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1.
Cell Signal ; 90: 110193, 2021 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785348

RESUMO

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues have been found to exert protective effect on endothelial barrier dysfunction in vascular diseases. Moesin phosphorylation participates in the process of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) induced disruption of endothelial barrier integrity. Whether and how GLP-1 modulating moesin phosphorylation in endothelium under diabetic condition needs further clarification. Consistent with previous studies, our data showed that hyperglycemia and AGEs promoted moesin phosphorylation in ECs in vivo and vitro experiments. With or without AGEs incubation, overexpression of moesin and activated mutant moesin T558D increased ECs permeability, whereas knockdown of moesin decreased ECs permeability. Inhibition of Rho/ROCK, p38/MAPK and PKC ß signal pathways also decreased moesin phosphorylation in ECs incubated with AGEs. Importantly, GLP-1 inhibited moesin phosphorylation in AGE-induced ECs in a dose-dependent manner. Intriguingly, the effects of GLP-1 elicited on moesin phosphorylation in ECs under diabetic condition were blunted by inhibition of cAMP/PKA and stimulation of Rho/ROCK, p38 and PKC ß signaling pathways. Therefore, this study verified that the stabilizing effect of GLP-1 on the moesin phosphorylation mediated endothelial barrier function is mediated by GLP-1R/cAMP/PKA activation and subsequent down-regulation of Rho/ROCK, p38 and PKC ß signaling pathways.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811855

RESUMO

In chemodynamic therapy (CDT), the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production plays an important role for evaluating the therapeutic efficacy. However, the high levels of glutathione (GSH) in tumor cells consume the ROS, directly reducing the therapeutic efficiency. Herein, we synthesized carbon-based nanoparticle (Cu-cys CBNPs) using one-pot strategy, which consume GSH via redox reactions to produce Cu+ that catalyze H2O2 to produce ·OH, thus the ROS level was observably increased through this synergistic effect. In vivo experiments further revealed that Cu-cys CBNPs could effectively inhibit tumor growth. Additionally, Cu-cys CBNPs can affect the activity of some protein sulfhydryl groups in cells, which was assessed by rdTOP-ABPP assay. In general, this study not only provides a potential CDT drug, but also provides a strategy for one-pot synthesis of multifunctional nanomaterials.

4.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 733229, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34765653

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of deaths worldwide with regulated cell death playing an important role in cardiac pathophysiology. However, the classical mode of cell death cannot fully explain the occurrence and development of heart disease. In recent years, much research has been performed on ferroptosis, a new type of cell death that causes cell damage and contributes to the development of atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and other diseases. In this review, we discuss the role of different organelles in ferroptosis and also focus on the relationship between autophagy and ferroptosis. Additionally, we describe the specific mechanism by which ferroptosis contributes to the development of CVD. Finally, we summarize the current research on ferroptosis-related pathway inhibitors and the applications of clinically beneficial cardiovascular drugs.

5.
Nano Lett ; 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779631

RESUMO

Agonists of the stimulator of interferon gene (STING) are considered as promising therapeutics for cancer immunotherapy. However, drug-delivery barriers and adverse effects limit the clinical application of STING agonists. Therefore, it is an urgent need to develop an ideal delivery system to deliver STING agonists and avoid side effects. Here, we discovered that STING agonists significantly stimulated type I interferon (IFN) secretion in Clec9a+ dendritic cells (DCs). Then, we designed an engineered peptide-expressed biomimetic cancer cell membrane (EPBM)-coated nanovaccine drug-delivery system (PLGA/STING@EPBM) to deliver STING agonists and tumor antigens to Clec9a+ DCs. The PLGA/STING@EPBM nanovaccine significantly enhanced IFN-stimulated expression of genes and antigen cross-presentation of Clec9a+ DCs, thus eliciting strong antitumor effects in both anti-PD-1-responsive and -resistant tumor models without obvious cytotoxicity. Moreover, the PLGA/STING@EPBM nanovaccine combined with radiotherapy exhibited remarkable synergistic antitumor effects. Our work highlights the great potential of a EPBM-coated nanovaccine for systemic STING agonist delivery as an attractive tool for cancer immunotherapy.

6.
Mol Med ; 27(1): 127, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654365

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: D-Serine is a crucial endogenous co-agonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in the central nervous system and can affect the function of the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) system, which plays an essential role in modulating synaptic plasticity. The current study aimed to systematically evaluate the role and mechanisms of D-serine in depressive behavior in nucleus accumbens (NAc). METHODS: D-Serine concentration in the chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) model in NAc was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antidepressant-like effects of D-serine were identified using forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) in control mice and then assessed in CSDS model. We applied social interaction and sucrose preference tests to identify the susceptibility of CSDS model. Western blotting was further performed to assess the changes of BDNF signaling cascade in NAc after CSDS and D-serine treatment. The BDNF signaling inhibitor (K252a) was also used to clarify the antidepressant-like mechanism of D-serine. Moreover, D-serine effects on synaptic plasticity in NAc were investigated using electrophysiological methods. RESULTS: D-Serine concentration was decreased in depression susceptible mice in NAc. D-Serine injections into NAc exhibited antidepressant-like effects in FST and TST without affecting the locomotor activity of mice. D-Serine was also effective in CSDS model of depression. Moreover, D-serine down-regulated the BDNF signaling pathway in NAc during CSDS procedure. Furthermore, BDNF signaling inhibitor (K252a) enhanced the antidepressant effects of D-serine. We also found that D-serine was essential for NMDARs-dependent long-term depression (LTD). CONCLUSION: D-Serine exerts antidepressant-like effects in mice mediated through restraining the BDNF signaling pathway and regulating synaptic plasticity in NAc.

7.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(11): 963, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34667159

RESUMO

Psoriasis is an auto-inflammatory skin disease characterized by abnormal activation of epidermal keratinocytes, aberrant neovascularization, and dysregulation of immune cells. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that mainly function in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Recently, accumulating evidence has demonstrated that expression of microRNAs is dysregulated in psoriasis patients and microRNAs play key roles in psoriasis pathogenesis. Downregulation of miR-193b-3p has been identified to be associated with psoriasis development. However, the precise functions and action mechanisms of miR-193b-3p in psoriasis pathogenesis remain unclear. In this study, we confirmed the downregulation of miR-193b-3p in psoriasis patients, psoriasis-like inflammatory cellular models, and an imiquimod (IMQ) -induced mouse model. A negative correlation was found between miR-193b-3p level and patient Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score. Furthermore, miR-193b-3p suppressed proliferation, inflammatory-factor secretion, and the STAT3 and NF-κB signaling pathways in keratinocytes. Importantly, intradermal injection of agomiR-193b-3p blocked, whereas antagomiR-193b-3p augmented, the psoriasis-like inflammation in the IMQ-induced mouse model. Bioinformatics analysis and the dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-193b-3p targets ERBB4 3' untranslated region (UTR). In addition, ERBB4 induced proliferation, inflammatory-factor production, and the STAT3 and NF-κB pathways in keratinocytes. Most importantly, forced expression of ERBB4 could attenuate the effects of miR-193b-3p in keratinocytes, indicating that miR-193b-3p inhibits keratinocyte activation by directly targeting ERBB4. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that the miR-193b-3p-ERBB4 axis underlies the hyperproliferation and aberrant inflammatory-factor secretion of psoriatic keratinocytes, providing a novel, microRNA-related causal mechanism and a potential therapeutic target in psoriasis.

8.
Cell Commun Signal ; 19(1): 102, 2021 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635112

RESUMO

Glioma is the most common primary brain tumor and its prognosis is poor. Despite surgical removal, glioma is still prone to recurrence because it grows rapidly in the brain, is resistant to chemotherapy, and is highly aggressive. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a platform to study the cell dynamics of gliomas in order to discover the characteristics of the disease and develop more effective treatments. Although 2D cell models and animal models in previous studies have provided great help for our research, they also have many defects. Recently, scientific researchers have constructed a 3D structure called Organoids, which is similar to the structure of human tissues and organs. Organoids can perfectly compensate for the shortcomings of previous glioma models and are currently the most suitable research platform for glioma research. Therefore, we review the three methods currently used to establish glioma organoids. And introduced how they play a role in the diagnosis and treatment of glioma. Finally, we also summarized the current bottlenecks and difficulties encountered by glioma organoids, and the current efforts to solve these difficulties. Video Abstract.

9.
Front Genet ; 12: 706823, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552617

RESUMO

Introduction: Congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) is a group of early-onset disorders with clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Patients always present with muscle weakness typically from birth to early infancy, delay or arrest of gross motor development, and joint and/or spinal rigidity. There are various genes related to the development of CMD. Among them, mutations in integrin alpha 7 (ITGA7) is a rare subtype. The identification of disease-causing genes facilitates the diagnosis and treatment of CMD. Methods: We screened ITGA7 mutations in four people by whole exome sequencing and targeted sequencing from a consanguineous family. We then carried out electromyography and neuroelectrophysiological examinations to clarify a clinical picture of the patient diagnosed with CMD. Results: We report a Chinese boy diagnosed with CMD who carries a homozygous variant (c.1088dupG, p.H364Sfs*15) of the ITGA7 gene. According to the genotype analysis of his family members, this is an autosomal recessive inheritance. Conclusions: Our case further shows that ITGA7 mutation is related to CMD. Genetic counseling and multidisciplinary management of CMD play an important role in helping patients and their family. Further elucidation of the significant clinical and genetic heterogeneity, therapeutic targets, and the clinical care for patients remains our challenge for the future.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592773

RESUMO

FAM3A is a recently identified mitochondrial protein that stimulates pancreatic-duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1) and insulin expressions by promoting ATP release in islet ß cells. In this study, the role of intracellular ATP in FAM3A-induced PDX1 expression in pancreatic ß cells was further examined. Acute FAM3A inhibition using siRNA transfection in mouse pancreatic islets significantly reduced PDX1 expression, impaired insulin secretion, and caused glucose intolerance in normal mice. In vitro, FAM3A overexpression elevated both intracellular and extracellular ATP contents and promoted PDX1 expression and insulin secretion. FAM3A-induced increase in cellular calcium (Ca2+) levels, PDX1 expression, and insulin secretion, while these were significantly repressed by inhibitors of P2 receptors or the L-type Ca2+ channels. FAM3A-induced PDX1 expression was abolished by a calmodulin inhibitor. Likewise, FAM3A-induced ß-cell proliferation was also inhibited by a P2 receptor inhibitor and an L-type Ca2+ channels inhibitor. Both intracellular and extracellular ATP contributed to FAM3A-induced PDX1 expression, insulin secretion, and proliferation of pancreatic ß cells.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(36): 43438-43448, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465082

RESUMO

Accurate detection, quantitation, and differentiation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their isomers in diverse samples is elusive for paper spray ionization mass spectrometry (PSI-MS). To address these issues, herein, for the first time, we propose to fabricate a novel, flexible, and stable paper substrate based on covalent organic frameworks (COFs) via an in situ method under room temperature in air. After embedding gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), this paper substrate (COFs-paper) could further serve as a multifunctional plasmonic matrix (AuNPs-COFs-paper) for dual-wavelength laser-assisted PSI-MS detection of PAHs and feasible paper surface-enhanced Raman scattering (pSERS)-aided isomer discrimination. Taking advantage of the synergistic effect between the AuNPs and COFs present on the novel AuNP-embedded COFs-paper substrate, a satisfied LOD of 0.50 ng/µL for phenanthrene was realized, which improved almost 300 times compared with the naked-paper matrix, and the regression coefficient R2 was up to 0.999. Real sample corn oil-containing PAHs can be efficiently detected and identified using this technique. The established platform has promising potential for on-site chemical analysis with portable PSI-MS and pSERS instruments.

12.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500815

RESUMO

A bisthienylethene-dipyrimido[2,1-b][1,3]benzothiazole (BTE-2PBT) triad has been designed and synthesized based on our recent discovery of PBTs as atypical propeller-shaped novel AIEgens. The triad not only maintains the photochromic properties of BTE moiety in solution, film, and solid state but also exhibits remarkable AIE properties. Moreover, the fluorescence of BTE-2PBT PMMA film could be modulated with high contrast by alternate UV and visible light irradiation. Photoerasing, rewriting, and non-destructive readout of fluorescent images on BTE-2PBT PMMA film well demonstrate its potential application as optical memory media.

13.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 51: 128361, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543755

RESUMO

As a unique ligand gated ion channel in the P2-receptor family, P2X7R is highly expressed in various tumors. The activated P2X7R facilitates tumor growth and metastasis. Hypoxia, inflammation and necrosis in the tumor microenvironment (TME) cause a large amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) accumulated in the TME. High concentration of ATP can abnormally activate P2X7R, which induces pore formation and further facilitates the Ca2+ ion influx and non-specific substance intake. Therefore, inhibition of P2X7R activation can be applied as a potential anti-tumor therapy strategy. However, there is currently no FDA approved drugs for this target for anti-tumor treatment. In this study, we identified bilirubin as novel P2X7R antagonist by using structure based virtual screening combined with cell based assays. Molecular docking studies indicated that bilirubin probably interacted with P2X7R by forming hydrogen-π interactions with residues V173, E174 and K311. The compound bilirubin inhibited the P2X7R gated EB intake by cancer cells. Meanwhile, bilirubin was capable to inhibit the cell proliferation and migration of P2X7R expressed HT29 cells. The phosphorylation of mTOR, STAT3 and GSK3ß were significantly decreased when bilirubin was present. Finally, in vivo experiment exhibited the anti-tumor effect of bilirubin in the MC38 bearing mice model, but did not show tissue damage in different organs. In conclusion, bilirubin was identified as a novel P2X7R antagonist and it may have potential for anti-cancer treatment, although various functions of the molecule should be considered.

14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5126, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446705

RESUMO

Embryonic development is largely conserved among mammals. However, certain genes show divergent functions. By generating a transcriptional atlas containing >30,000 cells from post-implantation non-human primate embryos, we uncover that ISL1, a gene with a well-established role in cardiogenesis, controls a gene regulatory network in primate amnion. CRISPR/Cas9-targeting of ISL1 results in non-human primate embryos which do not yield viable offspring, demonstrating that ISL1 is critically required in primate embryogenesis. On a cellular level, mutant ISL1 embryos display a failure in mesoderm formation due to reduced BMP4 signaling from the amnion. Via loss of function and rescue studies in human embryonic stem cells we confirm a similar role of ISL1 in human in vitro derived amnion. This study highlights the importance of the amnion as a signaling center during primate mesoderm formation and demonstrates the potential of in vitro primate model systems to dissect the genetics of early human embryonic development.


Assuntos
Âmnio/metabolismo , Macaca fascicularis/embriologia , Mesoderma/embriologia , Âmnio/embriologia , Animais , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Proteínas com Homeodomínio LIM/genética , Proteínas com Homeodomínio LIM/metabolismo , Macaca fascicularis/genética , Macaca fascicularis/metabolismo , Mesoderma/metabolismo , Gravidez , Transdução de Sinais
15.
Insects ; 12(8)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34442310

RESUMO

In insects, neuropeptides and their receptors not only play a critical role in insect physiology and behavior but also are the potential targets for novel pesticide discoveries. Aphidius gifuensis is one of the most important and widespread aphid parasitoids, and has been successfully used to control aphid. In the present work, we systematically identified neuropeptides and their receptors from the genome and head transcriptome of A. gifuensis. A total of 35 neuropeptide precursors and 49 corresponding receptors were identified. The phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that 35 of these receptors belong to family-A, four belong to family-B, two belong to leucine-rich repeat-containing GPCRs, four belong to receptor guanylyl cyclases, and four belong to receptor tyrosine kinases. Oral ingestion of imidacloprid significantly up-regulated five neuropeptide precursors and four receptors whereas three neuropeptide precursors and eight receptors were significantly down-regulated, which indicated that these neuropeptides and their receptors are potential targets of some commercial insecticides. The RT-qPCR results showed that dopamine receptor 1, dopamine receptor 2, octopamine receptor, allatostatin-A receptor, neuropeptides capa receptor, SIFamide receptor, FMRFamide receptor, tyramine receptor and short neuropeptide F predominantly were expressed in the head whilst the expression of ion transport peptide showed widespread distribution in various tissues. The high expression levels of these genes suggest their important roles in the central nervous system. Taken together, our study provides fundamental information that may further our understanding of neuropeptidergic signaling systems in the regulation of the physiology and behavior of solitary wasps. Furthermore, this information could also aid in the design and discovery of specific and environment-friendly insecticides.

16.
J Clin Invest ; 131(19)2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403373

RESUMO

Liver tumor-initiating cells (TICs) are involved in liver tumorigenesis, metastasis, drug resistance, and relapse, but the regulatory mechanisms of liver TICs are largely unknown. Here, we have identified a functional circular RNA, termed circRNA activating MAFF (cia-MAF), that is robustly expressed in liver cancer and liver TICs. cia-MAF-KO primary cells and cia-maf-KO liver tumors harbor decreased ratios of TICs, and display impaired liver tumorigenesis, self-renewal, and metastatic capacities. In contrast, cia-MAF overexpression drives liver TIC propagation, self-renewal, and metastasis. Mechanistically, cia-MAF binds to the MAFF promoter, recruits the TIP60 complex to the MAFF promoter, and finally promotes MAFF expression. Loss of cia-MAF function attenuates the combination between the TIP60 complex and the MAFF promoter. MAFF is highly expressed in liver tumors and liver TICs, and its antisense oligo (ASO) has therapeutic potential in treating liver cancer without MAFA/MAFG gene copy number alterations (CNAs). This study reveals an additional layer for liver TIC regulation as well as circRNA function, and provides an additional target for eliminating liver TICs, especially for liver tumors without MAFA/MAFG gene CNAs.

17.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 677212, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335249

RESUMO

Cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE)/hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays a protective role in cardiovascular diseases including hypertension and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. This study was aimed to screen natural small molecule compounds that activate CSE activity and then evaluate its effect(s) on kidney I/R injury and hypertension. Applying computer molecular docking technology, we screened the natural small molecule compound norswertianolin (NW)-specific binding to CSE. Using the microscale thermophoresis technology, we confirmed that the Leu68 site was the essential hydrogen bond site of NW binding to CSE. NW supplementation significantly increased CSE expression and its activity for H2S generation both in vivo and in vitro. In the model of acute and long-term kidney I/R injury, NW pretreatment dramatically attenuated kidney damage, associated with decreasing blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Cr) level, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and cleaved caspase 3 expression. In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), NW treatment also lowered blood pressure, the media/lumen ratio of the femoral artery, and the mRNA level of inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, NW acts as a novel small molecular chemical compound CSE agonist, directly binding to CSE, heightening CSE generation-H2S activity, and then alleviating kidney I/R injury and hypertension. NW has a potential therapeutic merit for cardiovascular diseases.

18.
Cell Rep ; 36(4): 109431, 2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320348

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide, in which adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutations are frequently and uniquely observed. Here we find that cis-HOX (circular RNA stabilizing HOXC10) is robustly expressed in colorectal tumor-initiating cells (TICs). cis-HOX knockout decreases colorectal TIC numbers and impairs the self-renewal, tumorigenesis, and metastatic capacities of TICs, whereas cis-HOX overexpression drives colorectal TIC self-renewal and metastasis. Mechanistically, cis-HOX binds to HOXC10 mRNA to attenuate its decay through blocking the K-homology splicing regulatory protein (KSRP)-binding sequence of HOXC10 3' UTR. HOXC10 is highly expressed in colorectal tumors and TICs and triggers Wnt/ß-catenin activation by activating FZD3 expression. HOXC10 inhibitor salinomycin exerts efficient therapeutic effects in APC-wild-type colorectal tumors, but not in tumors with APC nonsense mutations. Therefore, the cis-HOX-HOXC10 pathway drives colorectal tumorigenesis, stemness, and metastasis and serves as a potential therapeutic target for APC-wild-type colorectal tumors.

19.
Zool Res ; 42(4): 469-477, 2021 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213093

RESUMO

Mutations of PTEN-induced kinase I (PINK1) cause early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD) with selective neurodegeneration in humans. However, current PINK1 knockout mouse and pig models are unable to recapitulate the typical neurodegenerative phenotypes observed in PD patients. This suggests that generating PINK1 disease models in non-human primates (NHPs) that are close to humans is essential to investigate the unique function of PINK1 in primate brains. Paired single guide RNA (sgRNA)/Cas9-D10A nickases and truncated sgRNA/Cas9, both of which can reduce off-target effects without compromising on-target editing, are two optimized strategies in the CRISPR/Cas9 system for establishing disease animal models. Here, we combined the two strategies and injected Cas9-D10A mRNA and two truncated sgRNAs into one-cell-stage cynomolgus zygotes to target the PINK1 gene. We achieved precise and efficient gene editing of the target site in three newborn cynomolgus monkeys. The frame shift mutations of PINK1 in mutant fibroblasts led to a reduction in mRNA. However, western blotting and immunofluorescence staining confirmed the PINK1 protein levels were comparable to that in wild-type fibroblasts. We further reprogramed mutant fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which showed similar ability to differentiate into dopamine (DA) neurons. Taken together, our results showed that co-injection of Cas9-D10A nickase mRNA and sgRNA into one-cell-stage cynomolgus embryos enabled the generation of human disease models in NHPs and target editing by pair truncated sgRNA/Cas9-D10A in PINK1 gene exon 2 did not impact protein expression.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Macaca fascicularis/genética , Doença de Parkinson/veterinária , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/genética , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária , Transferência Embrionária , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Macaca fascicularis/embriologia , Doenças dos Macacos/genética , Mutação , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética , RNA Guia
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