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1.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2020 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112110

RESUMO

The genetic etiology of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) has been well established to date, however, the role of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in POI is largely unknown. In this study, we identified a down-expressed lncRNA HCP5 in granulosa cells (GCs) from biochemical POI (bPOI) patients, which impaired DNA damage repair and promoted apoptosis of GCs. Mechanistically, we discovered that HCP5 stabilized the interaction between YB1 and its partner ILF2, which could mediate YB1 transferring into the nucleus of GCs. HCP5 silencing affected the localization of YB1 into nucleus and reduced the binding of YB1 to the promoter of MSH5 gene, thereby diminishing MSH5 expression. Taken together, we identified that the decreased expression of HCP5 in bPOI contributed to dysfunctional GCs by regulating MSH5 transcription and DNA damage repair via the interaction with YB1, providing a novel epigenetic mechanism for POI pathogenesis.

2.
Transl Res ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119846

RESUMO

The mechanisms underlying metabolic and reproductive dysfunction caused by arrhythmic circadian clock and their involvement in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are not understood. Here, we addressed this issue using rats with constant light or darkness exposure for 8 weeks and human leukocytes and serum of PCOS and non-PCOS patients. Additionally, we utilized HepG2 cells and KGN cells to verify the molecular mechanisms. The arrhythmic expressions of circadian clock genes due to constant darkness induced the metabolic and reproductive hallmarks of PCOS in rats. After exposure to constant darkness, decreased brain and muscle ARNT-like protein 1 (BMAL1) promoted insulin resistance via glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), and decreased period (PER) 1 and PER2 promoted androgen excess via insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 4 (IGFBP4) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in the liver. Hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism shared a bidirectional link promoting aberrant expression of circadian genes and inducing apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells. Notably, the altered expressions of circadian clock genes in darkness-treated rats matched those of PCOS patients. Furthermore, melatonin treatment relieved the hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism of darkness-treated rats via BMAL1, PER1, and PER2. Restoring normal light/dark exposure for 2 weeks reversed these conditions via BMAL1. In conclusion, our findings elucidated the critical function of circadian clock genes, especially BMAL1, PER1, and PER2 in PCOS, which might aid the development of feasible preventive and therapeutic strategies for PCOS in women with biorhythm disorder.

3.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 20(1): 19, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common reason of anovulatory infertility. Environmental factor is one of the main causes of PCOS, but its contribution to ovulatory dysfunction in PCOS remains unknown. METHODS: A total of 2217 infertile women diagnosed as PCOS according to Rotterdam criteria were recruited, including 1979 women with oligo-anovulation (OA group) and 238 women with normal -anovulation (non OA group). Besides, 279 healthy control women of reproductive age were enrolled as controls. RESULTS: Frequencies of snoring (PCOS-OA group, PCOS-non-OA group, control group: 29.30% vs 18.10% vs 11.50%, P < 0.01), smoking (37.70% vs 28.10% vs 12.20%, P < 0.01), plastic tableware usage (38.30% vs 28.10% vs 25.40%, P < 0.01) and indoor decoration (32.10% vs 24.80% vs 16.80%, P < 0.01) were highest in PCOS-OA group. After adjusted for multivariable, difference remained significant between PCOS-OA group and the other two groups. PCOS-OA women preferred a meat favorable diet compared to PCOS-non-OA group (54.60% vs 41.30%, P < 0.01). There was no difference between three groups in exercise, frequency of insomnia, and alcohol consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking, snoring, hyper-caloric diet, plastic tableware usage and indoor decoration were found to be associated with an increased risk for ovulatory dysfunction in women suffering from PCOS.

4.
EBioMedicine ; 52: 102635, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ovulatory dysfunction mechanisms underlying polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are not completely understood. There is no effective therapy for PCOS so far. METHODS: We measured the expression of four and a half LIM domain 2 (FHL2) and other related-genes in human granulosa cells (hGCs) from patients with and without PCOS. To minimise the heterogeneity of patients with PCOS, we only included PCOS patients meeting all three criteria according to the revised Rotterdam consensus. The in vitro effects of FHL2 on ovulatory genes and the underlying mechanisms were examined in KGN cells. The role of FHL2 in ovulation was investigated in vivo by overexpressing FHL2 in rat ovaries via intrabursal lentivirus injection. FINDINGS: Increased FHL2 and androgen receptor (AR) expression and decreased CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ß (C/EBPß) expression were observed in hGCs from patients with PCOS. FHL2 inhibited the expression of ovulation-related genes, including phosphorylated ERK1/2, C/EBPß, COX2 and HAS2 in KGN cells. It was partially by interacting with AR to act as its co-regulator to inhibit C/EBPß expression and by binding to ERK1/2 to inhibit its phosphorylation. Moreover, FHL2 abundance in hGCs was positively correlated with the basal serum testosterone concentration of patients with PCOS, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced FHL2 upregulation was mediated by AR signalling in KGN cells. Additionally, lentiviral-mediated functional FHL2 overexpression in rat ovaries for 1 week contributed to an impaired superovulatory response, displaying decreased numbers of retrieved oocytes and a lower MII oocyte rate. 3-week FHL2 overexpression rat models without superovulation led to acyclicity and polycystic ovary morphology. INTERPRETATION: Our findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of PCOS, suggesting that FHL2 could be a potential treatment target for ovulatory obstacles in PCOS. FUND: National Key Research and Development Program of China, National Natural Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health project and Shanghai Commission of Science and Technology.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103397

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the associations of previous pregnancy failures, including implantation failures (IFs), biochemical pregnancy losses (BPLs), and early (EMs) and late miscarriages (LMs), with blastocyst aneuploidy and pregnancy outcomes after PGT-A. METHODS: This study included 792 couples who underwent PGT-A after multiple pregnancy failures. Subgroup analyses were used to compare the blastocyst aneuploidy rate (BAR), implantation rate (IR), early miscarriage rate (EMR), and live birth rate (LBR). Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations. The control group comprised couples with ≤ 2 IFs, ≤ 1 BPL, ≤ 1 EM, and no LM. RESULTS: Notably, a history of ≥ 4 IFs was significantly associated with an increase in aneuploid blastocysts (42.86% vs. 33.05%, P = 0.044, B = 10.23 for 4 IFs; 48.80% vs. 33.05%, P = 0.002, B = 14.43 for ≥ 5 IFs). Women with ≥ 4 prior EMs also harbored more aneuploid blastocysts (41.00% vs. 33.05%, P = 0.048; B = 9.23). Compared with the control group, women with ≥ 4 prior EMs had a significantly higher EMR (6.58% vs. 31.11%, P < 0.001, OR = 6.49) and a lower LBR (53.49% vs. 34.18%, P = 0.007, OR = 0.56) after euploid transfer. Moreover, a history of LM(s) was associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes after PGT-A (OR for EM = 3.16; OR for live birth = 0.48). However, previous BPLs and 2 EMs were not associated significantly with blastocyst aneuploidy and pregnancy outcomes after PGT-A. CONCLUSION: A history of high-order IFs or EMs and existence of LM(s) were significantly associated with blastocyst aneuploidy and adverse pregnancy outcomes after PGT-A, whereas no such associations were observed with BPLs or 2 EMs.

6.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(2): 107, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034125

RESUMO

Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and they exist in different states of pluripotency-naïve and primed states. Pten is a well-known tumor suppressor. Here, we generated Pten-/- mouse ESCs with the CRISPR-Cas9 system and verified that Pten-/- ESCs maintained naïve pluripotency by blocking Gsk3ß activity. Serum/LIF and 2i (MAPK and GSK3 inhibitors) conditions are commonly used for ESC maintenance. We show that the Pten-inhibitor SF1670 contributed to sustaining mouse ESCs and that Pten activation by the S380A, T382A, and T383A mutations (Pten-A3) suppressed the pluripotency of ESCs. The in vivo teratoma formation ability of SF1670-treated ESCs increased, while the Pten-A3 mutations suppressed teratoma formation. Furthermore, the embryoid bodies derived from Pten-deficient ESCs or SF1670-treated wild-type ESCs showed greater expression of ectoderm and pluripotency markers. These results suggest that Pten-mediated Gsk3ß modulates the naïve pluripotency of ESCs and that Pten ablation regulates the lineage-specific differentiation.

8.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; 83(4): e13220, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925865

RESUMO

PROBLEM: For women of reproductive age, achieving a successful pregnancy requires both the normal functioning of reproductive endocrine and the health of the reproductive tract environment. We aimed to study how these fertility factors, such as female age, baseline sexual hormone levels, tubal patency, and vaginal pH, affect the composition of vaginal microbiome. METHOD OF STUDY: The 16S rRNA sequencing was carried on vaginal microbiome samples from 85 women of reproductive age without vaginal infections or reproductive endocrine diseases. The detailed correlations between fertility factors and vaginal microbiome were quantified by Spearman's rank tests. A linear discriminant analysis was carried out to explore the effects of fertility factors on the relative abundances of vaginal bacterial species. RESULTS: The vaginal pH, levels of basal E2, LH, and FSH all had significant effects on the distribution of vaginal microbiome. The relative abundances of vaginal bacterial species, including Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Prevotella intermedia, were significantly different due to the host's state of reproductive endocrine and tubal patency. It was worth noting that women with tubal obstruction, or prolonged menstrual cycle, or antral follicle count >15, or vaginal pH > 4.5 all had a higher abundance of Escherichia coli in vagina. CONCLUSION: The fertility factors associated with the reproductive endocrine and the genital tract environment affected vaginal microbiome in women of reproductive age. The species Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, Prevotella intermedia, etc could be used as biomarkers to reflect the pathological state of reproductive endocrine and genital tract.

9.
Biol Reprod ; 102(2): 424-433, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504210

RESUMO

The underlying mechanism of the chemokine-C receptor 7 (CCR7) that leads to aberrant trophoblast migration and invasion in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) remains unknown. CCR7 is considered crucial for migration and invasion and has been associated with the risk of miscarriage. However, the functional role of CCR7 in RSA is not fully understood. Our study found that CCR7 mRNA and protein abundance were significantly decreased in the villous from RSA patients compared with healthy controls. Knockdown of CCR7 caused a significant reduction of migration and invasion in JAR and JEG-3 cells. Meanwhile, CCR7 functioned as a positive upstream factor of the AKT pathway contributing to the expression of GATA2, promoting trophoblast migration, and invasion via MMP2. Notably, a decreased abundance of CCR7 was positively correlated with the phosphorylation of AKT and with an abundance of GATA2 and MMP2 in human villous specimens of RSA compared with the control group. CCL19, a ligand of CCR7, could promote trophoblast migration and invasion by activating the deregulation of the CCR7-mediated pathway in RSA. We are convinced that CCR7 and its downstream factors may be possible mechanisms for the pathogenesis of RSA.

10.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 99(1): 119-126, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454071

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Polycystic ovary syndrome is a complex endocrine condition with chronic inflammation. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a proinflammatory factor with an increased expression in the serum of women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Zinc finger gene 217 (ZNF217) is known as a candidate gene for polycystic ovary syndrome. We aimed to investigate the relation between ZNF217 and PGE2 in polycystic ovary syndrome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used a rat model of dehydroepiandrosterone-induced polycystic ovary syndrome and human granulosa cells both of women with polycystic ovary syndrome and of women without the syndrome to measure ZNF217 and other target gene expressions. In addition, we performed in vitro experiments with KGN human granulosa-like tumor cells to verify the molecular mechanisms. RESULTS: ZNF217 was decreased in the granulosa cells both of dehydroepiandrosterone-treated rats and of women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Cyclooxygenase 2, a key enzyme of PGE2 synthesis, was highly expressed in the granulosa cells of rats and women with the syndrome, and PGE2 concentration was increased in the follicular fluid. Furthermore, decreased ZNF217 expression was supposed to inhibit estradiol synthesis, which further promoted cyclooxygenase 2 and PGE2 synthesis. At the same time, PGE2 had an inhibitory effect on ZNF217 expression in a dose-dependent manner in KGN cells. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased ZNF217 expression in granulosa cells of women with polycystic ovary syndrome induced inflammation via PGE2, and PGE2 inhibited ZNF217 expression to establish a feedback loop. This mechanism might account for the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome.

11.
Gynecol Endocrinol ; 36(2): 175-183, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397179

RESUMO

Lotus II, a randomized, open-label, multicenter, international study compared the efficacy and safety of oral dydrogesterone versus micronized vaginal progesterone (MVP) gel for luteal support in IVF. A prespecified subgroup analysis was performed on 239 Chinese mainland subjects from the overall study population (n = 1034), who were randomized to oral dydrogesterone 30 mg or 8% MVP gel 90 mg daily from the day of oocyte retrieval until 12 weeks of gestation. The aim was to demonstrate non-inferiority of oral dydrogesterone to MVP gel, assessed by the presence of a fetal heartbeat at 12 weeks of gestation. In the Chinese mainland subpopulation, there was a numerical difference of 9.4% in favor of oral dydrogesterone, with ongoing pregnancy rates at 12 weeks of gestation of 61.4% and 51.9% in the oral dydrogesterone and MVP gel groups, respectively (adjusted difference, 9.4%; 95% CI: -3.4 to 22.1); in the overall population, these were 38.7% and 35%, respectively (adjusted difference, 3.7%; 95% CI: -2.3 to 9.7). In both the Chinese mainland subpopulation and the overall population, dydrogesterone had similar efficacy and safety to MVP gel. With convenient oral administration, dydrogesterone has potential to transform luteal support treatment.

12.
Sci China Life Sci ; 63(1): 18-58, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813094

RESUMO

Reproductive biology is a uniquely important topic since it is about germ cells, which are central for transmitting genetic information from generation to generation. In this review, we discuss recent advances in mammalian germ cell development, including preimplantation development, fetal germ cell development and postnatal development of oocytes and sperm. We also discuss the etiologies of female and male infertility and describe the emerging technologies for studying reproductive biology such as gene editing and single-cell technologies.

13.
J Reprod Dev ; 66(1): 19-27, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735743

RESUMO

One major side effect of chemotherapy that young women with cancer suffer from is ovarian damage. Therefore, it is necessary to study the pathogenesis of chemotherapeutic drugs in order to develop pharmaceutical agents to preserve fertility. Epirubicin is one of the commonly used chemotherapy drugs for breast cancer patients. This research explored the side effects of epirubicin in mice. We found that epirubicin significantly reduced the body weight, the weight of the ovaries and uteri, and the pups' number, while melatonin, which is extremely resistant to oxidation, significantly reduced these damages. Moreover, co-treatment with melatonin prevented epirubicin-induced decrease in E2 and progesterone, and the loss of follicles. Mechanism study showed that melatonin significantly reduced the levels of proapoptotic genes p53, Caspase3, and Caspase9 while it upregulated antiapoptotic factors Bcl-2 and Bcl2l1, and antioxidant genes superoxide dismutase 1 and catalase compared with the epirubicin group. In addition, melatonin markedly reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the transcription of Caspase12 and Chop, which is vital in endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-mediated apoptosis. These results indicate melatonin protects against epirubicin-induced ovarian damage by reducing ROS-induced ERS. Therefore, melatonin has a therapeutic potential for the protection of ovarian function and preservation of fertility during chemotherapy.

14.
Nature ; 576(7786): 306-310, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801998

RESUMO

In the interphase of the cell cycle, chromatin is arranged in a hierarchical structure within the nucleus1,2, which has an important role in regulating gene expression3-6. However, the dynamics of 3D chromatin structure during human embryogenesis remains unknown. Here we report that, unlike mouse sperm, human sperm cells do not express the chromatin regulator CTCF and their chromatin does not contain topologically associating domains (TADs). Following human fertilization, TAD structure is gradually established during embryonic development. In addition, A/B compartmentalization is lost in human embryos at the 2-cell stage and is re-established during embryogenesis. Notably, blocking zygotic genome activation (ZGA) can inhibit TAD establishment in human embryos but not in mouse or Drosophila. Of note, CTCF is expressed at very low levels before ZGA, and is then highly expressed at the ZGA stage when TADs are observed. TAD organization is significantly reduced in CTCF knockdown embryos, suggesting that TAD establishment during ZGA in human embryos requires CTCF expression. Our results indicate that CTCF has a key role in the establishment of 3D chromatin structure during human embryogenesis.

16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(6): 1102-1111, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679651

RESUMO

Recurrent miscarriage (RM) affects millions of couples globally, and half of them have no demonstrated etiology. Genome sequencing (GS) is an enhanced and novel cytogenetic tool to define the contribution of chromosomal abnormalities in human diseases. In this study we evaluated its utility in RM-affected couples. We performed low-pass GS retrospectively for 1,090 RM-affected couples, all of whom had routine chromosome analysis. A customized sequencing and interpretation pipeline was developed to identify chromosomal rearrangements and deletions/duplications with confirmation by fluorescence in situ hybridization, chromosomal microarray analysis, and PCR studies. Low-pass GS yielded results in 1,077 of 1,090 couples (98.8%) and detected 127 chromosomal abnormalities in 11.7% (126/1,077) of couples; both members of one couple were identified with inversions. Of the 126 couples, 39.7% (50/126) had received former diagnostic results by karyotyping characteristic of normal human male or female karyotypes. Low-pass GS revealed additional chromosomal abnormalities in 50 (4.0%) couples, including eight with balanced translocations and 42 inversions. Follow-up studies of these couples showed a higher miscarriage/fetal-anomaly rate of 5/10 (50%) compared to 21/93 (22.6%) in couples with normal GS, resulting in a relative risk of 2.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 4.6). In these couples, this protocol significantly increased the diagnostic yield of chromosomal abnormalities per couple (11.7%) in comparison to chromosome analysis (8.0%, chi-square test p = 0.000751). In summary, low-pass GS identified underlying chromosomal aberrations in 1 in 9 RM-affected couples, enabling identification of a subgroup of couples with increased risk of subsequent miscarriage who would benefit from a personalized intervention.

18.
Front Genet ; 10: 772, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507635

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common metabolic and reproductive disorder with an increasing risk for type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance is a common feature of women with PCOS, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to screen critical long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) that might play pivotal roles in insulin resistance, which could provide candidate biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for PCOS. Gene expression profiles of the skeletal muscle in patients with PCOS accompanied by insulin resistance and healthy patients were obtained from the publicly available Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. A global triple network including RNA-binding protein, mRNA, and lncRNAs was constructed based on the data from starBase. Then, we extracted an insulin resistance-associated lncRNA-mRNA network (IRLMN) by integrating the data from starBase and GEO. We also performed a weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) on the differentially expressed genes between the women with and without PCOS, to identify hub lncRNAs. Additionally, the findings of key lncRNAs were examined in an independent GEO dataset. The expression level of lncRNA RP11-151A6.4 in ovarian granulosa cells was increased in patients with PCOS compared with that in control women. Levels were also increased in PCOS patients with higher BMI, hyperinsulinemia, and higher HOMA-IR values. As a result, RP11-151A6.4 was identified as a hub lncRNA based on IRLMN and WGCNA and was highly expressed in ovarian granulosa cells, skeletal muscle, and subcutaneous and omental adipose tissues of patients with insulin resistance. This study showed the differences between lncRNA and mRNA profiles from healthy women and women with PCOS and insulin resistance. Here, we demonstrated that RP11-151A6.4 might play a vital role in insulin resistance, androgen excess, and adipose dysfunction in patients with PCOS. Further study concerning RP11-151A6.4 could elucidate the underlying mechanisms of insulin resistance.

19.
J Assist Reprod Genet ; 36(11): 2325-2331, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522368

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report the normal live birth and birth defect rates pre- and post- preimplantation genetic testing for chromosomal structural rearrangements (PGT-SR) in reciprocal translocation carriers who have experienced two or more unfavorable pregnancy histories. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 194 couples who underwent 265 PGT-SR cycles between January 2013 and August 2016. The rates of miscarriage, normal live birth, and birth defect pre- and post- PGT-SR treatment were recorded. The types of birth defect were also categorized. RESULTS: Before PGT-SR treatment, the 194 couples with reciprocal translocation had a previous reproductive history consisting of 592 pregnancies in total: 496 (83.8%) were miscarriages; 29 (4.9%) ended by induced abortion due to unintended pregnancy; 36 (6.1%) had birth defects; and 17 (2.9%) were normal live births. After PGT-SR treatment, there were 118 clinical pregnancies. Of these pregnancies, 13 (11.0%) were miscarriages, 101 (85.6%) were normal live births, and 4 (3.4%) had birth defects. In total, 14 different disorders were noted in the prenatal and postnatal examinations. Before the PGT-SR treatment, multiple birth defects, central nervous system abnormalities, and congenital heart defects were the three most common congenital malformations. Excluding for methylmalonic acidemia, there were only single and mild birth defects after the PGT-SR treatment. CONCLUSIONS: After the PGT-SR treatment, the reciprocal translocation carriers who had previously experienced two or more unfavorable pregnancy outcomes had a low risk of miscarriages and birth defects. The rate of normal live births per pregnancy was higher after PGT-SR treatment.

20.
J Assist Reprod Genet ; 36(9): 1963-1969, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392661

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of a carrier's sex and age on the segregation patterns of the trivalent of Robertsonian translocations. METHODS: This retrospective study was designed to analyze the segregation patterns of the trivalent and euploidy rates of blastocysts. Data were collected from 154 couples with Robertsonian translocation (77 with a female carrier and 77 with a male carrier). Embryos were diagnosed via array comparative genomic hybridization between January 2013 and July 2017. The segregation patterns of the trivalent of 604 blastocysts were analyzed according to the carrier's sex and age. RESULTS: The proportion of alternate segregation was significantly higher (82.9% vs. 55.2%) in the male carriers than in the female carriers of Robertsonian translocation, and the proportion of adjacent segregation was significantly lower (16.8% vs. 42.6%), with no difference in 3:0 segregation. The segregation patterns were similar in same-sex carriers when analyzed according to the type of translocation. The carrier's age had no influence on the segregation patterns of the trivalent. CONCLUSIONS: The proportions of the trivalent's meiotic segregation pattern differ significantly according to the carrier's sex in Robertsonian translocations and are independent of the carrier's age. A significantly higher proportion of alternate segregation for normal or balanced chromosome contents was observed in the blastocysts of the male carriers than in those of the female carriers.


Assuntos
Blastocisto/fisiologia , Segregação de Cromossomos , Heterozigoto , Translocação Genética , Adulto , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Indução da Ovulação , Ploidias , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Translocação Genética/genética
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