologia , Circunferência da Cintura/etnologia , Adulto , Estatura , Peso Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo
17.
Animal ; 13(4): 777-783, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30139413

RESUMO

ß-Casomorphin is an opioid-like bioactive peptide derived from ß-casein of milk that plays a crucial role in modulating animal's feed intake, growth, nutrient utilization and immunity. However, the effect of ß-casomorphin on lipid metabolism in chickens and its mechanism remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ß-casomorphin on fat deposition in broiler chickens and explore its mechanism of action. A total of 120 21-day-old Arbor Acres male broilers (747.94±8.85 g) was chosen and randomly divided into four groups with six replicates of five birds per replicate. Three groups of broilers were injected with 0.1, 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg BW of ß-casomorphin in 1 ml saline for 7 days, whereas the control group received 1 ml saline only. The results showed that subcutaneous administration of ß-casomorphin to broiler chickens increased average daily gain, average daily feed intake and fat deposition, and decreased feed : gain ratio (P<0.05). The activity of malate dehydrogenase in the pectoral muscle, liver and abdominal adipose tissue was also increased along with the concentrations of insulin, very-low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride in the plasma (P<0.05). The activity of hormone-sensitive lipase in the liver and abdominal adipose tissue and the concentration of glucagon in the plasma were decreased by injection with ß-casomorphin (P<0.05). Affymetrix gene chip analysis revealed that administering 1.0 mg/kg BW ß-casomorphin caused differential expression of 168 genes in the liver with a minimum of fourfold difference. Of those, 37 genes are directly involved in lipid metabolism with 18 up-regulated genes such as very low density lipoprotein receptor gene and fatty acid synthase gene, and 19 down-regulated genes such as lipoprotein lipase gene and low density lipoprotein receptor gene. In conclusion, ß-casomorphin increased growth performance and fat deposition of broilers. Regulation of fat deposition by ß-casomorphin appears to take place through changes in hormone secretion and enzyme activities by controlling the gene expression of lipid metabolism and feed intake, increasing fat synthesis and deposition.


Assuntos
Gordura Abdominal/fisiologia , Galinhas , Endorfinas/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Gordura Abdominal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal , Animais , Endorfinas/administração & dosagem , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Insulina/metabolismo , Fígado/enzimologia , Malato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
18.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(12): 1533-1540, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062911

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the association of BMI and waist circumference (WC) with metabolic risk factors, and confirm the appropriate cut-off points of BMI and WC among Chinese adults. Methods: After excluding participants with missing or extreme measurement values, as well as individuals with self-reported histories of cancer, a total of 501 201 adults in baseline and 19 201 adults in the second re-survey from the China Kadoorie Biobank were included. The associations of BMI and WC with metabolic risk factors were estimated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted to assess the appropriate cut-off values of BMI and WC to predict the risk of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and clustering of risk factors. Results: The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and clustering of risk factors all presented ascending trends with the increasing levels of BMI or WC. Defined as the points on the ROC curve where Youden's index reached the highest, the appropriate overweight cut-off points of BMI were around 24.0 kg/m(2) both in men and women, and the points of WC were around 85 cm in men and 80 to 85 cm in women. With specificity 90% for identification of risk factors, the appropriate obese cut-off points of BMI were around 28.0 kg/m(2) both in men and women, with the range of 27.0 to 28.9 kg/m(2). Conclusions: The cut-off points for overweight and obesity recommended by Coorperative Meta-analysis Group of China Obesity Task Force was verified in the large sample survey conducted more recently. The cut-off points of BMI were 24.0 and 28.0 kg/m(2) for overweight and obesity, and the cut-off point of WC was 85 cm in men and 80 to 85 cm in women for central obesity.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Hipertensão , Obesidade , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto , China , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Curva ROC , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
19.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(12): 1541-1547, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062912

RESUMO

Objective: To examine the association of BMI with major chronic diseases morbidity and all-cause mortality in Chinese adults. Methods: This study is based on China Kadoorie Biobank. Anthropometric indexes were objectively measured at the baseline survey during 2004-2008. After excluding participants with heart disease, stroke, cancer, COPD and diabetes, 428 113 participants aged 30 to 79 years were included in the analysis. Cox regression models were used to investigate the associations of BMI and waist circumference with incidence of major chronic diseases (including cardiovascular disease, cancer, COPD, and type 2 diabetes) and all-cause mortality. Results: Over an average of 10 years, 131 454 participants developed any one of major chronic diseases. A total of 26 892 all-cause deaths were reported. The risk of major chronic diseases increased with BMI. Compared with normal BMI (18.5-24.0 kg/m(2)), the HR (95%CI) of overweight (BMI 24.0-28.0 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI≥28.0 kg/m(2)) were 1.26 (95%CI: 1.24-1.27) and 1.59 (95%CI: 1.57-1.62) respectively. Underweight and obesity were both associated with risk of all-cause mortality. Waist circumference was positively associated with risk of major chronic diseases and all-cause mortality. According to recommended cut-off points of BMI and waist circumference for Chinese adults, maintaining a healthy body weight would prevent 12% incident cases of major chronic diseases. Conclusion: General and central obesity were risk factors for major chronic disease among Chinese adults.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Neoplasias , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
20.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 39(12): 1537-1543, 2018 Dec 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572374

RESUMO

Objective: To examine the associations between family history of major chronic diseases and healthy lifestyle in adults in China. Methods: Data were from the baseline and second survey of China Kadoorie Biobank study, which were conducted during 2004-2008 and 2013-2014, respectively. After excluding participants with self-reported histories of coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer or diabetes, a total of 461 213 adults from baseline survey and 20 583 adults from second survey were included in the current study. Participants who reported a family history of acute myocardial infarction, stroke, cancer, or diabetes of any first-degree relative (i.e., biological father, mother, or siblings) were defined as having a family history of major chronic diseases. Healthy lifestyles were defined as current nonsmoking, non-excessive alcohol drinking, eating vegetables and fruits daily, upper quarter of physical activity level, body mass index (BMI) of (18.5-23.9) kg/m(2), and waist- to-hip ratio (WHR) <0.90 (man)/<0.85 (women). Results: At baseline survey, 36.5% of the participants had family history of major chronic diseases. Proportions of the above six healthy lifestyles were 70.5%, 93.0%, 18.0%, 25.0%, 53.4%, and 43.5%, respectively. Compared with participants without family history, the proportions of current nonsmoking, non-excessive drinking, normal BMI, and normal WHR were lower in participants with family history of major chronic diseases, while the proportions of eating vegetables and fruits daily, and being physically active, were higher. In general, the absolute differences in these proportions between participants with and without a family history were only slight. Similar results were observed when other family history status (the type or number of disease, the category or number of affected family members) were analysed. The association between family history of major chronic diseases and healthy lifestyles was consistently observed in the second survey 10 years later. Conclusion: In Chinese population, adults with family history of major chronic diseases did not adopt healthier lifestyles.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/etnologia , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Relação Cintura-Quadril , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
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