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1.
Cereb Cortex ; 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35059700

RESUMO

The Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) and measures to curb it created population-level changes in male-dominant impulsive and risky behaviors such as violent crimes and gambling. One possible explanation for this is that the pandemic has been stressful, and males, more so than females, tend to respond to stress by altering their focus on immediate versus delayed rewards, as reflected in their delay discounting rates. Delay discounting rates from healthy undergraduate students were collected twice during the pandemic. Discounting rates of males (n=190) but not of females (n=493) increased during the pandemic. Using machine learning, we show that prepandemic functional connectome predict increased discounting rates in males (n=88). Moreover, considering that delay discounting is associated with multiple psychiatric disorders, we found the same neural pattern that predicted increased discounting rates in this study, in secondary datasets of patients with major depression and schizophrenia. The findings point to sex-based differences in maladaptive delay discounting under real-world stress events, and to connectome-based neuromarkers of such effects. They can explain why there was a population-level increase in several impulsive and risky behaviors during the pandemic and point to intriguing questions about the shared underlying mechanisms of stress responses, psychiatric disorders and delay discounting.

2.
Environ Pollut ; : 118873, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35066107

RESUMO

High demands for but strict regulatory measures on Organophosphorus Flame Retardants (OPFRs) have resulted in mainland China transitioning from the region that imports OPRFs to one that exports these substances. Simultaneously, large quantities of terrigenous OPFRs have been exported to adjacent seas by the major river systems, particularly the Yangtze River. This study examined the presence of ten OPFRs in China's adjacent seas. High levels of OPFRs were observed in seas south of mainland China, with Tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) and Tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) dominant. The terrigenous OPFRs were redistributed by the ocean surface currents, with OPFRs tending to accumulate in regions with lower current speed. The producers of OPFRs are mainly distributed along the Haihe, Yellow, and Yangtze river systems. The application of OPFRs to electric vehicle charging stations, charging connectors, and 5G infrastructure in the Chinese mainland will likely drive rapid growth in OPFR related industry in the future. The diffusion trend map of OPFR indicated that the Bohai Sea and the central northern Yellow Sea are at high risk of ecological damage in the spring. The offshore region of the north of the South China Sea tended to aggregate more OPFRs in summer. Regions of the OPFR aggregation effect were at a higher risk of ecological damage.

3.
Food Chem ; 368: 130723, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500352

RESUMO

The effects of the fat crystal structure on lipid droplets digestion behaviors were investigated using an in vitro digestion model. The crystalline oil-in-water emulsions containing the same solid fat content (SFC) with different fat crystal sizes and polymorphic forms were fabricated by different storage protocols: constant-temperature and inconstant-temperature storage. Oral and gastric processing led to a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the d4,3 values of the two emulsions, and the two emulsions underwent partial coalescence and flocculation/aggregation. The free fatty acid (FFA) release profiles showed that the lipolysis extent decreased due to a larger crystal size. In addition, the two emulsions showed differences in beta polymorphism. This work further demonstrated that the FFA release could be modulated by the physical properties of the fat.


Assuntos
Digestão , Trato Gastrointestinal , Emulsões , Tamanho da Partícula , Água
4.
Sci Total Environ ; : 152163, 2021 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34875335

RESUMO

Inputs of decomposable organic materials into soil alter the decomposition of soil organic matter, a process generally called soil priming effect. Organic C inputs in terrestrial ecosystems are commonly from various sources (e.g. rhizodeposits, plant residues) simultaneously, but their interactions as well as mutual effects on SOM decomposition are unknown, because multisource partitioning of pools and fluxes is not available. A dual-isotope approach (identical materials except for straw being possessed with two 13C abundance) was adopted to partition total CO2 emission from three C sources of native SOM, glucose and straw. Cumulative CO2 efflux was quantified into straw-derived (558 µg C g-1), glucose-derived (480 µg C g-1) and SOM-derived (58 µg C g-1) CO2 during the first 7-day incubation. Glucose and, or straw addition all induced positive SOM priming, and glucose combined straw resulted higher potential of SOC loss than that induced by glucose/straw single addition after day 7. The Spearman's correlation showed that interactions between glucose and straw shifted from increased CO2 evolved during their intensive decomposition (days 1 to 3) to mutual constraint on mineralization during the late stage (days 5 to 7). This study provides evidences for the suitability of the dual-isotope approach to partition multiple sources, and evaluates their individual or mutual contributions to SOM priming, thus, implicating C sequestration in territorial ecosystem.

5.
J Obstet Gynaecol ; : 1-7, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34927543

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of ultrasound markers measured at different time points of the controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) cycle on ovarian response and outcome indicators in the IVF-ET cycle. According to the oestrogen level and the number of retrieved oocytes, patients who planned for COH treatment were separated into low-response group, normal and high-response group. The ovarian stromal artery flow parameters on the day of pituitary down-regulation, day 1, day 7, day 10, and the day of hCG injection were collected prospectively. We also have collected the data of cumulus oophorus count on the day of hCG injection by transvaginal sonography. Compared with the low-response group, on the first day of the COH cycle PI, RI, and S/D were lower in the high-response group than they were in the low-response group (p < .05). PSV and EDV were significantly higher in the high-response group than they were in the low-response group (p < .01), and the PSV on the first day of the COH cycle have statistical significance in predicting the number of high-quality embryos. The number of cumulus oophorus on the day of hCG injection has statistical significance in predicting the number of oocytes retrieved and fertilised oocytes. We conclude that the ovarian stromal artery flow parameters on the first day of the COH cycle and cumulus oophorus count on hCG injection day can serve as efficient indicators for an early assessment of ovarian response and individualised ovulation induction.IMPACT STATEMENTWhat is already known on this subject? AMH, AFC, and the age of the patient are well-known effective parameters for the evaluation of ovarian response, but these are insufficient and full of individual differences. Some researchers have investigated the value of colour Doppler ultrasound and cumulus oophorus in assessing ovarian response, but no definitive conclusion has been reached.What do the results of this study add? The hemodynamic parameters of ovarian stromal artery on the first day of the COH cycle and the number of cumulus oophorus on the day of hCG injection detected by Transvaginal Colour Doppler Sonography (TV-CDS) could be used to predict the ovarian response.What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? Ovarian stromal artery flow parameters and cumulus oophorus detected by TV-CDS can potentially be offered as a complementary parameter for ovarian reserve.

6.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2021 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34952988

RESUMO

Procrastination, which is defined as delaying an intended course of action despite negative outcomes, is demonstrated to have a deal with negative emotion including trait anxiety. Although highly anxious individuals showed impoverished control ability, no studies have indicated the role of self-control in the relationship between trait anxiety and procrastination, and its neural correlates. To this end, we used the sliding window method to calculate the temporal deviation of dynamic functional connectivity (FC) in 312 healthy participants who underwent the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning. In line with our hypothesis, higher trait anxiety is linked to more procrastination via poorer self-control. Besides, the dynamic FC analyses showed that trait anxiety was positively correlated with dynamic FC variability in hippocampus-prefrontal cortex (HPC-PFC) pathways, including left rostral hippocampus-left superior frontal gyrus (left rHPC-left SFG), and left rHPC-right middle frontal gyrus (left rHPC--MFG). Furthermore, the structural equation modeling (SEM) uncovered a mediated role of self-control in the association between the anxiety-specific brain connectivity and procrastination. These findings suggest that the HPC-PFC pathways may reflect impoverished regulatory ability over the negative thoughts for anxious individuals, and thereby incurs more procrastination, which enhances our understanding of how trait anxiety links to procrastination.

7.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 9: 758084, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34912789

RESUMO

Applying nanosized ultrasound contrast agents (nUCAs) in molecular imaging has received considerable attention. nUCAs have been instrumental in ultrasound molecular imaging to enhance sensitivity, identification, and quantification. nUCAs can achieve high performance in molecular imaging, which was influenced by synthetic formulations and size. This review presents an overview of nUCAs from different synthetic formulations with a discussion on imaging and detection technology. Then we also review the progress of nUCAs in preclinical application and highlight the recent challenges of nUCAs.

8.
Cortex ; 145: 250-263, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773842

RESUMO

Theories on procrastination have proposed that the trade-off between the episodic future thinking (EFT) of positive outcome and negative engagement determines whether to procrastinate. Yet, the neural substrates underlying EFT affects procrastination remain poorly understood. Thus, we adopt a free construction method to obtain individuals' EFT thoughts toward procrastination tasks, and coded these thoughts based on the 2 (emotional valence: positive vs negative) × 2 (imaginary direction: outcome vs engagement) model of EFT (2 × 2 model). Next, a regression analysis was utilized to test the relationship between each dimension in the 2 × 2 model and execution willingness. To explore the neuroanatomical structures underlying EFT, the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis was conducted to find out brain regions responsible for EFT. In addition, the resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) analysis was also utilized to examine the neural pathways underlying EFT affects procrastination. Behavioral results showed combine the anticipated positive outcome with anticipated negative engagement can best predict execution willingness. The VBM analysis revealed that the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was positively correlated with anticipated positive outcome, while the right hippocampus was positively correlated with anticipated negative engagement. The RSFC results indicated that DLPFC functional connectivity with the right inferior frontal gyrus (RIFG) and left precuneus were positively associated with anticipated positive outcome, whereas the hippocampus connectivity with the left insula was positively associated with anticipated negative engagement. Structural equation model results suggest that EFT affects procrastination through the cognitive control pathway (DLPFC-IFG, DLPFC-precuneus) and emotional processing pathway (hippocampus-insula). Collectively, these findings suggest that task procrastination can be predicted by the interaction of the top-down cognitive control pathway and bottom-up emotional processing pathway.

9.
Front Oncol ; 11: 611436, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34692466

RESUMO

Purpose: The fully automatic AI-Sonic computer-aided design (CAD) system was employed for the detection and diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of the AI-Sonic CAD system with the use of a deep learning algorithm to improve the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA). Methods: A total of 138 thyroid nodules were collected from 124 patients and diagnosed by an expert, a novice, and the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS). Diagnostic efficiency and feasibility were compared among the expert, novice, and CAD system. The application of the CAD system to enhance the diagnostic efficiency of novices was assessed. Moreover, with the experience of the expert as the gold standard, the values of features detected by the CAD system were also analyzed. The efficiency of FNA was compared among the expert, novice, and CAD system to determine whether the CAD system is helpful for the management of FNA. Result: In total, 56 malignant and 82 benign thyroid nodules were collected from the 124 patients (mean age, 46.4 ± 12.1 years; range, 12-70 years). The diagnostic area under the curve of the CAD system, expert, and novice were 0.919, 0.891, and 0.877, respectively (p < 0.05). In regard to feature detection, there was no significant differences in the margin and composition between the benign and malignant nodules (p > 0.05), while echogenicity and the existence of echogenic foci were of great significance (p < 0.05). For the recommendation of FNA, the results showed that the CAD system had better performance than the expert and novice (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Precise diagnosis and recommendation of FNA are continuing hot topics for thyroid nodules. The CAD system based on deep learning had better accuracy and feasibility for the diagnosis of thyroid nodules, and was useful to avoid unnecessary FNA. The CAD system is potentially an effective auxiliary approach for diagnosis and asymptomatic screening, especially in developing areas.

10.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 733468, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513890

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence (AI) can support clinical decisions and provide quality assurance for images. Although ultrasonography is commonly used in the field of obstetrics and gynecology, the use of AI is still in a stage of infancy. Nevertheless, in repetitive ultrasound examinations, such as those involving automatic positioning and identification of fetal structures, prediction of gestational age (GA), and real-time image quality assurance, AI has great potential. To realize its application, it is necessary to promote interdisciplinary communication between AI developers and sonographers. In this review, we outlined the benefits of AI technology in obstetric ultrasound diagnosis by optimizing image acquisition, quantification, segmentation, and location identification, which can be helpful for obstetric ultrasound diagnosis in different periods of pregnancy.

11.
J Ultrasound Med ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524706

RESUMO

The incidence of infertility is continuously increasing nearly all over the world in recent years, and novel methods for accurate assessment are of great need. Artificial Intelligence (AI) has gradually become an effective supplementary method for the assessment of female reproductive function. It has been used in clinical follicular monitoring, optimum timing for transplantation, and prediction of pregnancy outcome. Some literatures summarize the use of AI in this field, but few of them focus on the assessment of female reproductive function by AI-aided ultrasound. In this review, we mainly discussed the applicability, feasibility, and value of clinical application of AI in ultrasound to monitor follicles, assess endometrial receptivity, and predict the pregnancy outcome of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). The limitations, challenges, and future trends of ultrasound combined with AI in providing efficient and individualized evaluation of female reproductive function had also been mentioned.

12.
Neuropsychologia ; 161: 107994, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416237

RESUMO

Procrastination refers to voluntarily delaying an important task despite the fact that this decision will take a heavy toll on daily life. Previous researches have shown that boredom proneness is a robust predictor of procrastination and the default mode network (DMN) could be the neural substrate for the connection between the two variables mentioned above. However, how boredom proneness links to procrastination at the neural level remains unclear. To address this question, we adopted the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) methods to identify the neural basis of the relation between boredom proneness and procrastination. Behavioral results indicated that boredom proneness was significantly positively correlated with procrastination. VBM results revealed that boredom proneness was negatively correlated with grey matter volumes in the precuneus/cuneus. Furthermore, the RSFC analyses showed that the functional connectivity between precuneus/cuneus and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) was positively correlated with boredom proneness. More importantly, a mediation analysis found that boredom proneness played a fully mediating role in improving the relationship between precuneus/cuneus-PCC functional connectivity and procrastination. These findings suggest that the brain functional connectivity engages in attention control may account for the association between boredom proneness and procrastination, and highlight the important role of sustaining concentration on mitigating procrastination.


Assuntos
Procrastinação , Tédio , Mapeamento Encefálico , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Lobo Occipital , Lobo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem
13.
Neurobiol Stress ; 15: 100378, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34430677

RESUMO

Background: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has affected humans worldwide and led to unprecedented stress and mortality. Detrimental effects of the pandemic on mental health, including risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), have become an increasing concern. The identification of prospective neurobiological vulnerability markers for developing PTSD symptom during the pandemic is thus of high importance. Methods: Before the COVID-19 outbreak (September 20, 2019-January 11, 2020), some healthy participants underwent resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) acquisition. We assessed the PTSD symptomology of these individuals during the peak of COVID-19 pandemic (February 21, 2020-February 28, 2020) in China. This pseudo-prospective cohort design allowed us to test whether the pre-pandemic neural connectome status could predict the risk of developing PTSD symptom during the pandemic. Results: A total of 5.60% of participants (n = 42) were identified as being high-risk to develop PTSD symptom and 12.00% (n = 90) exhibited critical levels of PTSD symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. Pre-pandemic measures of functional connectivity (the neural connectome) prospectively classified those with heightened risk to develop PTSD symptom from matched controls (Accuracy = 76.19%, Sensitivity = 80.95%, Specificity = 71.43%). The trained classifier generalized to an independent sample. Continuous prediction models revealed that the same connectome could accurately predict the severity of PTSD symptoms within individuals (r 2 = 0.31p<.0). Conclusions: This study confirms COVID-19 break as a crucial stressor to bring risks developing PTSD symptom and demonstrates that brain functional markers can prospectively identify individuals at risk to develop PTSD symptom.

14.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 19(1): 29, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416899

RESUMO

Ultrasound is one of the most important examinations for clinical diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. The speed of image movements driven by the frequency of the beating heart is faster than that of other organs. This particularity of echocardiography poses a challenge for sonographers to diagnose accurately. However, artificial intelligence for detection, functional evaluation, and disease diagnosis has gradually become an alternative for accurate diagnosis and treatment using echocardiography. This work discusses the current application of artificial intelligence in echocardiography technology, its limitations, and future development directions.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Ecocardiografia , Coração , Humanos , Ultrassonografia
15.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(14): 18464-18481, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260413

RESUMO

Background The gastric cancer (GC) microenvironment has important effects on biological behaviors, such as tumor cell invasion and metastasis. However, the mechanism by which the GC microenvironment promotes GC cell invasion and metastasis is unknown. The present study aimed to clarify the effects and mechanism of galectin-1 (GAL-1, encoded by LGALS1) on GC invasion and metastasis in the GC microenvironment. Methods The expression of GAL-1/ LGALS1 was determined using western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR in GC tissues. Besides, methods including stable transfection, Matrigel invasion and migration assays, and wound-healing assays in vitro; and metastasis assays in vivo, were also conducted. Results GAL-1 from cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) induced the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of GC cells though the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß1)/ Sma- and mad-related protein (Smad) pathway, and affected the prognosis of patients with GC. The level of GAL-1 was high in CAFs, and treating MGC-803 and SGC -7901 cell line with the conditioned medium from CAFs promoted their invasion and metastasis abilities. Overexpression of LGALS1 promoted the expression of TGF-ß1 and induced EMT of GC cell lines. A TGF-ß1 antagonist inhibited the invasion and migration of GC cells. In vivo, overexpression of LGALS1 promoted GC growth and metastasis, and the TGF-ß1 antagonist dramatically reversed these events. Conclusions These findings suggested that high expression of GAL-1 in the GC microenvironment predicts a poor prognosis in patients with GC by promoting the migration and invasion of GC cells via EMT through the TGF-ß1/Smad signaling pathway. The results might provide new therapeutic targets to treat GC.

16.
Med Image Anal ; 73: 102134, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246847

RESUMO

Segmentation of ovary and follicles from 3D ultrasound (US) is the crucial technique of measurement tools for female infertility diagnosis. Since manual segmentation is time-consuming and operator-dependent, an accurate and fast segmentation method is highly demanded. However, it is challenging for current deep-learning based methods to segment ovary and follicles precisely due to ambiguous boundaries and insufficient annotations. In this paper, we propose a contrastive rendering (C-Rend) framework to segment ovary and follicles with detail-refined boundaries. Furthermore, we incorporate the proposed C-Rend with a semi-supervised learning (SSL) framework, leveraging unlabeled data for better performance. Highlights of this paper include: (1) A rendering task is performed to estimate boundary accurately via enriched feature representation learning. (2) Point-wise contrastive learning is proposed to enhance the similarity of intra-class points and contrastively decrease the similarity of inter-class points. (3) The C-Rend plays a complementary role for the SSL framework in uncertainty-aware learning, which could provide reliable supervision information and achieve superior segmentation performance. Through extensive validation on large in-house datasets with partial annotations, our method outperforms state-of-the-art methods in various evaluation metrics for both the ovary and follicles.


Assuntos
Ovário , Aprendizado de Máquina Supervisionado , Benchmarking , Feminino , Humanos , Ovário/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Incerteza
17.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 384, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244469

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has exposed humans to the highest physical and mental risks. Thus, it is becoming a priority to probe the mental health problems experienced during the pandemic in different populations. We performed a meta-analysis to clarify the prevalence of postpandemic mental health problems. Seventy-one published papers (n = 146,139) from China, the United States, Japan, India, and Turkey were eligible to be included in the data pool. These papers reported results for Chinese, Japanese, Italian, American, Turkish, Indian, Spanish, Greek, and Singaporean populations. The results demonstrated a total prevalence of anxiety symptoms of 32.60% (95% confidence interval (CI): 29.10-36.30) during the COVID-19 pandemic. For depression, a prevalence of 27.60% (95% CI: 24.00-31.60) was found. Further, insomnia was found to have a prevalence of 30.30% (95% CI: 24.60-36.60). Of the total study population, 16.70% (95% CI: 8.90-29.20) experienced post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. Subgroup analysis revealed the highest prevalence of anxiety (63.90%) and depression (55.40%) in confirmed and suspected patients compared with other cohorts. Notably, the prevalence of each symptom in other countries was higher than that in China. Finally, the prevalence of each mental problem differed depending on the measurement tools used. In conclusion, this study revealed the prevalence of mental problems during the COVID-19 pandemic by using a fairly large-scale sample and further clarified that the heterogeneous results for these mental health problems may be due to the nonstandardized use of psychometric tools.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia , Japão , Saúde Mental , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Quant Imaging Med Surg ; 11(7): 3165-3174, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34249643

RESUMO

Background: Pelvic cystic masses are a common gynecological condition. Ultrasound-guided aspiration is a minimally invasive surgical technique for the treatment of pelvic cystic masses. However, further developments to improve its stability and safety are wanting. This study evaluated the application and safety of a self-developed auxiliary device for pelvic cystic masses' ultrasound-guided aspiration through phantom testing. Methods: Saline and coupling agents were used at different viscosity levels to simulate simple cysts, medium viscosity cysts (such as pelvic effusions), and ovarian, endometrial cysts. An auxiliary device consisting of a three-way valve, a negative pressure aspirator, and a pressurized infusion bag was developed. Phantom testing was performed to evaluate the application of this device in ultrasound-guided aspiration of pelvic cystic masses. The indicators, including the time of aspiration, time of injection, and the incidence of complications, were compared to cases in which ultrasound-guided aspiration was performed manually with a syringe. Results: The incidence of complications in the auxiliary device group was significantly lower compared to the manual operation group (P<0.05). The ovarian cystic aspiration times and operation times were significantly shorter in the auxiliary device group compared to the traditional manual puncture group (P<0.05). Conclusions: Ultrasound-guided aspiration is repeatable and minimally invasive for the treatment of pelvic cystic masses. Using the auxiliary device designed in this report resulted in shorter operation times, definite needle fixation, and fewer complications, which may allow for a more stable and safer aspiration procedure for the treatment of pelvic cystic masses.

19.
Environ Microbiol ; 23(9): 5463-5480, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288342

RESUMO

Pyricularia oryzae is a multi-host pathogen causing cereal disease, including the devastating rice blast. Panicle blast is a serious stage, leading to severe yield loss. Thirty-one isolates (average 4.1%) were collected from the rice panicle lesions at nine locations covering Jiangsu province from 2010 to 2017. These isolates were characterized as Pyricularia sp. jiangsuensis distinct from known Pyricularia species. The representative strain 18-2 can infect rice panicle, root and five kinds of grasses. Intriguingly, strain 18-2 can co-infect rice leaf with P. oryzae Guy11. The whole genome of P. sp. jiangsuensis 18-2 was sequenced. Nine effectors were distributed in translocation or inversion region, which may link to the rapid evolution of effectors. Twenty-one homologues of known blast-effectors were identified in strain 18-2, seven effectors including the homologues of SLP1, BAS2, BAS113, CDIP2/3, MoHEG16 and Avr-Pi54, were upregulated in the sample of inoculated panicle with strain 18-2 at 24 hpi compared with inoculation at 8 hpi. Our results provide evidences that P. sp. jiangsuensis represents an addition to the mycobiota of blast disease. This study advances our understanding of the pathogenicity of P. sp. jiangsuensis to hosts, which sheds new light on the adaptability in the co-evolution of pathogen and host.

20.
Can J Microbiol ; 67(11): 827-834, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283923

RESUMO

Rice aggregate sheath spot disease occurs in many countries and causes serious yield losses. In China, the disease-causing fungus Rhizoctonia oryzae-sativae was reported in 1985, and since then, it has rarely been reported in major rice-growing areas after almost 30 years. Compared with Rhizoctonia solani, R. oryzae-sativae has a significantly different physiological morphology and growth status, although both fungi affect rice leaves in very similar ways. The optimum temperature for the suitable growth of R. oryzae-sativae is 31 °C, which is consistent with previous reports. We extracted phytotoxins from R. oryzae-sativae and analyzed its biological activity via the detached leaf and radicle inhibition methods. Rhizoctonia solani and R. oryzae-sativae exhibit differences in terms of pathogenicity and toxin activity, which indicates that these fungi may produce different toxin components. Based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data, esters, phenols, and other components were present in the crude toxin extract of R. oryzae-sativae. Our research provides a new method for studying the phytotoxins of R. oryzae-sativae. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms responsible for aggregate sheath spot disease in rice.


Assuntos
Oryza , Basidiomycota , Doenças das Plantas , Rhizoctonia
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