Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 206
Filtrar
Filtros adicionais











Intervalo de ano
1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3935, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477716

RESUMO

Mucinous ovarian carcinoma (MOC) is a unique subtype of ovarian cancer with an uncertain etiology, including whether it genuinely arises at the ovary or is metastatic disease from other organs. In addition, the molecular drivers of invasive progression, high-grade and metastatic disease are poorly defined. We perform genetic analysis of MOC across all histological grades, including benign and borderline mucinous ovarian tumors, and compare these to tumors from other potential extra-ovarian sites of origin. Here we show that MOC is distinct from tumors from other sites and supports a progressive model of evolution from borderline precursors to high-grade invasive MOC. Key drivers of progression identified are TP53 mutation and copy number aberrations, including a notable amplicon on 9p13. High copy number aberration burden is associated with worse prognosis in MOC. Our data conclusively demonstrate that MOC arise from benign and borderline precursors at the ovary and are not extra-ovarian metastases.

2.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209999

RESUMO

BRCA1 BRCA2 mutational spectrum in the Middle East, North Africa, and Southern Europe is not well characterized. The unique history and cultural practices characterizing these regions, often involving consanguinity and inbreeding, plausibly led to the accumulation of population-specific founder pathogenic sequence variants (PSVs). To determine recurring BRCA PSVs in these locales, a search in PUBMED, EMBASE, BIC, and CIMBA was carried out combined with outreach to researchers from the relevant countries for unpublished data. We identified 232 PSVs in BRCA1 and 239 in BRCA2 in 25 of 33 countries surveyed. Common PSVs that were detected in four or more countries were c.5266dup (p.Gln1756Profs), c.181T>G (p.Cys61Gly), c.68_69del (p.Glu23Valfs), c.5030_5033del (p.Thr1677Ilefs), c.4327C>T (p.Arg1443Ter), c.5251C>T (p.Arg1751Ter), c.1016dup (p.Val340Glyfs), c.3700_3704del (p.Val1234Glnfs), c.4065_4068del (p.Asn1355Lysfs), c.1504_1508del (p.Leu502Alafs), c.843_846del (p.Ser282Tyrfs), c.798_799del (p.Ser267Lysfs), and c.3607C>T (p.Arg1203Ter) in BRCA1 and c.2808_2811del (p.Ala938Profs), c.5722_5723del (p.Leu1908Argfs), c.9097dup (p.Thr3033Asnfs), c.1310_1313del (p. p.Lys437Ilefs), and c.5946del (p.Ser1982Argfs) for BRCA2. Notably, some mutations (e.g., p.Asn257Lysfs (c.771_775del)) were observed in unrelated populations. Thus, seemingly genotyping recurring BRCA PSVs in specific populations may provide first pass BRCA genotyping platform.

3.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112363

RESUMO

BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) pathogenic sequence variants (PSVs) confer elevated risks of multiple cancers. However, most BRCA1/2 PSVs reports focus on European ancestry individuals. Knowledge of the PSV distribution in African descent individuals is poorly understood. We undertook a systematic review of the published literature and publicly available databases reporting BRCA1/2 PSVs also accessed the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) database to identify African or African descent individuals. Using these data, we inferred which of the BRCA PSVs were likely to be of African continental origin. Of the 43,817 BRCA1/2 PSV carriers in the CIMBA database, 469 (1%) were of African descent. Additional African descent individuals were identified in public databases (n = 291) and the literature (n = 601). We identified 164 unique BRCA1 and 173 unique BRCA2 PSVs in individuals of African ancestry. Of these, 83 BRCA1 and 91 BRCA2 PSVs are of likely or possible African origin. We observed numerous differences in the distribution of PSV type and function in African origin versus non-African origin PSVs. Research in populations of African ancestry with BRCA1/2 PSVs is needed to provide the information needed for clinical management and decision-making in African descent individuals worldwide.

4.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation plays a critical role in breast cancer development. Previous studies have identified DNA methylation marks in white blood cells as promising biomarkers for breast cancer. However, these studies were limited by low statistical power and potential biases. Utilizing a new methodology, we investigated DNA methylation marks for their associations with breast cancer risk. METHODS: Statistical models were built to predict levels of DNA methylation marks using genetic data and DNA methylation data from HumanMethylation450 BeadChip from the Framingham Heart Study (N=1,595). The prediction models were validated using data from the Women's Health Initiative (N=883). We applied these models to genome-wide association study (GWAS) data of 122,977 breast cancer cases and 105,974 controls to evaluate if the genetically predicted DNA methylation levels at CpGs are associated with breast cancer risk. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Of the 62,938 CpG sites (CpGs) investigated, statistically significant associations with breast cancer risk were observed for 450 CpGs at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P<7.94 × 10-7, including 45 CpGs residing in 18 genomic regions which have not previously been associated with breast cancer risk. Of the remaining 405 CpGs located within 500 kilobase flaking regions of 70 GWAS-identified breast cancer risk variants, the associations for 11 CpGs were independent of GWAS-identified variants. Integrative analyses of genetic, DNA methylation and gene expression data found that 38 CpGs may affect breast cancer risk through regulating expression of 21 genes. CONCLUSION: Our new methodology can identify novel DNA methylation biomarkers for breast cancer risk and can be applied to other diseases.

5.
Blood Adv ; 3(7): 1039-1046, 2019 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940639

RESUMO

Recent studies have identified germline mutations in TP53, PAX5, ETV6, and IKZF1 in kindreds with familial acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), but the genetic basis of ALL in many kindreds is unknown despite mutational analysis of the exome. Here, we report a germline deletion of ETV6 identified by linkage and structural variant analysis of whole-genome sequencing data segregating in a kindred with thrombocytopenia, B-progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The 75-nt deletion removed the ETV6 exon 7 splice acceptor, resulting in exon skipping and protein truncation. The ETV6 deletion was also identified by optimal structural variant analysis of exome sequencing data. These findings identify a new mechanism of germline predisposition in ALL and implicate ETV6 germline variation in predisposition to lymphoma. Importantly, these data highlight the importance of germline structural variant analysis in the search for germline variants predisposing to familial leukemia.

6.
Gynecol Oncol ; 153(2): 343-355, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898391

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) have focused largely on populations of European ancestry. We aimed to identify common germline variants associated with EOC risk in Asian women. METHODS: Genotyping was performed as part of the OncoArray project. Samples with >60% Asian ancestry were included in the analysis. Genotyping was performed on 533,631 SNPs in 3238 Asian subjects diagnosed with invasive or borderline EOC and 4083 unaffected controls. After imputation, genotypes were available for 11,595,112 SNPs to identify associations. RESULTS: At chromosome 6p25.2, SNP rs7748275 was associated with risk of serous EOC (odds ratio [OR] = 1.34, P = 8.7 × 10-9) and high-grade serous EOC (HGSOC) (OR = 1.34, P = 4.3 × 10-9). SNP rs6902488 at 6p25.2 (r2 = 0.97 with rs7748275) lies in an active enhancer and is predicted to impact binding of STAT3, P300 and ELF1. We identified additional risk loci with low Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP) scores, indicating they are likely to be true risk associations (BFDP <10%). At chromosome 20q11.22, rs74272064 was associated with HGSOC risk (OR = 1.27, P = 9.0 × 10-8). Overall EOC risk was associated with rs10260419 at chromosome 7p21.3 (OR = 1.33, P = 1.2 × 10-7) and rs74917072 at chromosome 2q37.3 (OR = 1.25, P = 4.7 × 10-7). At 2q37.3, expression quantitative trait locus analysis in 404 HGSOC tissues identified ESPNL as a putative candidate susceptibility gene (P = 1.2 × 10-7). CONCLUSION: While some risk loci were shared between East Asian and European populations, others were population-specific, indicating that the landscape of EOC risk in Asian women has both shared and unique features compared to women of European ancestry.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Sequência de Bases , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
7.
Br J Cancer ; 120(6): 647-657, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined the associations between germline variants and breast cancer mortality using a large meta-analysis of women of European ancestry. METHODS: Meta-analyses included summary estimates based on Cox models of twelve datasets using ~10.4 million variants for 96,661 women with breast cancer and 7697 events (breast cancer-specific deaths). Oestrogen receptor (ER)-specific analyses were based on 64,171 ER-positive (4116) and 16,172 ER-negative (2125) patients. We evaluated the probability of a signal to be a true positive using the Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP). RESULTS: We did not find any variant associated with breast cancer-specific mortality at P < 5 × 10-8. For ER-positive disease, the most significantly associated variant was chr7:rs4717568 (BFDP = 7%, P = 1.28 × 10-7, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84-0.92); the closest gene is AUTS2. For ER-negative disease, the most significant variant was chr7:rs67918676 (BFDP = 11%, P = 1.38 × 10-7, HR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.16-1.39); located within a long intergenic non-coding RNA gene (AC004009.3), close to the HOXA gene cluster. CONCLUSIONS: We uncovered germline variants on chromosome 7 at BFDP < 15% close to genes for which there is biological evidence related to breast cancer outcome. However, the paucity of variants associated with mortality at genome-wide significance underpins the challenge in providing genetic-based individualised prognostic information for breast cancer patients.

8.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499236

RESUMO

As a follow-up to genome-wide association analysis of common variants associated with ovarian carcinoma (cancer), this study considers seven well-known ovarian cancer risk factors and their interactions with 28 genome-wide significant common genetic variants. The interaction analyses were based on data from 9,971 ovarian cancer cases and 15,566 controls from 17 case-control studies. Likelihood ratio and Wald tests for multiplicative interaction and for relative excess risk due to additive interaction were used. The top multiplicative interaction was noted between oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use (ever vs never) and rs13255292 (P-value = 3.48 x 10-4 ). Among women with the TT genotype for this variant, the odds ratio for OCP use was 0.53 (95% CI=0.46-0.60) compared to 0.71 (95%CI=0.66-0.77) for women with the CC genotype. When stratified by duration of OCP use, women with 1-5 years of OCP use exhibited differential protective benefit across genotypes. However, no interaction on either the multiplicative or additive scale was found to be statistically significant after multiple testing correction. The results suggest that OCP use may offer increased benefit for women who are carriers of the T allele in rs13255292. On the other hand, for women carrying the C allele in this variant, longer (5+ years) use of OCP may reduce the impact of carrying the risk allele of this SNP. Replication of this finding is needed. The study presents a comprehensive analytic framework for conducting gene-environment analysis in ovarian cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

9.
Schizophr Bull ; 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30452727

RESUMO

Observational epidemiological studies have found an association between schizophrenia and breast cancer, but it is not known if the relationship is a causal one. We used summary statistics from very large genome-wide association studies of schizophrenia (n = 40675 cases and 64643 controls) and breast cancer (n = 122977 cases and 105974 controls) to investigate whether there is evidence that the association is partly due to shared genetic risk factors and whether there is evidence of a causal relationship. Using LD-score regression, we found that there is a small but significant genetic correlation (rG) between the 2 disorders (rG = 0.14, SE = 0.03, P = 4.75 × 10-8), indicating shared genetic risk factors. Using 142 genetic variants associated with schizophrenia as instrumental variables that are a proxy for having schizophrenia, we estimated a causal effect of schizophrenia on breast cancer on the observed scale as bxy = 0.032 (SE = 0.009, P = 2.3 × 10-4). A 1 SD increase in liability to schizophrenia increases risk of breast cancer 1.09-fold. In contrast, the estimated causal effect of breast cancer on schizophrenia from 191 instruments was not significantly different from zero (bxy = -0.005, SE = 0.012, P = .67). No evidence for pleiotropy was found and adjusting for the effects of smoking or parity did not alter the results. These results provide evidence that the previously observed association is due to schizophrenia causally increasing risk for breast cancer. Genetic variants may provide an avenue to elucidating the mechanism underpinning this relationship.

10.
Cancer Res ; 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30487138

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have identified 40 ovarian cancer risk loci. However, the mechanisms underlying these associations remain elusive. In this study, we conducted a two-pronged approach to identify candidate causal SNPs and assess underlying biological mechanisms at chromosome 9p22.2, the first and most statistically significant associated locus for ovarian cancer susceptibility. Three transcriptional regulatory elements with allele-specific effects and a scaffold/matrix attachment region were characterized and through physical DNA interactions BNC2 was established as the most likely target gene. We determined the consensus binding sequence for BNC2 in vitro, verified its enrichment in BNC2 ChIP-Seq regions and validated a set of its downstream target genes. Fine-mapping by dense regional genotyping in over 15,000 ovarian cancer cases and 30,000 controls identified SNPs in the scaffold/matrix attachment region as among the most likely causal variants. This study reveals a comprehensive regulatory landscape at 9p22.2 and proposes a likely mechanism of susceptibility to ovarian cancer.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(9)2018 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30134598

RESUMO

Thymidylate synthase (TYMS) is a crucial enzyme for DNA synthesis. TYMS expression is regulated by its antisense mRNA, ENOSF1. Disrupted regulation may promote uncontrolled DNA synthesis and tumor growth. We sought to replicate our previously reported association between rs495139 in the TYMS-ENOSF1 3' gene region and increased risk of mucinous ovarian carcinoma (MOC) in an independent sample. Genotypes from 24,351 controls to 15,000 women with invasive OC, including 665 MOC, were available. We estimated per-allele odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using unconditional logistic regression, and meta-analysis when combining these data with our previous report. The association between rs495139 and MOC was not significant in the independent sample (OR = 1.09; 95% CI = 0.97⁻1.22; p = 0.15; N = 665 cases). Meta-analysis suggested a weak association (OR = 1.13; 95% CI = 1.03⁻1.24; p = 0.01; N = 1019 cases). No significant association with risk of other OC histologic types was observed (p = 0.05 for tumor heterogeneity). In expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis, the rs495139 allele was positively associated with ENOSF1 mRNA expression in normal tissues of the gastrointestinal system, particularly esophageal mucosa (r = 0.51, p = 1.7 × 10-28), and nonsignificantly in five MOC tumors. The association results, along with inconclusive tumor eQTL findings, suggest that a true effect of rs495139 might be small.

14.
Epigenetics Chromatin ; 11(1): 24, 2018 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29807544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Comprehensive genome-wide DNA methylation profiling is critical to gain insights into epigenetic reprogramming during development and disease processes. Among the different genome-wide DNA methylation technologies, whole genome bisulphite sequencing (WGBS) is considered the gold standard for assaying genome-wide DNA methylation at single base resolution. However, the high sequencing cost to achieve the optimal depth of coverage limits its application in both basic and clinical research. To achieve 15× coverage of the human methylome, using WGBS, requires approximately three lanes of 100-bp-paired-end Illumina HiSeq 2500 sequencing. It is important, therefore, for advances in sequencing technologies to be developed to enable cost-effective high-coverage sequencing. RESULTS: In this study, we provide an optimised WGBS methodology, from library preparation to sequencing and data processing, to enable 16-20× genome-wide coverage per single lane of HiSeq X Ten, HCS 3.3.76. To process and analyse the data, we developed a WGBS pipeline (METH10X) that is fast and can call SNPs. We performed WGBS on both high-quality intact DNA and degraded DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. First, we compared different library preparation methods on the HiSeq 2500 platform to identify the best method for sequencing on the HiSeq X Ten. Second, we optimised the PhiX and genome spike-ins to achieve higher quality and coverage of WGBS data on the HiSeq X Ten. Third, we performed integrated whole genome sequencing (WGS) and WGBS of the same DNA sample in a single lane of HiSeq X Ten to improve data output. Finally, we compared methylation data from the HiSeq 2500 and HiSeq X Ten and found high concordance (Pearson r > 0.9×). CONCLUSIONS: Together we provide a systematic, efficient and complete approach to perform and analyse WGBS on the HiSeq X Ten. Our protocol allows for large-scale WGBS studies at reasonable processing time and cost on the HiSeq X Ten platform.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , DNA/análise , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Sulfitos/química , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Ilhas de CpG , DNA/química , Epigenômica , Biblioteca Gênica , Genoma Humano , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Masculino , Software
15.
Breast Cancer Res ; 20(1): 28, 2018 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29665859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene is a moderate-risk breast cancer susceptibility gene; germline loss-of-function variants are found in up to 3% of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) families who undergo genetic testing. So far, no clear histopathological and molecular features of breast tumours occurring in ATM deleterious variant carriers have been described, but identification of an ATM-associated tumour signature may help in patient management. METHODS: To characterise hallmarks of ATM-associated tumours, we performed systematic pathology review of tumours from 21 participants from ataxia-telangiectasia families and 18 participants from HBOC families, as well as copy number profiling on a subset of 23 tumours. Morphology of ATM-associated tumours was compared with that of 599 patients with no BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations from a hospital-based series, as well as with data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Absolute copy number and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) profiles were obtained from the OncoScan SNP array. In addition, we performed whole-genome sequencing on four tumours from ATM loss-of-function variant carriers with available frozen material. RESULTS: We found that ATM-associated tumours belong mostly to the luminal B subtype, are tetraploid and show LOH at the ATM locus at 11q22-23. Unlike tumours in which BRCA1 or BRCA2 is inactivated, tumours arising in ATM deleterious variant carriers are not associated with increased large-scale genomic instability as measured by the large-scale state transitions signature. Losses at 13q14.11-q14.3, 17p13.2-p12, 21p11.2-p11.1 and 22q11.23 were observed. Somatic alterations at these loci may therefore represent biomarkers for ATM testing and harbour driver mutations in potentially 'druggable' genes that would allow patients to be directed towards tailored therapeutic strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Although ATM is involved in the DNA damage response, ATM-associated tumours are distinct from BRCA1-associated tumours in terms of morphological characteristics and genomic alterations, and they are also distinguishable from sporadic breast tumours, thus opening up the possibility to identify ATM variant carriers outside the ataxia-telangiectasia disorder and direct them towards effective cancer risk management and therapeutic strategies.

16.
Br J Cancer ; 118(8): 1123-1129, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29555990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies suggest greater height is associated with increased ovarian cancer risk, but cannot exclude bias and/or confounding as explanations for this. Mendelian randomisation (MR) can provide evidence which may be less prone to bias. METHODS: We pooled data from 39 Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium studies (16,395 cases; 23,003 controls). We applied two-stage predictor-substitution MR, using a weighted genetic risk score combining 609 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Study-specific odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between genetically predicted height and risk were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Greater genetically predicted height was associated with increased ovarian cancer risk overall (pooled-OR (pOR) = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.01-1.11 per 5 cm increase in height), and separately for invasive (pOR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.01-1.11) and borderline (pOR = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.02-1.29) tumours. CONCLUSIONS: Women with a genetic propensity to being taller have increased risk of ovarian cancer. This suggests genes influencing height are involved in pathways promoting ovarian carcinogenesis.

17.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 110(9): 1030-1034, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29506079

RESUMO

Pathogenic germline variants in ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a gene that plays a role in DNA damage response and cell cycle checkpoints, confer an increased breast cancer (BC) risk. Here, we investigated the phenotypic characteristics and landscape of somatic genetic alterations in 24 BCs from ATM germline mutation carriers by whole-exome and targeted sequencing. ATM-associated BCs were consistently hormone receptor positive and largely displayed minimal immune infiltrate. Although 79.2% of these tumors exhibited loss of heterozygosity of the ATM wild-type allele, none displayed high activity of mutational signature 3 associated with defective homologous recombination DNA (HRD) repair. No TP53 mutations were found in the ATM-associated BCs. Analysis of an independent data set confirmed that germline ATM variants and TP53 somatic mutations are mutually exclusive. Our findings indicate that ATM-associated BCs often harbor bi-allelic inactivation of ATM, are phenotypically distinct from BRCA1/2-associated BCs, lack HRD-related mutational signatures, and that TP53 and ATM genetic alterations are likely epistatic.

18.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 93(3): 307-320, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29502561

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression in relation to clinical features of epithelial ovarian cancer, histologic subtypes, and overall survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted centralized immunohistochemical staining, semi-quantitative scoring, and survival analysis in 5263 patients participating in the Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis consortium. Patients were diagnosed between January 1, 1978, and December 31, 2014, including 2865 high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOCs), with more than 12,000 person-years of follow-up time. Tissue microarrays were stained for MyD88 and TLR4, and staining intensity was classified using a 2-tiered system for each marker (weak vs strong). RESULTS: Expression of MyD88 and TLR4 was similar in all histotypes except clear cell ovarian cancer, which showed reduced expression compared with other histotypes (P<.001 for both). In HGSOC, strong MyD88 expression was modestly associated with shortened overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01-1.26; P=.04) but was also associated with advanced stage (P<.001). The expression of TLR4 was not associated with survival. In low-grade serous ovarian cancer (LGSOC), strong expression of both MyD88 and TLR4 was associated with favorable survival (HR [95% CI], 0.49 [0.29-0.84] and 0.44 [0.21-0.89], respectively; P=.009 and P=.02, respectively). CONCLUSION: Results are consistent with an association between strong MyD88 staining and advanced stage and poorer survival in HGSOC and demonstrate correlation between strong MyD88 and TLR4 staining and improved survival in LGSOC, highlighting the biological differences between the 2 serous histotypes.

19.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 170(1): 179-188, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29468485

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to generate and characterize a novel cell line from a breast cancer bone metastasis to better study the progression of the disease. METHODS: The cell line, P7731, was derived from a metastatic bone lesion of a breast cancer patient and assessed for marker expression. P7731 was analyzed for DNA copy number variation, somatic mutations, and gene expression and was compared with the primary tumor. RESULTS: P7731 cells are negative for estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2 (triple-negative); strongly express vimentin (100% of cells positive) and also express cytokeratins 8/18 and 19 but at lower frequencies. Flow cytometry indicates P7731 cells are predominantly CD44+/CD49f+/EpCAM-, consistent with a primitive, mesenchymal-like phenotype. The cell line is tumorigenic in immunocompromised mice. Exome sequencing identified a total of 45 and 76 somatic mutations in the primary tumor and cell line, respectively, of which 32 were identified in both samples and included mutations in known driver genes PIK3CA, TP53, and ARID1A. P7731 retains the DNA copy number alterations present in the matching primary tumor. Homozygous deletions detected in the cell line and in the primary tumor were found in regions containing three known (CDKN2A, CDKN2B, and CDKN1B) and 23 putative tumor suppressor genes. Cell line-specific gene amplification coupled with mRNA expression analysis revealed genes and pathways with potential pro-metastatic functions. CONCLUSION: This novel human breast cancer-bone metastasis cell line will be a useful model to study aspects of breast cancer biology, particularly metastasis-related changes from breast to bone.

20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 1508, 2018 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29367611

RESUMO

Identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that influence chemotherapy disposition may help to personalize cancer treatment and limit toxicity. Genome-wide approaches are unbiased, compared with candidate gene studies, but usually require large cohorts. As most chemotherapy is given cyclically multiple blood sampling is required to adequately define drug disposition, limiting patient recruitment. We found that carboplatin and paclitaxel disposition are stable phenotypes in ovarian cancer patients and tested a genome-wide association study (GWAS) design to identify SNPs associated with chemotherapy disposition. We found highly significant SNPs in ABCC2, a known carboplatin transporter, associated with carboplatin clearance (asymptotic P = 5.2 × 106, empirical P = 1.4 × 10-5), indicating biological plausibility. We also identified novel SNPs associated with paclitaxel disposition, including rs17130142 with genome-wide significance (asymptotic P = 2.0 × 10-9, empirical P = 1.3 × 10-7). Although requiring further validation, our work demonstrated that GWAS of chemotherapeutic drug disposition can be effective, even in relatively small cohorts, and can be adopted in drug development and treatment programs.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA