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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231431

RESUMO

Purpose: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with increased incidence of arrhythmias, which has been attributed to autonomic dysregulation. Detection of autonomic function may facilitate stratification of COPD patients with respect to their risk of development of arrhythmias. Patients and Methods: A total of 151 COPD patients and 45 non-COPD patients were included in this study. Heart rate deceleration runs (DRs) were detected by dynamic electrocardiogram (ECG); DRs successively occurring in 2, 4, or 8 cardiac cycles were denoted as DR2, DR4, and DR8, respectively. Indicators of arrhythmias including isolated premature atrial contractions (PAC), supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), isolated premature ventricular contractions (PVC), and ventricular tachycardia (VT) were recorded. Occurrence of SVT or PAC ≥70/day was considered positive for supraventricular arrhythmias, while positive ventricular arrhythmias category (PVAC) was defined as occurrence of VT or PVC ≥10/hour. Results: Compared with non-COPD individuals, COPD patients were associated with increased number of PAC, PVC, higher incidence of PAC >70/d, SVT, PVAC, and decreased DRs (DR2, DR4, DR8) (P<0.05). In COPD patients, DRs showed a negative correlation with the incidence of PAC, PVC, SVT, and PVAC (P<0.05). In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, all the DRs were found to be significant predictors of PAC >70/d, SVT, and PVAC. The predictive power of DRs was significantly different from one another with the order ranged as DR4>DR8>DR2 for PAC >70/d, DR8>DR4>DR2 for SVT, and DR8>DR4>DR2 for PVAC. Conclusion: Our study provides evidence of significant autonomic dysregulation in COPD patients. DRs may serve as a marker of the risk of arrhythmias in COPD patients.

2.
J Drug Target ; : 1-28, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242754

RESUMO

Ligands are an important part of targeted drug delivery systems. Optimized lignads not only improve the target efficiency, but also enhance therapeutical effect of drugs. In our research, five sugar molecules (Mannose, Galactose, Glucose, Malt disaccharide, and Maltotriose) conjugated PEG600-DSPE were synthesized, of which polysaccharides were first discovered by us as sugar ligands to modify liposomes, which interacts with over expressive GLUT on cancer cells. DiO was encapsulated as fluorescent probe to evaluate their cellular uptake abilities of targeting C6 glioma cells, and the distribution in different visceral organs of rats. The results demonstrated that Malt disaccharide and Glucose-PEG600-DSPE had the strong efficiency of cellular uptake by C6 glioma cells. The distribution and accumulation of liposomes showed that different sugars modified liposomes could target different visceral organs in rats. It has provided a novel idea for ligand selectivity and optimization of nanocarriers for tumor targeted therapy.

4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 3862509, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149102

RESUMO

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a sight-threatening complication of diabetes. This study investigated the therapeutic effect of probucol in a mouse model of diabetic retinopathy. C57BL/6 mice were rendered diabetic through Streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneal injection. Mice were treated with probucol (150 mg/kg, gavage administration) or vehicle (DMSO) for 12 weeks. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), fundus photography (FP), and fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) were conducted to evaluate retinal structure and damage. Eyes were collected for histology, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, apoptotic cells count, and western blot. After STZ injection, all mice developed hyperglycemia. Compared with the retina of the control group, the retina of diabetic mice showed enhanced arterial reflex and beaded vein dilatation. Besides, reduced inner and middle retinal thickness and significantly fewer nuclei were found in diabetic retina. Moreover, the diabetic retina also presented increased ROS generation and more TUNEL-positive cells. Probucol treatment prevented diabetes-induced lesions. In addition, the treatment also upregulated Nrf2 expression in diabetic retina. It was suggested that probucol attenuated diabetes-induced retinal neuronal degeneration via upregulating the Nrf2 signaling pathway possibly. Probucol may be repurposed for DR management.

5.
Plant Cell Environ ; 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196121

RESUMO

This study aimed to reveal the mechanistic basis of the melatonin-mediated amelioration of salinity stress in plants. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that melatonin decreased salt-induced K+ efflux (a critical determinant of plant salt tolerance) in a dose- and time-dependent manner and reduced sensitivity of the plasma membrane K+ -permeable channels to hydroxyl radicals. These beneficial effects of melatonin were abolished by NADPH oxidase blocker DPI. Transcriptome analyses revealed that melatonin induced 585 (448 up- and 137 down-regulated) and 59 (54 up- and 5 down-regulated) differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the root tip and mature zone, respectively. The most noticeable changes in the root tip were melatonin-induced increase in the expression of several DEGs encoding respiratory burst NADPH oxidase (OsRBOHA and OsRBOHF), calcineurin B-like/calcineurin B-like-interacting protein kinase (OsCBL/OsCIPK), and calcium-dependent protein kinase (OsCDPK) under salt stress. Melatonin also enhanced the expression of potassium transporter genes (OsAKT1, OsHAK1, and OsHAK5). Taken together, these results indicate that melatonin improves salt tolerance in rice by enabling K+ retention in roots, and that the latter process is conferred by melatonin scavenging of hydroxyl radicals and a concurrent OsRBOHF-dependent ROS signaling required to activate stress-responsive genes and increasing the expression of K+ uptake transporters in the root tip. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 6834236, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32190176

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of human tissue kallikrein 1 (hKLK1) on type 1 diabetes mellitus- (DM-) induced erectile dysfunction in rats. Materials and Methods. The homozygous transgenic rats (TGR) harboring the hKLK1 gene and age-matched wild-type Sprague Dawley rats (WTR) were involved, and intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin was utilized to induce diabetes in rats. Forty-eight-week-old male rats were randomly divided into a WTR group, TGR group, diabetic WTR group (WTDM), diabetic TGR group (TGDM), and TGDM with HOE140 group (TGDMH), with eight rats in each group. Twelve weeks later, the erectile response of all rats was detected by cavernous nerve electric stimulation, and corpus cavernosums were harvested to evaluate the levels of cavernous oxidative stress (OS), apoptosis, fibrosis, and involved pathways. Moreover, cavernous smooth muscle cells (CSMC) and endothelial cells (EC) were primarily isolated to build a coculture system for a series of in vitro verification. Results: The hKLK1 gene and age-matched wild-type Sprague Dawley rats (WTR) were involved, and intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin was utilized to induce diabetes in rats. Forty-eight-week-old male rats were randomly divided into a WTR group, TGR group, diabetic WTR group (WTDM), diabetic TGR group (TGDM), and TGDM with HOE140 group (TGDMH), with eight rats in each group. Twelve weeks later, the erectile response of all rats was detected by cavernous nerve electric stimulation, and corpus cavernosums were harvested to evaluate the levels of cavernous oxidative stress (OS), apoptosis, fibrosis, and involved pathways. Moreover, cavernous smooth muscle cells (CSMC) and endothelial cells (EC) were primarily isolated to build a coculture system for a series of. Conclusions: hKLK1 preserves erectile function of DM rats through its antitissue excessive OS, apoptosis, and fibrosis effects, as well as activation of the PI3K/AKT/eNOS/cGMP pathway in the penis. Moreover, hKLK1 promotes relaxation and prevents high glucose-induced injuries of CSMC mediated by EC-CSMC crosstalk.

7.
J Spinal Cord Med ; : 1-6, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182195

RESUMO

Study design: A retrospective hospital-based study.Objective: To describe the epidemiological profile of traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) in Guangdong Province.Setting: Two hospitals within Guangdong Province, China.Methods: Medical records of patients diagnosed with TSCI admitted to Foshan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Zhujiang Hospital of South Medical University from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Epidemiological characteristics, such as age, sex, occupation, etiology, neurological level of injury, American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale at admission, death and cause of death during the acute hospitalization and concomitant injuries.Results: During the study period, 482 cases were identified. Male-to-female ratio was 3.4:1, with a mean age of 41.5 ± 12.6 years old. The leading cause was falls (49.3%), followed by motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) (34.8%). The most common injury site was the cervical spinal cord, especially C4-C6, accounting for 39.8%.Conclusion: The number of TSCI patients in Guangdong Province is large and is exhibiting a rising trend. The leading causes were falls and MVCs. The low-falls (height < 1 m) group has expanded over this period. With China entering an ageing society, more appropriate preventative measures should be implemented for fall-related injuries among the elderly.

8.
Front Plant Sci ; 11: 267, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218795

RESUMO

The genome of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) shows the presence of six organelle-specific and one plasma membrane (OsNHX1-7) NHX-type cation proton antiporters. Of these, vacuolar-localized OsNHX1 is extensively characterized. The genus Oryza consists of 27 species and 11 genome-types, with cultivated rice, diploid O. sativa, having an AA-type genome. Oryza NHX1 orthologous regions (gene organization, 5' upstream cis elements, amino acid residues/motifs) from closely related Oryza AA genomes cluster distinctly from NHX1 regions from more ancestral Oryza BB, FF and KKLL genomes. These sequence-specific distinctions also extend to two separate intron retention (IR) events involving Oryza NHX1 transcripts that occur at the 5' and 3' ends of the NHX1 transcripts. We demonstrate that the IR event involving the 5' UTR is present only in more recently evolved Oryza AA genomes while the IR event governing retention of the 13th intron of Oryza NHX1 (terminal intron) is more ancient in origin, also occurring in halophytic wild rice, Oryza coarctata (KKLL). We also report presence of a retro-copy of the OcNHX1 cDNA in the genome of O. coarctata (rOcNHX1). Preferential species and tissue specific up- or down-regulation of the correctly spliced NHX1 transcript/5' UTR/13th intron-retaining splice variants under salinity was observed. The implications of IR on NHX1 mRNA stability and ORF diversity in Oryza spp. is discussed.

9.
Neuropharmacology ; 168: 108028, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151646

RESUMO

Itch is an unpleasant feeling that triggers scratching behavior. Much progress has been made in identifying the mechanism of itch at the peripheral and spinal levels, however, itch circuits in the brain remain largely unexplored. We previously found that anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to dorsal medial striatum (DMS) inputs modulated histamine-induced itch sensation, but how itch information was transmitted to ACC remained unclear. Here, we demonstrated that the anteromedial thalamic nucleus (AM) was activated during histaminergic itch, and there existed reciprocal neuronal projections between AM and ACC. Disconnection between AM and ACC resulted in a significant reduction of histaminergic, but not nonhistaminergic, itch-related scratching behavior. Optogenetic activation of AM-ACC, but not ACC-AM, projections evoked histaminergic itch sensation. Thus, our studies firstly reveal that AM is critical for histaminergic itch sensation and AM-ACC projections modulate histaminergic itch-induced scratching behavior.

10.
Eur Respir J ; 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) outbreak is evolving rapidly worldwide. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of serious adverse outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) by stratifying the comorbidity status. METHODS: We analysed the data from 1590 laboratory-confirmed hospitalised patients 575 hospitals in 31 province/autonomous regions/provincial municipalities across mainland China between December 11th, 2019 and January 31st, 2020. We analyse the composite endpoints, which consisted of admission to intensive care unit, or invasive ventilation, or death. The risk of reaching to the composite endpoints was compared according to the presence and number of comorbidities. RESULTS: The mean age was 48.9 years. 686 patients (42.7%) were females. Severe cases accounted for 16.0% of the study population. 131 (8.2%) patients reached to the composite endpoints. 399 (25.1%) reported having at least one comorbidity. The most prevalent comorbidity was hypertension (16.9%), followed by diabetes (8.2%). 130 (8.2%) patients reported having two or more comorbidities. After adjusting for age and smoking status, COPD [hazards ratio (HR) 2.681, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 1.424-5.048], diabetes (HR 1.59, 95%CI 1.03-2.45), hypertension (HR 1.58, 95%CI 1.07-2.32) and malignancy (HR 3.50, 95%CI 1.60-7.64) were risk factors of reaching to the composite endpoints. The HR was 1.79 (95%CI 1.16-2.77) among patients with at least one comorbidity and 2.59 (95%CI 1.61-4.17) among patients with two or more comorbidities. CONCLUSION: Among laboratory-confirmed cases of Covid-19, patients with any comorbidity yielded poorer clinical outcomes than those without. A greater number of comorbidities also correlated with poorer clinical outcomes.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222919

RESUMO

The occurrence and spatial distribution of 22 congener phthalate esters (PAEs) in the Lanzhou section of the Yellow River were investigated using water and sediment samples collected from 12 stations along the river in August 2016 to March 2017. PAEs were determined by liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The average concentrations of PAE in the water samples during the dry and wet periods were 3236.0 ng/L and 2300.0 ng/L, and the average dry and wet periods of the PAEs in the sediments were 4238.9 ng/g and 3959.9 ng/g, respectively. PAEs were detected in all sampling sites. The six PAEs controlled by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), and butyl benzyl phthalate(BBP), were detected. DMP, DEP, DBP, and DEHP accounted for more than 70% of all PAEs. In view of time distribution, PAEs concentration in the water samples of the dry season were greater than those of the wet season, but the sediments did not differ remarkably across the different periods. As for spatial distribution, the PAEs initially exhibited low concentrations in the upper reaches, high concentrations in the middle part, and low concentrations in the downstream; a health risk assessment of the six PAEs controlled by the U.S. EPA was carried out according to priority. Results showed that the carcinogenic risk value was less than 10-6, and the values of the non-carcinogenic compound risk index were less than 1, indicating the absence of carcinogenic damage to organisms or humans.

12.
Org Biomol Chem ; 18(12): 2223-2226, 2020 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162639

RESUMO

A novel photoredox-catalyzed radical addition of methylene-2-oxazolines has been developed under visible light irradiation to synthesize monofluorooxazoles with a quaternary carbon center using 2-bromo-2-fluoro-3-oxo-3-phenylpropionates as radical source. This method with a simple protocol, scalability and high yield offers a facile path to get diverse monofluorinated oxazoles with quaternary C-F centers, which are a class of highly valuable motifs and synthons.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) to platelet ratio (GPR) was proposed as a novel index for predicting liver inflammation in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. We aimed to investigate GPR for predicting significant liver inflammation in CHB patients with normal (≤1×upper limit of normal, ULN) or mildly elevated (≤2×ULN) alanine transaminase (ALT). METHODS AND METHODS: 431 treatment-naïve CHB patients with normal or mildly elevated ALT who underwent liver biopsy were enrolled. Comparision of GPR and other parameters for significant liver inflammation (G≥3). RESULTS: For patients with ALT≤2×ULN, the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUROCs) of GPR in predicting significant liver inflammation were 0.837 (95%CI 0.796 to 0.878), 0.860 (95%CI 0.809 to 0.910) and 0.809 (95%CI 0.739 to 0.878) in the entire patients, HBeAg positive and HBeAg negative CHB patients, respectively. The diagnostic performance of GPR was higher than ALT (P<0.001, P<0.001, respectively), aspartate transaminase (AST) (P=0.001, P=0.003, respectively) and GGT (P=0.002, P=0.002, respectively) in the entire and HBeAg positive patients, but was comparable with AST (P=0.096) and GGT (P=0.273) in the HBeAg negative CHB patients. For patients with ALT≤1×ULN, the diagnostic accuracy of GPR was significantly higher than ALT, AST and GGT in the entire (P<0.001, P=0.008 and P=0.043, respectively) and HBeAg positive CHB patients (P<0.001, P=0.009 and P=0.024, respectively), while was comparable to AST (P=0.209) and GGT(P=0.555) in the HBeAg negative CHB patients. CONCLUSION: GPR has a better diagnostic value than conventional parameters to predict significant liver inflammation in CHB patients with normal or mildly elevated ALT levels, especially for HBeAg positive CHB.

14.
Diabetes ; 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139594

RESUMO

Diabetic keratopathy occurs in approximately 70% of all diabetics. This study was designed to examine the effects of vitamin D receptor knockout (VDR-/-) and vitamin D deficiency (VDD) on corneal epithelial wound healing and nerve density in diabetic mice. Diabetes was induced using the low dose streptozotocin method. Corneal epithelial wounds were created using an Alger brush and wound healing was monitored over time. Corneal nerve density was measured in unwounded mice. VDR-/- and VDD diabetic mice (diabetic for 8 and 20 weeks, respectively) had slower healing ratios than WT diabetic mice. VDR-/- and VDD diabetic mice also showed significantly decreased nerve density. Reduced wound healing ratios and nerve densities were not fully rescued by a supplemental diet rich in calcium, lactose and phosphate. We conclude that VDR-/- and VDD significantly reduce both corneal epithelial wound healing and nerve density in diabetic mice. Because the supplemental diet did not rescue wound healing or nerve density, these effects are likely not specifically related to hypocalcemia. This work supports the hypothesis that low vitamin D levels can exacerbate pre-existing ophthalmic conditions such as diabetes.

15.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230712, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although it is well acknowledged that persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus types in genital sites plays a crucial role in the development of squamous cell cervical carcinoma, there is no unanimous consensus on the association between non-HPV sexually transmitted infections and abnormal cervical cytology. METHODS: In the present study, we evaluated cervical cytology status, sexually transmitted infections and bacterial vaginosis status, and collected social-demographic information among recruited participants to explore the association of STIs and bacterial vaginosis with abnormal cervical cytology. RESULTS: 9,090 women's specimens were successfully tested, with a total of 8,733 (96.1%) women had normal cytology and 357 (3.9%) women exhibited abnormal cytology. The prevalence of HPV, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and bacterial vaginosis was significantly higher in the ≥ASC-US group than the NILM group (P<0.05). Women with Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection (AOR = 5.30, 95% CIs = 1.30-21.51, P = 0.020) or bacterial vaginosis (AOR = 1.94, 95% CIs = 1.08-3.47, P = 0.026) exhibited an increased risk of abnormal cervical cytology after adjusted for carcinogenic HPV-positive status. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in genital sites and/or bacterial vaginosis may independently increase the risk for cervical cytology abnormalities after adjusted for carcinogenic HPV-positive status. Besides, these results improved our understanding of the etiology of abnormal cervical cytology and may be useful for the management of women with ASC-US cytology.

16.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 57, 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The well-known traditional Chinese herbal formula Guizhi Fuling Wan (GFW) was recently reported to improve the curative effects of chemotherapy for ovarian cancer with few clinical side effects. The present study aimed to investigate the reversal mechanism of sera derived from rats exposed to Guizhi Fuling Wan extract (GFWE) in cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer SKOV3/DDP cells; the proteins examined included phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and metadherin (MTDH), and the possible protein interaction between PTEN and MTDH was explored. METHODS: GFWE was administered to healthy Wistar rats, and the sera were collected after five days. The PubMed and CNKI databases were searched for literature on the bioactive blood components in the sera. The systemsDock website was used to predict potential PTEN/MTDH interactions with the compounds. RT-qPCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescence analyses were used to analyze the mRNA and protein levels of MTDH and PTEN. Laser confocal microscopy and coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP) were used to analyze the colocalization and interaction between MTDH and PTEN. RESULTS: Sixteen bioactive compounds were identified in GFWE sera after searching the PubMed and CNKI databases. The systemsDock website predicted the potential PTEN/MTDH interactions with the compounds. RT-qPCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescence analyses showed decreased MTDH expression and increased PTEN expression in the sera. Laser confocal microscopy images and coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP) analyses demonstrated that a colocalization and interaction occurred between MTDH and PTEN, and the addition of the sera changed the interaction status. CONCLUSIONS: GFWE restored sensitivity to cisplatin by inhibiting MTDH expression, inducing PTEN expression, and improving the interaction between MTDH and PTEN in SKOV3/DDP cells, and these proteins and their interaction may serve as potential targets for cancer treatment. The sera may represent a new source of anticancer compounds that could help to manage chemoresistance more efficiently and safely.

17.
Nanotechnology ; 31(23): 235603, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053797

RESUMO

Yttrium orthovanadate (YVO4) has been widely used as a host material for low- and medium-power diode-pumped solid-state lasers due to its excellent thermal, mechanical, and optical properties. This work demonstrates the synthesis and site symmetry tunning of polycrystalline YVO4:Eu nanoparticles with uniform size and shape using a continuous-flow microreactor at high pressures. High-quality YVO4:Eu nanoparticles were created using a residence time of fewer than 20 s. Carefully controlling the heat flux and flow rate can produce the YVO4:Eu nanoparticles showing different crystallinity, crystal morphologies, site symmetry around Eu3+, and therefore optical emission. The site symmetry of YVO4:Eu is adjusted without any stoichiometric modification of the precursors by simply varying the flow rate and heat flux of the microreactor. The site symmetries of the as-synthesized YVO4:Eu nanoparticles are studied by investigating their photoluminescent emission spectra and computational model of first-principle density functional theory (DFT). The DFT model indicates that the oxygen vacancy influenced the V-O association and the overlap between Eu 4f and V 3d states which can contribute to different optical transitions and, therefore, distinct emission spectrum. The use of a continuous flow microreactor at high pressure provides better understandings of the hydrothermal syntheses of functional nanoparticles and enables scalable manufacturing concurrently.

18.
Cancer Res ; 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32094298

RESUMO

The androgen receptor (AR) is a critical therapeutic target in prostate cancer that responds to antagonists in primary disease but inevitably becomes re-activated, signaling onset of the lethal castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) stage. Epigenomic investigation of the chromatin environment and interacting partners required for AR transcriptional activity has uncovered three pioneer factors that open up chromatin and facilitate AR-driven transcriptional programs. FOXA1, HOXB13 and GATA2 are required for normal AR transcription in prostate epithelial development and for oncogenic AR transcription during prostate carcinogenesis. AR signaling is dependent upon these three pioneer factors both before and after the clinical transition from treatable androgen-dependent disease to untreatable CRPC. Agents targeting their respective DNA binding or downstream chromatin remodeling events have shown promise in preclinical studies of CRPC. AR-independent functions of FOXA1, HOXB13 and GATA2 are emerging as well. While all three pioneer factors exert effects that promote carcinogenesis, some of their functions may inhibit certain stages of prostate cancer progression. In all, these pioneer factors represent some of the most promising potential therapeutic targets to emerge thus far from the study of the prostate cancer epigenome.

19.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32042163

RESUMO

Extracellular potassium concentration affects the membrane potential of neurons, and, thus, neuronal activity. Indeed, alterations of potassium levels can be related to neurological disorders, such as epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease, and, therefore, selectively detecting extracellular potassium would allow the monitoring of disease. However, currently available optical reporters are not capable of detecting small changes in potassium, in particular, in freely moving animals. Furthermore, they are susceptible to interference from sodium ions. Here, we report a highly sensitive and specific potassium nanosensor that can monitor potassium changes in the brain of freely moving mice undergoing epileptic seizures. An optical potassium indicator is embedded in mesoporous silica nanoparticles, which are shielded by an ultrathin layer of a potassium-permeable membrane, which prevents diffusion of other cations and allows the specific capturing of potassium ions. The shielded nanosensor enables the spatial mapping of potassium ion release in the hippocampus of freely moving mice.

20.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(14): 2210, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031562

RESUMO

Correction for 'One-pot construction of functionalized aziridines and maleimides via a novel pseudo-Knoevenagel cascade reaction' by Jie Lei et al., Chem. Commun., 2020, DOI: .

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