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1.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 131970, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450370

RESUMO

In this study, a polydopamine (PDA) modified attapulgite (ATP) supported nano sized zero-valent iron (nZVI) composite (PDA/ATP-nZVI) was rapidly synthesized under acidic conditions, and employed to alleviate Cr(VI) toxicity from an aqueous solution. Kinetic studies revealed that Cr(VI) adsorption process followed the pseudo-second order model, suggesting chemisorption was the dominant adsorption mechanism. Liu isotherm adsorption model was able to better describe the Cr(VI) adsorption isotherm with the maximum adsorption capacity of 134.05 mg/g. The thermodynamic study demonstrated that the adsorption process occurred spontaneously, accompanied by the increase in entropy and endothermic reaction. Low concentrations of coexisting ions had negligible effects on the removal of Cr(VI), while high concentrations of interfering ions were able to facilitate the removal of Cr(VI). Reactive species test revealed that Fe2+ played a key role in Cr(VI) reduction by PDA/ATP-nZVI. PDA enhanced the elimination of Cr(VI) via donation of electrons to Cr(VI) and acceleration of Fe3+ transformation to Fe2+. Furthermore, PDA was able to effectively inhibit the leaching of iron species and generation of ferric hydroxide sludge. Mechanistic study revealed that 72% of Cr(VI) elimination was attributed to reduction/precipitation, while 28% of Cr(VI) elimination was due to the surface adsorption.


Assuntos
Ferro , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Cromo , Indóis , Cinética , Compostos de Magnésio , Polímeros , Compostos de Silício , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 425: 127945, 2022 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34896705

RESUMO

Microbes are important component in terrestrial ecosystem, which are believed to play vital roles in biogeochemical cycles of metalloids in mining and smelting surroundings. Many studies on microbial diversity and structures have been investigated around mining and smelting sites, whereas the ecological processes and co-occurrence patterns that influence the biogeographic distributions of microbial communities is yet poorly understood. Herein, microbial biogeography, assembly mechanism and co-occurrence pattern around mining and smelting zone were systematically unraveled using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The 66 microbial phyla co-occurring across all the samples were dominated by Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria and Crenarchaeota. Obvious distance-decay (r = 0.3448, p < 0.001) of microbial community was observed across geographic distances. Differences in microbial communities were driven by the joint impacts of soil factors, spatial and metalloids levels. Dispersal limitation dominated the microbial assemblies in whole, SC and GX sites while homogeneous selection governed that in YN site. The changes in pH and Sb level significantly influenced the deterministic and stochastic processes of microbial communities. Network analysis suggested a typical module distribution, which had apparent ecological links among taxa in modules. This study provides first insight of the mechanism to maintain microbial diversity in metalloids-laden biospheres.

3.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt B): 127164, 2022 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534803

RESUMO

Non-ferrous metal(loid)s in region with karst characteristic are highly diffusible, especially by runoff or atmospheric deposition. However, microbiota in response to the diffusing metal(loid)s is still to be understood. In this study, we focused on microbiota across metal(loid)s diffusion pathways around a non-ferrous smelting assembly. The microbial distribution and metal(loid)s-microbial interactions were analysed by 16S rRNA amplicon and multivariate statistical analysis. Although runoff and atmospheric deposition showed similar metal(loid)s diffusion contribution, different microbial compositions were revealed. The microbiota along the runoff transect (region3) was similar to those within the atmospheric deposition transect (region4), which significantly differed from those closer to the smelting assembly (region1 and region2; R2 = 0.3866, p = 0.001). Random forest model indicated the negative impacts of bioavailable metal(loid)s on microbial diversity. Proteobacteria was predominant in region1 while Actinobacteriota dominated in the other regions. Twenty abundant genera were identified in metal(loid)s rich area, such as sulfur metabolizer Sulfurifustis and metal resistant Acinetobacter. Interactions between the geochemical parameters and the dominant taxa indicated that the main drivers were Al, Sb, As and their bioavailable fractions and sulfate. This study provides understandings of microbiota patterns towards different metal(loid)s diffusion pathways around non-ferrous smelting assembly with karst characteristic.


Assuntos
Metaloides , Metais Pesados , Microbiota , Poluentes do Solo , Bactérias/genética , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metaloides/análise , Metais/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Poluentes do Solo/análise
4.
Curr Biol ; 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34883046

RESUMO

The evolution of novel cell types has been proposed to result from duplication of gene regulatory networks, but proven examples are rare. In addition to stalk cells and spores that make up the fruiting bodies of three major groups of Dictyostelia, those in group 4 additionally evolved basal disc and cup cells that respectively anchor the stalk to the substratum and the spore mass to the stalk. We noted a putative group-4-specific duplication of a cudA-like transcription factor (TF) in a comparative analysis of group-representative genomes. Using increased taxon sampling, we here confirmed that this TF, cdl1, duplicated into cdl1a and cdl1b in the common ancestor to group 4. cdl1a, but not cdl1b, showed signatures of positive selection, indicative of functional innovation. Deletion of cdl1a in Dictyostelium discoideum resulted in fruiting bodies with sagging spore heads that lacked the supporting cup cells and expression of cup-specific genes. Deletion of cdl1b resulted in thinner fruiting body stalks, while a cdl1b-cdl1a- double knockout showed more severe stalk defects, suggesting an ancestral role of cdl1 in stalk formation. This was confirmed in a closely related non-group 4 species, Polysphondylium violaceum, where cdl1 knockout caused defective stalk formation. These data indicate that the group-specific duplication of cdl1 and subsequent diversification of cdl1a played a pivotal role in the evolution of a novel somatic cell type in group 4 Dictyostelia.

5.
Opt Lett ; 46(23): 6006-6009, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34851945

RESUMO

The saturable absorption properties of BiOI nanosheets with exposed {110} facets prepared by the chemical vapor transport were investigated by Z-scan with femtosecond pulse laser. The nonlinear absorption coefficient at 400 nm is stronger and more sensitive to photoexcitation than its nonlinear response at 800 nm. The small saturation intensity could have been achieved, which is one order of magnitude smaller than that of black phosphorus nanosheets, while the Imχ(3) are determined to be -4.35×10-12esu close to theoretical prediction. According to time-resolved photoluminescence spectrum results, this strong saturated absorption at 400 nm may be attributed to the interband recombination process, whose lifetime was 230 ps.

6.
Microorganisms ; 9(12)2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34946071

RESUMO

Bio-treatment of anaerobically treated swine wastewater (ADSW) mediated by microalgae has been deemed as a promising strategy. In the present study, six microalgal strains were used to conduct batch experiments in 0~100% ADSW in order to evaluate their potentials for nutrient removal and biodiesel production. Two strains, Chlorella vulgaris FACHB-8 and Chlorella sp. FACHB-31, were selected based on their better growth performances, higher tolerance to wastewater (up to 100%), and better nutrient removal abilities. The capacity of each strain to remove TN, TP, NH4+-N, as well as lipid production and biomass composition in 100% ADSW were further examined. After 15 days of culture, 87.68~89.85%, 92.61~93.68%, and 97.02~97.86% of the nitrogen, phosphorus, and ammonia nitrogen were removed by Chlorella sp. FACHB-31 and C. vulgaris FACHB-8. Their lipid content and lipid productivities were 29.63~33.33% and 18.91~23.10 mg L-1 d-1, respectively. Proteins were both the major biomass fraction followed by lipids and then carbohydrates. Their fatty acid profiles both mainly consisted of C-16:0, C-18:1, C-18:0, and C-18:2. Taken together, our results suggest that C. vulgaris FACHB-8 and Chlorella sp. FACHB-31 are potential candidates for biodiesel production by using ADSW as a good feedstock.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 812: 152326, 2021 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906578

RESUMO

Here we combined microcalorimetry, enzyme activity measurements, and characterization of metal form in order to evaluate the effect of metal(loid)s on the activity of microbial community inhabiting tailings area with high toxic metal(loid)s concentration. Chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) were the main pollutants. The exchangeable fractions (bioavailability) of Cu, Ni and Mn were higher in the tailings sample (Site Z), indicating a higher environmental risk. The total heat Qtotal (17,726.87 J/g), peak power Ppeak (541.42 µW/g) and growth rate constant k (0.11 h-1) of Site Z were higher than that of the polluted soil around tailings (Site Y). Such observation may be explained by physiological changes within the microbial community in response to high levels of heavy metal stress, thereby increasing respiration and improving microbial activity. In contrast, enzyme activities and enzyme activities index (GmeA) of Site Z were lower than the Site Y, which is strongly influenced by changes on physical-chemical properties (TN and TOC) and the presence of Cr, Mn, and Ni. Correlation coefficient and principal component analysis (PCA) indicate that GmeA is significantly correlated (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) with environmental factors (EC, TOC and TN), Mn and Ni concentration, Ni bioavailability, and peak time (Tpeak). Therefore, GmeA represents a potential biological indicator for reporting the pollution degree in tailings area. Our results provide a theoretical basis for the prevention and control of pollution in non-ferrous metal(loid) tailings area.

8.
Sci China Life Sci ; 2021 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34962614

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global crisis. Clinical candidates with high efficacy, ready availability, and that do not develop resistance are in urgent need. Despite that screening to repurpose clinically approved drugs has provided a variety of hits shown to be effective against SARS-CoV-2 infection in cell culture, there are few confirmed antiviral candidates in vivo. In this study, 94 compounds showing high antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 in Vero E6 cells were identified from 2,580 FDA-approved small-molecule drugs. Among them, 24 compounds with low cytotoxicity were selected, and of these, 17 compounds also effectively suppressed SARS-CoV-2 infection in HeLa cells transduced with human ACE2. Six compounds disturb multiple processes of the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle. Their prophylactic efficacies were determined in vivo using Syrian hamsters challenged with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Seven compounds reduced weight loss and promoted weight regain of hamsters infected not only with the original strain but also the D614G variant. Except for cisatracurium, six compounds reduced hamster pulmonary viral load, and IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA when assayed at 4 d postinfection. In particular, sertraline, salinomycin, and gilteritinib showed similar protective effects as remdesivir in vivo and did not induce antiviral drug resistance after 10 serial passages of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro, suggesting promising application for COVID-19 treatment.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34962680

RESUMO

A series of luminescent frameworks were synthesized from the selective combination of AIE-linker tetra-(4-carboxylphenyl)ethylene (H 4 TCPE) and Zn 2+ . Complex 1 was formed by the close packing of Zn-TCPE hinge, and isostructural complexes 2 - 5 were constructed by the linkage of Zn-TCPE layer and pillar ligand. These complexes exhibit highly efficient multiphoton excited photoluminescence (MEPL) concomitant third-harmonic generation (THG). Interestingly, multiphoton apparent parameters of 1 are far superior to some excellent multiphoton emission materials, even the perovskite nanocrystal. The incorporation of pillar linkers slows down the charge transfer between layers of Zn-TCPE, and the aromatic core of pillar linkers has a great influence on the MEA performance of corresponding frameworks. The unprecedented structural and optical tuning of high performance MPA crystalline materials provides efficient suggestion for the design of next generation multiphoton absorption materials.

10.
Chemosphere ; : 132727, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743799

RESUMO

The presence of chlorophenols in water and wastewater is considered a serious environmental issue. To eliminate these micropollutants, biodegradation of chlorophenols using enzyme-nanoparticle conjugated biocatalyst, is proposed as an economical and eco-friendly method. Herein, amino-functionalized superparamagnetic Fe3O4@SiO2-NH2 nanoparticles with core-shell structure were constructed as a promising carrier for immobilization of laccase from Trametes versicolor. Compared with free laccase, Fe3O4@SiO2-NH2-Laccase displayed remarkable outcomes in all major areas such as temperature and storage stabilities, and tolerance to organic solvents and metal ions. The biocatalytic performance and reusability of Fe3O4@SiO2-NH2-Laccase were evaluated for the degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) in repeated cycles. Even after 10 successive reuses, the degradation rate of 2,4-DCP and 2,4,6-TCP were found to be 54.9% and 68.7%, respectively. The influences of solution pH, initial chlorophenol concentration, and temperature on the degradation rate of these two chlorophenols were evaluated. The degradation intermediate products including dimers, trimers, and tetramers of 2,4-DCP and 2,4,6-TCP were identified. Release of chloride ions was observed during the enzymatic degradation of these two chlorophenols. Based on the determination of intermediate products and released chloride ions, the degradation pathway that was involved in dehydrogenation, reactive radical intermediates formation, dechlorination, self-coupling and oligomers/polymers formation was proposed. The toxicity of these two chlorophenols and their intermediates was substantially reduced during the enzymatic degradation. The results of this study might present an alternative clean biotechnology for the remediation of 2,4-DCP and 2,4,6-TCP contaminated water matrices.

11.
Anim Biosci ; 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727634

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different degrees of maternal dietary energy restriction on lipid deposition in embryonic tissues during the medium laying period (37-39 weeks) in Arbor Acres (AA) broiler breeders. Methods: A single factor design was adopted, and 400 AA broiler breeders (20 weeks of age) with a similar weight were randomly allocated into four groups. The birds in the control group were fed a corn-soybean meal based diet, and those in trial groups were fed diets with 80%, 70%, and 50% energy levels of the basal diet. Incubated eggs from the medium laying period were collected. Samples of developing embryos at various stages were prepared for composition analysis. Result: The embryo weight in the 80% energy group was higher than those of the other groups on embryonic day (E) 13, but at 21 E, they were significantly decreased with decreasing energy intake of the broiler breeders (P<0.05). Additionally, the levels of crude fat in tissues in the restriction groups were significantly decreased (P<0.05). The long axis and area of adipocytes in breast muscle, thigh muscle and the liver were significantly decreased (P<0.05) at 21 E in the 80%, 70%, and 50% energy groups. Conclusion: the effects of the 80% maternal dietary energy restriction energy affects egg production performance, egg quality, and nutrient deposition in egg weights, which then directly impacts on the developmental process of embryos, especially on fat utilization and deposition.

12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 506, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nitrogen (N) fertilizer is commonly considered as one of the most important limiting factors in the agricultural production. As a result, a large amount of N fertilizer is used to improve the yield in modern tea production. Unfortunately, the large amount of N fertilizer input has led to increased plant nitrogen-tolerance and decreased amplitude of yield improvement, which results in significant N loss, energy waste and environment pollution. However, the effects of N-deficiency on the metabolic profiles of tea leaves and roots are not well understood. RESULTS: In this study, seedlings of Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze Chunlv 2 were treated with 3 mM NH4NO3 (Control) or without NH4NO3 (N-deficiency) for 4 months by sandy culture. The results suggested that N-deficiency induced tea leaf chlorosis, impaired biomass accumulation, decreased the leaf chlorophyll content and N absorption when they were compared to the Control samples. The untargeted metabolomics based on GC-TOF/MS approach revealed a discrimination of the metabolic profiles between N-deficient tea leaves and roots. The identification and classification of the altered metabolites indicated that N deficiency upregulated the relative abundances of most phenylpropanoids and organic acids, while downregulated the relative abundances of most amino acids in tea leaves. Differentially, N-deficiency induced the accumulation of most carbohydrates, organic acids and amino acids in tea roots. The potential biomarkers screened in N-deficient leaves compared to Control implied that N deficiency might reduce the tea quality. Unlike the N-deficient leaves, the potential biomarkers in N-deficient roots indicated an improved stress response might occur in tea roots. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrated N deficiency had different effects on the primary and secondary metabolism in tea leaves and roots. The findings of this study will facilitate a comprehensive understanding of the N-deficient tea plants and provide a valuable reference for the optimized N nutrient management and the sustainable development in the tea plantations.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/química , Camellia sinensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/deficiência , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Wound Repair Regen ; 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826355

RESUMO

Wound healing may be disrupted by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, and excessive oxidative stress, which can lead to undesirable consequences. The haematopoietic cell-specific protein 1-associated protein X-1 (HAX-1) is a mitochondrial matrix protein that regulates mitochondrial function. This study aimed to comprehensively identify the role of HAX-1 in the inhibition of LPS-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). HAX-1 expression was assessed in the HDF-a cell line using real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining. The viability, migration, and apoptosis of HDF-a cells were evaluated using the water-soluble tetrazolium-1 assay, transwell assay, and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. Mitochondrial function was evaluated based on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). Our results demonstrated that LPS stimulation markedly repressed HAX-1 expression in HDFs and silencing of HAX-1 led to mitochondrial ROS accumulation, ΔΨm disruption, and abnormal mitochondrial morphology. Accordingly, overexpression of HAX-1 or administration of metformin enhanced mitochondrial fusion and normalized mitochondrial dynamics, thereby reversing LPS-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, fibroblast apoptosis, and viability and migration inhibition in HDF-a cells. These data support a mechanism wherein HAX-1 plays a crucial role in LPS-induced fibroblast apoptosis in a mitochondria-dependent manner.

14.
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi ; 45(5): 530-535, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628766

RESUMO

There are five-year transitional period for manufacturers after the issue of regulation(EU) 2017/746 on in vitro diagnostic medical devices(IVDR) in May, 2017. The article introduces the background, major change, the impact of new regulation and the coping strategies of enterprises, the main preparation work should be taken etc, to provide reference or help for the domestic manufacturers when they prepare the CE marking according to IVDR.


Assuntos
Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , União Europeia , Marketing
16.
Opt Express ; 29(18): 28167-28177, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614954

RESUMO

Conventional full-view imaging systems, which often need complicated image processing algorithms to reconstruct full-view images captured by motional/multiple cameras from different views, cannot have good real-time imaging capability. We design curved-to-flat conversion lens (CFCL) based on optic-null medium, which can directly project/image optical patterns from closed object surface onto image plane (e.g., the focal plane of microscopy), and shows good real-time full-view imaging performance. To realize the CFCL, the reduced optic-null medium is designed by subwavelength metal channels filled with homogeneous isotropic dielectrics. Numerical simulation results verify the function of the designed CFCL, which can image various dynamic optical patterns from the closed object surface to the finite-view image plane. The designed CFCL may have many applications in real-timely observing dynamic closed surfaces in full view, e.g., living tissue/cell and soft material's surface.

17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 453, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Appropriate flowering time is very important to the success of modern agriculture. Maize (Zea mays L.) is a major cereal crop, originated in tropical areas, with photoperiod sensitivity. Which is an important obstacle to the utilization of tropical/subtropical germplasm resources in temperate regions. However, the study on the regulation mechanism of photoperiod sensitivity of maize is still in the early stage. Although it has been previously reported that ZmCCT is involved in the photoperiod response and delays maize flowering time under long-day conditions, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. RESULTS: Here, we showed that ZmCCT overexpression delays flowering time and confers maize drought tolerance under LD conditions. Implementing the Gal4-LexA/UAS system identified that ZmCCT has a transcriptional inhibitory activity, while the yeast system showed that ZmCCT has a transcriptional activation activity. DAP-Seq analysis and EMSA indicated that ZmCCT mainly binds to promoters containing the novel motifs CAAAAATC and AAATGGTC. DAP-Seq and RNA-Seq analysis showed that ZmCCT could directly repress the expression of ZmPRR5 and ZmCOL9, and promote the expression of ZmRVE6 to delay flowering under long-day conditions. Moreover, we also demonstrated that ZmCCT directly binds to the promoters of ZmHY5, ZmMPK3, ZmVOZ1 and ZmARR16 and promotes the expression of ZmHY5 and ZmMPK3, but represses ZmVOZ1 and ZmARR16 to enhance stress resistance. Additionally, ZmCCT regulates a set of genes associated with plant development. CONCLUSIONS: ZmCCT has dual functions in regulating maize flowering time and stress response under LD conditions. ZmCCT negatively regulates flowering time and enhances maize drought tolerance under LD conditions. ZmCCT represses most flowering time genes to delay flowering while promotes most stress response genes to enhance stress tolerance. Our data contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the regulatory mechanism of ZmCCT in controlling maize flowering time and stress response.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Fotoperíodo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Magnoliopsida/genética , Magnoliopsida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenótipo , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
18.
Small GTPases ; : 1-16, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34565293

RESUMO

GTP binding proteins known as small GTPases make up one of the largest groups of regulatory proteins and control almost all functions of living cells. Their activity is under, respectively, positive and negative regulation by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase activating proteins (GAPs), which together with their upstream regulators and the downstream targets of the small GTPases form formidable signalling networks. While genomics has revealed the large size of the GTPase, GEF and GAP repertoires, only a small fraction of their interactions and functions have yet been experimentally explored. Dictyostelid social amoebas have been particularly useful in unravelling the roles of many proteins in the Rac-Rho and Ras-Rap families of GTPases in directional cell migration and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Genomes and cell-type specific and developmental transcriptomes are available for Dictyostelium species that span the 0.5 billion years of evolution of the group from their unicellular ancestors. In this work, we identified all GTPases, GEFs and GAPs from genomes representative of the four major taxon groups and investigated their phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary conservation and changes in their functional domain architecture and in their developmental and cell-type specific expression. We performed a hierarchical cluster analysis of the expression profiles of the ~2000 analysed genes to identify putative interacting sets of GTPases, GEFs and GAPs, which highlight sets known to interact experimentally and many novel combinations. This work represents a valuable resource for research into all fields of cellular regulation.

19.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500562

RESUMO

Gluconeogenesis is a key interface between organic acid/amino acid/lipid and sugar metabolism. The aims of this article are four-fold. First, to provide a concise overview of plant gluconeogenesis. Second, to emphasise the widespread occurrence of gluconeogenesis and its utilisation in diverse processes. Third, to stress the importance of the vacuolar storage and release of Krebs cycle acids/nitrogenous compounds, and of the role of gluconeogenesis and malic enzyme in this process. Fourth, to outline the contribution of fine control of enzyme activity to the coordinate-regulation of gluconeogenesis and malate metabolism, and the importance of cytosolic pH in this.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Gluconeogênese/fisiologia , Lipídeos/fisiologia , Plantas/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico/fisiologia , Malato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo
20.
Mol Med ; 27(1): 119, 2021 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) therapy has been proven effective in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), approximately 40% of patients lose the response. Transmembrane TNF-α (mTNF-α) expression in the intestinal mucosa is correlated with therapeutic efficacy, and quantification of mTNF-α expression is significant for predicting response. However, conventional intravenous application of microbubbles is unable to assess mTNF-α expression in intestinal mucosa. Herein, we proposed intracolic ultrasound molecular imaging with TNF-α-targeted microbubbles (MBTNF-α) to quantitatively detect mTNF-α expression in the intestinal mucosa. METHODS: MBTNF-α was synthesized via a biotin-streptavidin bridging method. TNF-α-targeted ultrasound imaging was performed by intracolic application of MBTNF-α to detect mTNF-α expression in surgical specimens from a murine model and patients with IBD. Linear regression analyses were performed to confirm the accuracy of quantitative targeted ultrasound imaging. RESULTS: On quantitative TNF-α-targeted ultrasound images, a greater signal intensity was observed in the mouse colons with colitis ([1.96 ± 0.45] × 106 a.u.) compared to that of the controls ([0.56 ± 0.21] × 106 a.u., P < 0.001). Targeted US signal intensities and inflammatory lesions were topographically coupled in mouse colons. Linear regression analyses in specimens of mice and patients demonstrated significant correlations between the targeted ultrasound signal intensity and mTNF-α expression (both P < 0.001). Furthermore, TNF-α-targeted ultrasound imaging qualitatively distinguished the varying inflammatory severity in intestinal specimens from IBD patients. CONCLUSION: Intracolic ultrasound molecular imaging with MBTNF-α enables quantitative assessment of mTNF-α expression. It may be a potential tool for facilitating the implementation of personalized medicine in IBD.

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