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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301073

RESUMO

Anthropogenic activities have caused extensive arsenic (As) contamination in soils. The role of biochar in the remediation of As-contaminated soils has been attracting attention lately. In this study, effects of straw biochar, iron oxide, and iron oxide-modified biochar on soil microbial community composition and soil chemical properties were tested in an As-contaminated soil. After 9 months of incubation, soil chemical properties and microbial communities were analyzed. Our results showed that biochar addition significantly increased soil pH value, soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration, and the ratio of soil carbon to nitrogen (soil C:N ratio) but decreased soil dissolved organic C. Adding iron oxide also increased soil pH value, while iron oxide-modified biochar decreased it. Interestingly, compared with the control, all treatments significantly decreased soil total microbial biomass and biomasses of soil bacteria, fungi, Actinomyces, and protozoa. In addition, significantly positive correlations were found between soil pH and soil total microbial biomass as well as bacterial, Actinomyces, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal biomass. There were negative relationships between SOC, soil C:N ratio, and all soil microbial biomass indicators in all treatments. These results indicated that biochar and iron oxide-modified biochar affected soil microbial community composition by altering the soil C:N ratio, but iron oxide affected it via adjusting soil pH. Furthermore, the iron oxide-modified biochar effects on soil microbial community and soil chemical properties are not the same as the additive effects of biochar and iron oxide alone, and its effect on soil microbial community is regulated by the soil C:N ratio. These findings will help guide the development of remediation practices for As-contaminated soil using biochar.

2.
Small ; : e2000852, 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323489

RESUMO

Tuning bandgap and phases in the ternary 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) alloys has opened up unexpected opportunities to engineer optoelectronic properties and explore potential applications. In this work, a salt-assisted chemical deposition vapor (CVD) growth strategy is reported for the creation of high-quality monolayer W1- x Rex S2 alloys to fulfill a readily phase control from 1H to DT by changing the ratio of Re and W precursors. The structures and chemical compositions of doping alloys are confirmed by combining atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy-annular dark field imaging with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, matching well with the calculated results. The field-effect transistors (FETs) devices fabricated based on 1H-W0.9 Re0.1 S2 monolayer exhibit a n-type semiconducting behavior with the mobility of 0.4 cm2 V-1 s-1 . More importantly, the FETs show high-performance responsivity with a value of 17 µA W-1 in air, which is superior to that of monolayer CVD-grown WS2 . This work paves the way toward synthesizing monolayer ternary alloys with controlled phases for potential optoelectronic applications.

4.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 34(2): e23066, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a complicated and polygenic inheritance disease, and its prevalence increases worldwide. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) identified a significant association of single nucleotide polymorphism with asthma in the Japanese population. This study aimed to examine the association of GWAS-supported noncoding area loci, namely rs404860, rs3117098, and rs7775228, with asthma in Chinese Zhuang population. METHODS: A case-control study involving 223 individuals, comprising 123 patients with asthma and 100 healthy controls, was conducted. Genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/ligase detection reaction assay. The association between gene polymorphisms and asthma risk was calculated by logistic regression analysis using different genetic models through comparisons of alleles (A vs a), homozygote genotypes (AA vs aa), heterozygote genotypes (Aa vs aa), dominant models (AA+Aa vs aa), and recessive models (AA vs. Aa+aa). RESULTS: The distribution of the genotype frequency of rs3117098 was statistically different between the case and control groups. For rs3117098, significant associations were observed through comparisons of alleles (OR: 1.832, 95% CI: 1.048-3.204, P = .034) and dominant models (OR: 2.065, 95% CI: 1.001-4.260, P = .050). The statistical analysis showed no significant difference for loci rs404860 and rs7775228 between patients with asthma and controls. CONCLUSION: rs3117098 may be the risk factor for asthma in Chinese Zhuang population.

5.
J Appl Toxicol ; 40(5): 567-577, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869448

RESUMO

Due to excellent metal-insulator transition property, vanadium dioxide nanoparticles (VO2 NPs)-based nanomaterials are extensively studied and applied in various fields, and thus draw safety concerns of VO2 NPs exposure through various routes. Herein, the cytotoxicity of VO2 NPs (N-VO2 ) and titanium dioxide-coated VO2 NPs (T-VO2 ) to typical human lung cell lines (A549 and BEAS-2B) was studied by using a series of biological assays. It was found that both VO2 NPs induced a dose-dependent cytotoxicity, and the two cell lines displayed similar sensitivity to VO2 NPs. Under the same conditions, T-VO2 NPs showed slightly lower cytotoxicity than N-VO2 in both cells, indicating the surface coating of titanium dioxide mitigated the toxicity of VO2 NPs. Titanium dioxide coating changed the surface property of VO2 NPs and reduced the vanadium release of particles, and thus helped lowing the toxicity of VO2 NPs. The induced cell viability loss was attributed to apoptosis and proliferation inhibition, which were supported by the assays of apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane damage, caspase-3 level, and cell cycle arrest. The oxidative stress, i.e., enhanced reactive oxygen species generation and suppressed reduced glutathione , in A549 and BEAS-2B cells was one of the major mechanisms of the cytotoxicity of VO2 NPs. These findings provide safety guidance for the practical applications of vanadium dioxide-based materials.

6.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(9): 3558-3562, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863717

RESUMO

Albomycin δ2 is a sulfur-containing sideromycin natural product that shows potent antibacterial activity against clinically important pathogens. The l-serine-thioheptose dipeptide partial structure, known as SB-217452, has been found to be the active seryl-tRNA synthetase inhibitor component of albomycin δ2 . Herein, it is demonstrated that AbmF catalyzes condensation between the 6'-amino-4'-thionucleoside with the d-ribo configuration and seryl-adenylate supplied by the serine adenylation activity of AbmK. Formation of the dipeptide is followed by C3'-epimerization to produce SB-217452 with the d-xylo configuration, which is catalyzed by the radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine enzyme AbmJ. Gene deletion suggests that AbmC is involved in peptide assembly linking SB-217452 with the siderophore moiety. This study establishes how the albomycin biosynthetic machinery generates its antimicrobial component SB-217452.

7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(19): 4225-4233, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872703

RESUMO

Nelumbinis Plumula has the traditional sedative effect,but its mechanism is unclear. In this study,the relationship between traditional sedative effect and hypnotic effect of Nelumbinis Plumula was taken as the starting point to study the hypnotic mechanism of the major medicinal components in Nelumbinis Plumula by the network pharmacology method. Targets of active Nelumbinis Plumula alkaloids were screened by Swiss Target Prediction server,TCMSP and BATMAN-TCM. Targets of hypnotic drugs approved by FDA were screened from Drug Bank,OMIM,TTD databases. The common targets were screened by GO and KEGG pathways. Cytoscape 3. 7. 1 software was used to construct the network of " active component-target-pathway-disease". The results of network analysis showed that 21 active compounds were associated with 44 targets and 28 pathways. Among them,21 compounds,35 targets and 15 pathways were predicted to be related to sedative hypnosis. Nelumbinis Plumula showed the hypnotic effect by acting on neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway,regulation of actin cytoskeleton pathway,calcium signaling pathway,cholinergic synapse pathway.This study preliminarily revealed the potential active compounds and possible mechanisms of traditional sedative effect of Nelumbinis Plumula,which provided a theoretical basis for further experimental studies on medicinal materials and its mechanisms.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Hipnóticos e Sedativos
8.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 3202838, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871936

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the effects of cardiac rehabilitation on exercise tolerance and cardiac function in heart failure patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Methods: Randomized controlled trials were initially identified from systematic reviews of the literature about cardiac rehabilitation and heart failure patients with CRT. We undertook updated literature searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, EMBASE, CBM, CNKI, and Wanfang databases until July 1, 2017. STATA12.0 software was used. Results: Four randomized controlled studies were included. The total sample size was 157 patients, including 77 in the control group. Cardiac rehabilitation treatment affected the peak VO2 in heart failure patients with CRT (P heterogeneity=0.491, I 2 = 0%). The results lacked heterogeneity, and the data were merged in a fixed-effects model (WMD = 2.17 ml/kg/min, 95% CI (1.42, 2.92), P < 0.001). The peak VO2 was significantly higher in the cardiac rehabilitation group than in the control group. The sensitivity analysis showed that the results of the meta-analysis were robust. Cardiac rehabilitation treatment affected LVEF in heart failure patients with CRT (P heterogeneity=0.064, I 2 = 63.6%); the heterogeneity among the various research results meant that the data were merged in a random-effects model (WMD = 4.75%, 95% CI (1.53, 7.97), P=0.004). The LVEF was significantly higher in the cardiac rehabilitation group than in the control group. The sources of heterogeneity were analyzed, and it was found that one of the studies was the source of significant heterogeneity. After the elimination of that study, the data were reanalyzed, and the heterogeneity was significantly reduced. There were still significant differences in the WMD and 95% CI. Conclusion: Cardiac rehabilitation can improve exercise tolerance and cardiac function in heart failure patients with CRT. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether these beneficial effects of cardiac rehabilitation may translate into an improvement in long-term clinical outcomes among these patients.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Cardíaca/métodos , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/métodos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Tolerância ao Exercício , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1080, 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current studies regarding glucocorticosteroid treatment of influenza have only estimated risk of critical illness or death which can be easily confounded by timing of treatment administration. We used severe acute respiratory infection (sARI) as an endpoint and investigated risk associated with receiving glucocorticosteroids before sARI onset. METHODS: sARI cases were defined as influenza-like illness (ILI) with pH1N1 infection and respiratory distress. Controls were defined as pH1N1 cases other than sARI and randomly selected from the community. We compared glucocorticosteroids and other medications used before sARI onset using a matched case control study adjusted for age group as well as underlying disease. Time-dependent risk and dose responses at different time periods over the course of sARI cases were also examined. RESULTS: Of the sARI cases, 34% received glucocorticosteroids before sARI onset compared to 3.8% of controls during equivalent days (ORM-H = 17,95%CI = 2.1-135). Receiving glucocorticosteroids before sARI onset increased risk of developing subsequent critical illness or death (ORM-H = 5.7,95%CI = 1.6-20.2), and the ORM-H increased from 5.7 to 8.5 for continued glucocorticosteroid use after sARI onset. However, only receiving glucocorticosteroids after sARI onset did not increase risk of severe illness (ORM-H = 1.1,95%CI = 0.3-4.6). Each increase in glucocorticosteroids dose of 1 mg/kg/day before sARI onset resulted in an increase of 0.62 (R2 = 0.87) in the pMEWS score at the time of sARI onset. CONCLUSIONS: Early glucocorticosteroid treatment increased risk of sARI and subsequent critical illness or death; however, only receiving glucocorticosteroids after sARI onset did not increase risk of severe illness.


Assuntos
Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/fisiologia , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Hospitalização , Humanos , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Respiratórias/etiologia , Risco , Adulto Jovem
10.
ISA Trans ; 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585670

RESUMO

In order to guarantee the system reliability and enhance post-fault maintenance efficiency of inverters, this paper presents an current observer-based online open-switch fault diagnosis method for the voltage-source inverters (VSI). Analyzing the state space model of VSI when fault occurs, a state observer of the system is built to estimate phase currents. Once the open-switch fault occurs, the current residual vector between the estimated currents on observer and the measured currents, and fault diagnosis is realized by exploiting the featured amplitude and phase of the current residual vector. In order to realize on-line diagnosis with high reliability and speed, the average value of current residuals in a fundamental period is obtained and Clark transformation is performed so as to acquire vector angle. In addition, the sum of absolute values of measured currents is normalized to serve as the sign of fault occurrence. The simulation and experimental results show the effectiveness of proposed method.

11.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(10): 3303-3315, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621216

RESUMO

Urban greenspace, which serves as a place for residents to connect with nature and relax, provides important ecosystem services. Access to greenspace is often related to the socio-economic characteristics of residents, which received a lot attention from researchers and practitioners. Previous studies have mostly focused on single city to analyze the spatial relationship between greenspace distribution and residents' characteristics. We conducted a meta-analysis with global studies. The objectives were to classify findings from different cases and investigate the impacts from the location of research area, indicator and analytical method, and summarized major factors influen-cing the relationship between greenspace distribution and residents' characteristics. The results showed that more than half of the cases (58.2%) found that the socially advantaged population benefited more from greenspace. About a quarter cases (25.4%) revealed the opposite, that was, the disadvantaged population benefited more from greenspace. The remaining case studies (16.4%) did not find significant correlation between them. The studies reviewed here were diverse in terms of scale, indicator selection, and analytical method. Overall, we found no connection between finding and the choice of scale/indicator/analytical method. The reviewed case studies were mostly conducted in cities of western countries, which differed in their development trajectories and urban characteristics from cities in China. To understand association between urban greenspace and residents' characteristics in China, we urged to carry out more local studies, which would potentially provide scientific evidence for building sustainable cities during rapid urbanization.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Urbanização , China , Cidades , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana
12.
Psychol Belg ; 59(1): 321-337, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497307

RESUMO

The present paper is the mission statement of the Control of Impulsive Action (Ctrl-ImpAct) Lab regarding Open Science. As early-career researchers (ECRs) in the lab, we first state our personal motivation to conduct research based on the principles of Open Science. We then describe how we incorporate four specific Open Science practices (i.e., Open Methodology, Open Data, Open Source, and Open Access) into our scientific workflow. In more detail, we explain how Open Science practices are embedded into the so-called 'co-pilot' system in our lab. The 'co-pilot' researcher is involved in all tasks of the 'pilot' researcher, that is designing a study, double-checking experimental and data analysis scripts, as well as writing the manuscript. The lab has set up this co-pilot system to increase transparency, reduce potential errors that could occur during the entire workflow, and to intensify collaborations between lab members. Finally, we discuss potential solutions for general problems that could arise when practicing Open Science.

13.
ACS Omega ; 4(9): 13896-13901, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497707

RESUMO

Humidity-control materials have attracted increasing attention because of energy savings and smart regulation of indoor comforts. The current research is a successive work to face challenges, such as poor performance, limitations for large-scale production, and surface contamination. Here, we report a smart humidity-control wall-brick manufactured from sepiolite using CaCl2 as an additive. Low-temperature sintering generated a super hygroscopic interior structure, and further silane modification produced bricks with superhydrophobic surfaces. These superhydrophobic surfaces can promote the moisture storage and prevent the CaCl2 solution from leaking even after the surface is wiped 100 times. Meanwhile, the superhydrophobic surfaces make the wall-bricks easy to clean; also, these materials possess antifouling and antifungal properties. The 24 h and saturated moisture adsorption-desorption contents reached 630 and 1700 g·m-2, respectively. Furthermore, a test was performed using model houses in a real environment, which indicates that the wall-bricks can narrow the daily indoor humidity fluctuations by more than 20% in both wet and dry seasons. The white wall-brick can also be dyed with different colors and thus shows promise for applications in interior decorations of houses.

15.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 317(3): L392-L401, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313617

RESUMO

Here we describe a novel method for studying the protein "interactome" in primary human cells and apply this method to investigate the effect of posttranslational protein modifications (PTMs) on the protein's functions. We created a novel "biomimetic microsystem platform" (Bio-MSP) to isolate the protein complexes in primary cells by covalently attaching purified His-tagged proteins to a solid microscale support. Using this Bio-MSP, we have analyzed the interactomes of unphosphorylated and phosphomimetic end-binding protein-3 (EB3) in endothelial cells. Pathway analysis of these interactomes demonstrated the novel role of EB3 phosphorylation at serine 162 in regulating the protein's function. We showed that phosphorylation "switches" the EB3 biological network to modulate cellular processes such as cell-to-cell adhesion whereas dephosphorylation of this site promotes cell proliferation. This novel technique provides a useful tool to study the role of PTMs or single point mutations in activating distinct signal transduction networks and thereby the biological function of the protein in health and disease.

16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(11)2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151283

RESUMO

In this paper, we propose a novel indoor passive localization approach called eigenspace-based DOA with direct-path recognition (ES-DPR), based on a DOA estimation algorithm with multiple omnidirectional antennas deployed in a uniform linear array (ULA). To address the multipath propagation interference problem in the indoor environments, we utilize the azimuth and RSS estimation results, which are calculated by using the eigenspace-based DOA (ES-DOA) algorithm, in a novel style. A direct-path bearing recognition algorithm is introduced to identify the real DOA of the signal source in different indoor environments, by combining the azimuth and RSS estimation with ensemble learning methods. Numerical simulations are conducted to verify the validity and superiority of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed ES-DPR method can achieve high resolution and has strong anti-noise capability in dealing with the multipath signals, and the direct-path recognition algorithm is reliable and robust in different indoor environments, even in undetectable direct-path conditions.

17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(8): 1623-1634, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090327

RESUMO

Antithrombus is one of the effective methods to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases. Based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine,the author's previous research and relevant literature,it was found that the alkaloids in Houttuynia cordata has potential antithrombotic effect. However,the pharmacological substance basis and antithrombotic mechanism of H. cordata have not been clarified. In this study,molecular docking was used for virtual screening of antithrombotic alkaloids from H. cordata. Seventy alkaloids selected from H. cordata were screened in the docking ligand data-base with teen thrombosis targets with known crystal structures as the receptors. In addition,the small-molecule approved or to be approved drugs of targets from Drug Bank database were set as a positive reference with minimum score(S value) of each target's approved or to be approved drugs as threshold. The Dock module in Molecular Operating Environment(Version 2016) software was applied to screen the potential active compounds which their scores(S value) were lower than the minimum score of reference. At last the mechanism of antithrombotic effect was preliminarily revealed by compared the main active sites of the test alkaloids with original ligands and references. This study provided some useful information to development of antithrombus drugs.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Fibrinolíticos/farmacologia , Houttuynia/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
18.
Neuropeptides ; 76: 101934, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130301

RESUMO

Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a neuropeptide mainly synthesized in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and has been traditionally implicated in stress and anxiety. Intriguingly, genetic or pharmacological manipulation of CRF receptors affects locomotor activity as well as motor coordination and balance in rodents, suggesting an active involvement of the central CRFergic system in motor control. Yet little is known about the exact role of CRF in central motor structures and the underlying mechanisms. Therefore, in the present study, we focused on the effect of CRF on the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN) in the brainstem vestibular nuclear complex, an important center directly contributing to adjustment of muscle tone for both postural maintenance and the alternative change from the extensor to the flexor phase during locomotion. The results show that CRF depolarizes and increases the firing rate of neurons in the LVN. Tetrodotoxin does not block the CRF-induced depolarization and inward current on LVN neurons, suggesting a direct postsynaptic action of the neuropeptide. The CRF-induced depolarization on LVN neurons was partly blocked by antalarmin or antisauvagine-30, selective antagonists for CRF receptors 1 (CRFR1) and 2 (CRFR2), respectively. Furthermore, combined application of antalarmin and antisauvagine-30 totally abolished the CRF-induced depolarization. Immunofluorescence results show that CRFR1 and CRFR2 are co-localized in the rat LVN. These results demonstrate that CRF excites the LVN neurons by co-activation of both CRFR1 and CRFR2, suggesting that via the direct modulation on the LVN, the central CRFergic system may actively participate in the central vestibular-mediated postural and motor control.


Assuntos
Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Receptores de Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/fisiologia , Núcleo Vestibular Lateral/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Masculino , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Núcleo Vestibular Lateral/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 45(8): 1119-1133, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144856

RESUMO

Evaluations of stimuli can be changed by simple motor responses such that stimuli to which responses are consistently withheld tend to be evaluated less positively than other stimuli. The exact mechanism that underlies this no-go devaluation effect is still unknown. Here we examine whether attention to the stimuli during training contributes to the devaluation effect. Participants received a go/no-go training in which 2 go items or 2 no-go items were simultaneously presented, and attention to 1 of the items was cued before participants executed or withheld a simple motor response (press a key on a keyboard). Next, explicit evaluations of these stimuli and untrained stimuli were assessed. Across 2 experiments we observed a predicted no-go devaluation effect, that is, a decrease in evaluations for items that have not been responded to. Furthermore, as predicted, selectively cueing attention toward stimuli during go/no-go training amplified differences in subsequent evaluations between go and no-go stimuli. Confirmatory analyses showed that the devaluation effect for cued no-go stimuli was not statistically significantly stronger than that for uncued no-go stimuli within each experiment. However, combining the data of both experiments showed moderate evidence (p = .023, BF+0 = 5.88) for stronger devaluation of cued no-go stimuli compared with uncued no-go stimuli. We conclude that attention to stimuli during go/no-go training contributes to revaluation processes of stimuli via motor actions, and that this knowledge is relevant for a better understanding of the underlying mechanism of the training and to optimize go/no-go training for practical use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Alimentos , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 117(4): 721-740, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920280

RESUMO

Understanding the formation and modification of preferences is important for explaining human behavior across many domains. Here we examined when and how preferences for food items can be changed by linking mere action versus inaction to these items. In 7 preregistered experiments, participants were trained to consistently respond to certain food items (go items) and not respond to other items (no-go items) in a go/no-go training. Next, to assess preferences, they repeatedly chose between go and no-go items for consumption. Decision time during the choice task was manipulated and measured. Immediately after training, participants chose go items more often for consumption when choosing under time pressure, for both high-value and low-value choice pairs. Preferences were reliably changed in favor of go items for choices between unhealthy foods, between healthy foods, and between healthy and unhealthy foods. Furthermore, preference change was still observed one week after training, although the effect size largely decreased. Interestingly, when participants made choices without time pressure, the effect became weaker and statistically nonsignificant. These results suggest that preference change induced by mere responding versus not responding is constrained to situations where people take little time to make decisions, and the effect is relatively short-lived. By showing the reliability, generalizability and boundary conditions of the effect, these findings advance our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of go/no-go training, provide more insights into how the training can be effectively applied, and raise new theoretical questions on how mere action versus inaction impacts preferences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Motivação , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Meio Social , Adulto Jovem
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