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1.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2021: 9924542, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602859

RESUMO

Compared with other deadly diseases, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is highly infectious with a relatively low mortality rate. Although critical cases account for only 5% of cases, the mortality rate for the same is nearly 50%. Therefore, the key to the COVID-19 treatment is to effectively treat severe patients and reduce the transition from severe to critical cases. A retrospective study was carried out to evaluate outcomes of treatment in patients with severe and critical COVID-19 admitted to a COVID-19 special hospital in Wuhan, China. A total of 75 severe and critical COVID-19 patients were admitted and treated with immunomodulation as the main strategy combined with anti-inflammatory therapy and appropriate anticoagulation. Leukocyte levels in patients with 7-14 days of onset to diagnosis were significantly lower than in those with >14 days. Higher levels of globulin and D-dimer and lower lymphocyte levels were found in the older age group (>65 years) than in the middle-aged group (50-64 years). Patients with comorbidity had higher levels of inflammatory indicators. After treatment, 65 (86.67%) patients were cured, 7 (9.33%) had improved, and 3 (4.00%) had died. Median hospitalization duration was 23 days. Fatal cases showed continuously increased levels of globulin, dehydrogenase (LDH), hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), D-dimer, and cytokines during treatment. Time from onset to diagnosis, age, and comorbidity are important influencing factors on treatment effects. The occurrence of immunosuppression, "cytokine storm," and thrombosis may be an important cause of death in severely infected cases. In conclusion, high cure rate and low mortality suggested that immunomodulation combined with anti-inflammatory therapy and appropriate anticoagulant therapy is a good strategy for treatment of patients with severe and critical COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , COVID-19/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
2.
Curr Microbiol ; 78(10): 3597-3608, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350485

RESUMO

As the main pathogen threatening human and animal health, viruses can affect the immunity and metabolism of bodies. There are innate microbial barriers in the digestive tract of the body to preserve the homeostasis of the animal body, which directly or indirectly influences the host defence against viral infection. Understanding the interaction between viruses and intestinal microbiota or probiotics is helpful to study the pathogenesis of diseases. Here, we review recent studies on the interaction mechanism between intestinal microbiota and viruses. The interaction can be divided into two aspects: inhibition of viral infection by microbiota and promotion of viral infection by microbiota. The treatment of viral infection by probiotics is summarized.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Probióticos , Vírus , Animais , Trato Gastrointestinal , Humanos
3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 696664, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409009

RESUMO

Since severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) began to spread in late 2019, laboratories around the world have widely used whole genome sequencing (WGS) to continuously monitor the changes in the viral genes and discovered multiple subtypes or branches evolved from SARS-CoV-2. Recently, several novel SARS-CoV-2 variants have been found to be more transmissible. They may affect the immune response caused by vaccines and natural infections and reduce the sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies. We analyze the distribution characteristics of prevalent SARS-CoV-2 variants and the frequency of mutant sites based on the data available from GISAID and PANGO by R 4.0.2 and ArcGIS 10.2. Our analysis suggests that B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1 are more easily spreading than other variants, and the key mutations of S protein, including N501Y, E484K, and K417N/T, have high mutant frequencies, which may have become the main genotypes for the spread of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Antivirais , Humanos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus
4.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198909

RESUMO

Harmful fungi in nature not only cause diseases in plants, but also fungal infection and poisoning when people and animals eat food derived from crops contaminated with them. Unfortunately, such fungi are becoming increasingly more resistant to traditional synthetic antifungal drugs, which can make prevention and control work increasingly more difficult to achieve. This means they are potentially very harmful to human health and lifestyle. Antifungal peptides are natural substances produced by organisms to defend themselves against harmful fungi. As a result, they have become an important research object to help deal with harmful fungi and overcome their drug resistance. Moreover, they are expected to be developed into new therapeutic drugs against drug-resistant fungi in clinical application. This review focuses on antifungal peptides that have been isolated from bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms to date. Their antifungal activity and factors affecting it are outlined in terms of their antibacterial spectra and effects. The toxic effects of the antifungal peptides and their common solutions are mentioned. The mechanisms of action of the antifungal peptides are described according to their action pathways. The work provides a useful reference for further clinical research and the development of safe antifungal drugs that have high efficiencies and broad application spectra.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Micoses/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Animais , Antifúngicos/farmacocinética , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacocinética , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Farmacorresistência Fúngica Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Humanos
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 679560, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34163479

RESUMO

Brucella abortus is an important zoonotic pathogen that causes severe economic loss to husbandry and poses a threat to human health. The B. abortus A19 live vaccine has been extensively used to prevent bovine brucellosis in China. However, it is difficult to distinguish the serological response induced by A19 from that induced by natural infection. In this study, a novel genetically marked vaccine, A19ΔvirB12, was generated and evaluated. The results indicated that A19ΔvirB12 was able to provide effective protection against B. abortus 2308 (S2308) challenge in mice. Furthermore, the safety and protective efficacy of A19ΔvirB12 have been confirmed in natural host cattle. Additionally, the VirB12 protein allowed for serological differentiation between the S2308 challenge/natural infection and A19ΔvirB12 vaccination. However, previous studies have found that the accuracy of the serological detection based on VirB12 needs to be improved. Therefore, we attempted to identify potential supplementary antigens with differential diagnostic functions by combining label-free quantitative proteomics and protein chip technology. Twenty-six proteins identified only in S2308 were screened; among them, five proteins were considered as potential supplementary antigens. Thus, the accuracy of the differential diagnosis between A19ΔvirB12 immunization and field infection may be improved through multi-antigen detection. In addition, we explored the possible attenuation factors of Brucella vaccine strain. Nine virulence factors were downregulated in A19ΔvirB12. The downregulation pathways of A19ΔvirB12 were significantly enriched in quorum sensing, ATP-binding cassette transporter, and metabolism. Several proteins related to cell division were significantly downregulated, while some proteins involved in transcription were upregulated in S2308. In conclusion, our results contribute to the control and eradication of brucellosis and provide insights into the mechanisms underlying the attenuation of A19ΔvirB12.

6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(4): e0009337, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the three major arthropod-borne viruses, dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and zika virus (ZIKV) are posing a growing threat to global public health and socioeconomic development. Our study aimed to systematically review the global seroprevalences of these arboviruses from existing publications. METHODS: Articles published between Jan 01, 2000 and Dec 31, 2019 in the databases of Embase, Pubmed and Web of Science were searched and collected. Countries or areas with known local presence of Aedes vector mosquitoes were included. Random effects model was utilized to estimate the pooled seroprevalences and the proportion of inapparent infection. RESULTS: Out of 1375, a total of 133 articles involving 176,001 subjects were included for our analysis. The pooled seroprevalences of DENV, CHIKV and ZIKV were 38%, 25% and 18%, respectively; and their corresponding proportions of inapparent infections were 80%, 40% and 50%. The South-East Asia Region had the highest seroprevalences of DENV and CHIKV, while the Region of the Americas had the highest seroprevalence of ZIKV. The seroprevalences of DENV and CHIKV were similar when comparing developed and developing countries, urban and rural areas, or among different populations. In addition, we observed a decreased global seroprevalences in the new decade (2010-2019) comparing to the decade before (2000-2009) for CHIKV. For ZIKV, the positive rates tested with the nucleic acid detection method were lower than those tested with the antibody detection method. Lastly, numerous cases of dual seropositivity for CHIKV and DENV were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed a varied prevalence of arbovirus infections in different geographical regions and countries, and the inapparent infection accounted an unneglected portion of infections that requires more attention. This study will shed lights on our understanding of the true burden of arbovirus infections and promote appropriate vaccination in the future.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Animais , Febre de Chikungunya/transmissão , Febre de Chikungunya/virologia , Vírus Chikungunya/fisiologia , Dengue/transmissão , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/fisiologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Zika virus/fisiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
7.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 112, 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dogs are domesticated wolves. Change of living environment, such as diet and veterinary care may affect the gut bacterial flora of dogs. The aim of this study was to assess the gut bacterial diversity and function in dogs compared with captive wolves. We surveyed the gut bacterial diversity of 27 domestic dogs, which were fed commercial dog food, and 31 wolves, which were fed uncooked meat, by 16S rRNA sequencing. In addition, we collected fecal samples from 5 dogs and 5 wolves for shotgun metagenomic sequencing to explore changes in the functions of their gut microbiome. RESULTS: Differences in the abundance of core bacterial genera were observed between dogs and wolves. Together with shotgun metagenomics, the gut microbiome of dogs was found to be enriched in bacteria resistant to clinical drugs (P < 0.001), while wolves were enriched in bacteria resistant to antibiotics used in livestock (P < 0.001). In addition, a higher abundance of putative α-amylase genes (P < 0.05; P < 0.01) was observed in the dog samples. CONCLUSIONS: Living environment of dogs and domestic wolves has led to increased numbers of bacteria with antibiotic resistance genes, with exposure to antibiotics through direct and indirect methods. In addition, the living environment of dogs has allowed the adaptation of their microbiota to a starch-rich diet. These observations align with a domestic lifestyle for domestic dogs and captive wolves, which might have consequences for public health.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Cães/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lobos/microbiologia , Amilases/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Dieta/veterinária , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Amido
8.
J Proteome Res ; 20(5): 2224-2239, 2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666082

RESUMO

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has posed a serious threat to global public health. The mechanism of pathogenesis and the host immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection are largely unknown. In the present study, we applied a quantitative proteomic technology to identify and quantify the ubiquitination changes that occur in both the virus and the Vero E6 cells during SARS-CoV-2 infection. By applying label-free, quantitative liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry proteomics, 8943 lysine ubiquitination sites on 3086 proteins were identified, of which 138 sites on 104 proteins were quantified as significantly upregulated, while 828 sites on 447 proteins were downregulated at 72 h post-infection. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that SARS-CoV-2 infection might modulate host immune responses through the ubiquitination of important proteins, including USP5, IQGAP1, TRIM28, and Hsp90. Ubiquitination modification was also observed on 11 SAR-CoV-2 proteins, including proteins involved in virus replication and inhibition of the host innate immune response. Our study provides new insights into the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and the host as well as potential targets for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Proteoma , Humanos , Proteoma/genética , Proteômica , SARS-CoV-2 , Ubiquitina
9.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 35: 116055, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607487

RESUMO

African swine fever (ASF) is a viral disease in swine that results in high mortality in domestic pigs and causes considerable economic losses. Currently, there is no effective vaccine or drugs available for treatment. Identification of new anti-ASFV drugs is urgently needed. Here, the pS273R protein of the African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a specific SUMO-1-like cysteine protease that plays an important role in its replication process. To inhibit virus replication and improve treatment options, a set of small-molecule compounds, targeted inhibitors against the ASFV pS273R protease, were obtained through molecular screening by homology modeling and molecular docking based on structural information of pS273R. Our results clearly demonstrated that the 14th carbon atom of the cysteinase inhibitor E-64 could form one CS covalent bond with the Cys 232 amino acid of the pS273R protease and seven additional hydrogen bonds to maintain a stable binding state. Simultaneously, cell viability, immunophenotyping, and in vitro enzyme activity inhibition assays were performed to comprehensively evaluate E-64 characteristics. Our findings demonstrated that 4 mmol/L E-64 could effectively inhibit the enzyme activity center of the pS273R protease by preventing pS273R protease from lysing pp62, while promoting the upregulation of immune-related cytokines at the transcription level. Moreover, cell viability results revealed that 4 mmol/L E-64 was not cytotoxic. Taken together, we identified a novel strategy to potentially prevent ASFV infection in pigs by blocking the activity of pS273R protease with a small-molecule inhibitor.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/enzimologia , Cisteína Proteases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Cisteína Proteinase/farmacologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Proteínas Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Cisteína Proteinase/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Suínos , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
J Bacteriol ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558394

RESUMO

Coxiella burnetii strains carry one of four large, conserved, autonomously replicating plasmids (QpH1, QpRS, QpDV, and QpDG) or a QpRS-like chromosomally integrated sequence of unknown function. Here we report the characterization of the QpH1 plasmid of C. burnetii Nine Mile phase II by making QpH1-deficient strains. A shuttle vector pQGK containing the CBUA0036-0039a region (predicted as being required for the QpH1 maintenance) was constructed. The pQGK vector can be stably transformed into the Nine Mile II and maintained at a similar low copy like QpH1. Importantly, transformation with pQGK cured the endogenous QpH1 due to plasmid incompatibility. Compared to a Nine Mile II transformant of a RSF1010-ori based vector, the pQGK transformant shows a similar growth curve in both axenic media and Buffalo green monkey kidney cells, a variable growth defect in macrophage-like THP-1 cells depending on the origin of inoculum, and dramatically reduced ability of colonizing wild-type bone marrow-derived murine macrophages. Furthermore, we found CBUA0037-0039 ORFs are essential for plasmid maintenance, and CBUA0037-0038 ORFs account for plasmid compatibility. And plasmid-deficient C. burnetii can be isolated by using CBUA0037 or -0038 deletion vectors. Furthermore, QpH1-deficient C. burnetii strains caused a lesser extent of splenomegaly in SCID mice but, intriguingly, they had significant growth in SCID mouse-sourced macrophages. Taken together, our data suggest that QpH1 encodes factor(s) essential for colonizing murine, not human, macrophages. This study suggests a critical role of QpH1 for C. burnetii persistence in rodents and expands the toolkit for the genetic studies in C. burnetii Author summary All C. burnetii isolates carry one of four large, conserved, autonomously replicating plasmids or a plasmid-like chromosomally integrated sequence. The plasmid is a candidate virulence factor of unknown function. Here we describe the construction of novel shuttle vectors that allow making plasmid-deficient C. burnetii mutants. With this plasmid-curing approach, we characterized the role of the QpH1 plasmid in in vitro and in vivo C. burnetii infection models. We found that the plasmid plays a critical role for C. burnetii growth in murine macrophages. Our work suggests an essential role of the QpH1 plasmid for the acquisition of colonizing capability in rodents by C. burnetii This study represents a major step toward unravelling the mystery of the C. burnetii cryptic plasmids.

11.
J Vet Sci ; 22(1): e4, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microsporum canis is a zoonotic disease that can cause dermatophytosis in animals and humans. OBJECTIVES: In clinical practice, ketoconazole (KTZ) and other imidazole drugs are commonly used to treat M. canis infection, but its molecular mechanism is not completely understood. The antifungal mechanism of KTZ needs to be studied in detail. METHODS: In this study, one strain of fungi was isolated from a canine suffering with clinical dermatosis and confirmed as M. canis by morphological observation and sequencing analysis. The clinically isolated M. canis was treated with KTZ and transcriptome sequencing was performed to identify differentially expressed genes in M. canis exposed to KTZ compared with those unexposed thereto. RESULTS: At half-inhibitory concentration (½MIC), compared with the control group, 453 genes were significantly up-regulated and 326 genes were significantly down-regulated (p < 0.05). Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis verified the transcriptome results of RNA sequencing. Gene ontology enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis revealed that the 3 pathways of RNA polymerase, steroid biosynthesis, and ribosome biogenesis in eukaryotes are closely related to the antifungal mechanism of KTZ. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that KTZ may change cell membrane permeability, destroy the cell wall, and inhibit mitosis and transcriptional regulation through CYP51, SQL, ERG6, ATM, ABCB1, SC, KER33, RPA1, and RNP genes in the 3 pathways. This study provides a new theoretical basis for the effective control of M. canis infection and the effect of KTZ on fungi.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Dermatomicoses/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cetoconazol/farmacologia , Microsporum/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma , Animais , Dermatomicoses/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Microsporum/genética
12.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(2): 747-757, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696554

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a natural epidemic zoonotic disease. Liaoning province, north-east of China, has been among the top 10 provinces with highest brucellosis incidence. In this study, the spatial and temporal distribution of brucellosis in Liaoning Province from 2006 through 2017 was analysed using the Bayesian theory of space-time modelling. The study found that in Liaoning Province, (a) all regions of the entire study area were stable counties; (b) the risk of brucellosis declined slowly with time without an obvious trend; (c) the declining trend of disease risk in three sub-hot-spot counties was faster than the overall trend, whereas in other counties, the trend was similar to the overall trend. Furthermore, the time and spatial trends of brucellosis incidence in Liaoning Province were calculated and analysed. These results may provide a theoretical and scientific basis for the public health department to develop targeted effective prevention and control measures for the disease.


Assuntos
Brucelose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Estações do Ano , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Adulto Jovem
13.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(2): 368-374, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543112

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a common zoonotic disease caused by Brucella and is an epidemic worldwide. Currently, the most effective way to prevent and control the disease in animals is to use live, attenuated vaccines A19 strain. In China, the live attenuated Brucella abortus vaccine is widely used in animal immunization. To detect and confirm which vaccine strain caused the infection, we developed a new method to distinguish A19 strain from non-A19 strains. By comparing the genomic sequences of A19 and wild strain 2,308, we identified signature sequences that are unique to A19. A PCR assay for specific A19 identification was developed based on the genetic marker ABC transporter permease gene. Samples from the outbreak patients were then analysed using the universal quantitative PCR and A19-specific PCR assay, and the A19 strain was successfully identified in them, providing pathogenic evidence of the vaccine-derived infection outbreak. This combined A19-specific differential diagnosis method can provide a means to distinguish between animal vaccine immunization, natural infection and human infection by the vaccine strain. This strategy also has applications in diagnosis, epidemiology and surveillance of A19-related immunizations or infections.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Brucelose , Brucella abortus/classificação , Brucella abortus/genética , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Animais , Vacina contra Brucelose/imunologia , Brucella abortus/imunologia , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , China , Surtos de Doenças , Genoma Bacteriano , Humanos , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/microbiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Atenuadas
15.
Mol Cell ; 80(3): 512-524.e5, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049228

RESUMO

CRISPR-Cas systems are bacterial anti-viral systems, and phages use anti-CRISPR proteins (Acrs) to inactivate these systems. Here, we report a novel mechanism by which AcrIF11 inhibits the type I-F CRISPR system. Our structural and biochemical studies demonstrate that AcrIF11 functions as a novel mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase (mART) to modify N250 of the Cas8f subunit, a residue required for recognition of the protospacer-adjacent motif, within the crRNA-guided surveillance (Csy) complex from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The AcrIF11-mediated ADP-ribosylation of the Csy complex results in complete loss of its double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) binding activity. Biochemical studies show that AcrIF11 requires, besides Cas8f, the Cas7.6f subunit for binding to and modifying the Csy complex. Our study not only reveals an unprecedented mechanism of type I CRISPR-Cas inhibition and the evolutionary arms race between phages and bacteria but also suggests an approach for designing highly potent regulatory tools in the future applications of type I CRISPR-Cas systems.


Assuntos
Proteínas Associadas a CRISPR/antagonistas & inibidores , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/fisiologia , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , ADP-Ribosilação/fisiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Bacteriófagos/genética , Proteínas Associadas a CRISPR/genética , Proteínas Associadas a CRISPR/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas/genética , Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , DNA/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , RNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/genética
16.
Am J Med Sci ; 360(1): 50-54, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have demonstrated that patients with non-O blood groups have a higher risk for venous thromboembolism than those with the O blood group. However, the effect of ABO blood groups on warfarin dose requirements in patients receiving anticoagulation in the Chinese Han population remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the influence of ABO blood groups on warfarin dose requirements in a Chinese Han population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in the First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College in South China. Three hundred and fifty-eight patients with a confirmed diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis or atrial fibrillation were included. The frequency of blood groups and warfarin dose requirements were determined. RESULTS: Of 358 patients with deep vein thrombosis or atrial fibrillation, 111 patients had blood group A (31.01%), 104 patients had blood group B (29.05%), 20 patients had blood group AB (5.59%) and 123 patients had blood group O (34.36%). The patients in the O blood group had lower warfarin dose requirements than those in the A, B and AB blood groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that patients with non-O blood groups require higher doses of warfarin.


Assuntos
Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia/genética , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 227, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insect vector transmitted pathogens from contaminated environments are a key potential risk for public health. Meanwhile, transmission by non-blood sucking flies needs to be considered. Sequencing and phylogenetic tree analyses were used to study African swine fever virus (ASFV) genes derived from flies collected from pig farms that were infected with ASFV. The major differential genes were analyzed the encoded proteins, particularly their conformation, physico-chemical features, and interactions identified by immunophenotyping. RESULTS: Results showed that the ASFV p72 and D117L genes from these non-blood sucking flies identified by morphology have high sequence similarity from ASFV genotype II strains, however, A179L is found in an independent cluster, with five amino acid substitutions; four of which are in a continuous sequence. Moreover, the binding of a BH3 peptide into a surface groove formed by α-helices of ASFV A179L from the non-blood sucking flies is consistent with that of representative ASFV genotype II strains, Georgia/2007.They only differ in the direction of spatial interaction of six conserved amino residues. Many hydrophilic amino residues are located at the canonical ligand-binding groove of A179L from flies, with hydrophobic amino residues located at the corresponding positions in A179L of the Georgia/2007.Furthermore, analysis of protein interactions by immunophenotyping revealed that both A179Ls have similar roles in regulating autophagy and apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the main genes that differ between ASFV from flies and Georgia/2007 were similar in structure and protein interaction, while exhibiting differences in physico-chemical features and amino acid variations. Understanding the mechanical transmission characteristics of non-blood sucking flies is important.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/genética , Febre Suína Africana/transmissão , Dípteros/virologia , Meio Ambiente , Genes Virais/genética , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Substituição de Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , Suínos
18.
Front Public Health ; 8: 198, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671007

RESUMO

This study was performed to describe the epidemiologic characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and explore risk factors for severe infection. Data of all 131 confirmed cases in Tianjin before February 20 were collected. By February 20, a total of 14/16 districts reported COVID-19 cases, with Baodi district reporting the most cases (n = 56). A total of 22 (16.8%) cases had a Wuhan-related exposure. Fever was the most common symptom (82.4%). The median duration of symptom onset to treatment was [1.0 (0.0-4.0) days], the duration of symptom onset to isolation [2.0 (0.0-6.0) days], and the duration of symptom onset to diagnosis [5.0 (2.0-8.0) days]. The analysis of the transmission chain showed two cluster infections with 62 cases infected. Transmission from a family member constituted 42%, usually at the end of transmission chain. Compared with patients with non-severe infections, patients with severe infections were more likely to be male (46.2 vs. 77.3%, P = 0.009) and had a Wuhan-related exposure (14.0 vs. 40.9%, P = 0.004). Multivariate logistic regression showed that male (OR 3.913, 95% CI 1.206, 12.696; P = 0.023) was an independent risk factor for severe infection. This study provides evidence on the epidemic of COVID-19 by analyzing the epidemiological characteristics of confirmed cases in Tianjin. Self-quarantine at an outbreak's early stage, especially for those with high-risk exposures, is conducive to prevent the transmission of infection. Further investigation is needed to confirm the risk factors for severe COVID-19 infection and investigate the mechanisms involved.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Febre/etiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Sexuais
19.
Acta Trop ; 211: 105602, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598922

RESUMO

African swine fever (ASF) is a major threat to domestic pigs and wild boars. Since 2018, ASF outbreaks have been ongoing in China. As of August 3, 2019, a total of 151 ASF clusters of outbreaks reported in China have caused severe economic losses for the industry, the pig farmers and pork producers, due to the lack of an efficacious vaccine. The present study aims to analyze the epidemiologic characteristics of ASF outbreak that occurred in several regions across China during the period August 2018- August 2019. Particular focus was on the epidemic distribution, main transmission routes, incidence/fatality, impact on pig production capacity, and the main preventive measures adopted to mitigate the risk of ASF spread in pig farming systems by Chinese government. Results show that anthropogenic factors, spatial distribution, efficient measures taken by China,and good response timely in implementation of preventive measures are important on the transmission of ASF and these suggest that effective ASF risk management in China will require a comprehensive and integrated approach linking science and implemented by all relevant stakeholders. This provides an empirical basis to optimize current interventions as well as develop new tools and strategies to reduce the risk transmission of African swine fever virus (ASFV) to domestic pigs and wild boars.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/patogenicidade , Febre Suína Africana/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Geografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Sus scrofa/virologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Suínos
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