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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1131: 7-26, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646505

RESUMO

Measuring free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]) in the cytosol or organelles is routine in many fields of research. The availability of membrane permeant forms of indicators coupled with the relative ease of transfecting cell lines with biological Ca2+ sensors have led to the situation where cellular and subcellular [Ca2+] is examined by many non-specialists. In this chapter, we evaluate the most used Ca2+ indicators and highlight what their major advantages and disadvantages are. We stress the potential pitfalls of non-ratiometric techniques for measuring Ca2+ and the clear advantages of ratiometric methods. Likely improvements and new directions for Ca2+ measurement are discussed.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Citosol , Organelas , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Técnicas Citológicas , Citosol/química , Citosol/metabolismo , Humanos , Organelas/química , Organelas/metabolismo
2.
Skelet Muscle ; 9(1): 26, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle mass and strength are crucial determinants of health. Muscle mass loss is associated with weakness, fatigue, and insulin resistance. In fact, it is predicted that controlling muscle atrophy can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with diseases such as cancer cachexia and sarcopenia. METHODS: We analyzed gene expression data from muscle of mice or human patients with diverse muscle pathologies and identified LMCD1 as a gene strongly associated with skeletal muscle function. We transiently expressed or silenced LMCD1 in mouse gastrocnemius muscle or in mouse primary muscle cells and determined muscle/cell size, targeted gene expression, kinase activity with kinase arrays, protein immunoblotting, and protein synthesis levels. To evaluate force, calcium handling, and fatigue, we transduced the flexor digitorum brevis muscle with a LMCD1-expressing adenovirus and measured specific force and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release in individual fibers. Finally, to explore the relationship between LMCD1 and calcineurin, we ectopically expressed Lmcd1 in the gastrocnemius muscle and treated those mice with cyclosporine A (calcineurin inhibitor). In addition, we used a luciferase reporter construct containing the myoregulin gene promoter to confirm the role of a LMCD1-calcineurin-myoregulin axis in skeletal muscle mass control and calcium handling. RESULTS: Here, we identify LIM and cysteine-rich domains 1 (LMCD1) as a positive regulator of muscle mass, that increases muscle protein synthesis and fiber size. LMCD1 expression in vivo was sufficient to increase specific force with lower requirement for calcium handling and to reduce muscle fatigue. Conversely, silencing LMCD1 expression impairs calcium handling and force, and induces muscle fatigue without overt atrophy. The actions of LMCD1 were dependent on calcineurin, as its inhibition using cyclosporine A reverted the observed hypertrophic phenotype. Finally, we determined that LMCD1 represses the expression of myoregulin, a known negative regulator of muscle performance. Interestingly, we observed that skeletal muscle LMCD1 expression is reduced in patients with skeletal muscle disease. CONCLUSIONS: Our gain- and loss-of-function studies show that LMCD1 controls protein synthesis, muscle fiber size, specific force, Ca2+ handling, and fatigue resistance. This work uncovers a novel role for LMCD1 in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass and function with potential therapeutic implications.

3.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 317(5): C900-C909, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411922

RESUMO

The extracellular K+ concentration ([K+]o) increases during physical exercise. We here studied whether moderately elevated [K+]o may increase force and power output during contractions at in vivo-like subtetanic frequencies and whether such potentiation was associated with increased cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) during contractions. Isolated whole soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) rat muscles were incubated at different levels of [K+]o, and isometric and dynamic contractility were tested at various stimulation frequencies. Furthermore, [Ca2+]i at rest and during contraction was measured along with isometric force in single mouse flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) fibers exposed to elevated [K+]o. Elevating [K+]o from 4 mM up to 8 mM (soleus) and 11 mM (EDL) increased isometric force at subtetanic frequencies, 2-15 Hz in soleus and up to 50 Hz in EDL, while inhibition was seen at tetanic frequency in both muscle types. Elevating [K+]o also increased peak power of dynamic subtetanic contractions, with potentiation being more pronounced in EDL than in soleus muscles. The force-potentiating effect of elevated [K+]o was transient in FDB single fibers, reaching peak after ~4 and 2.5 min in 9 and 11 mM [K+]o, respectively. At the time of peak potentiation, force and [Ca2+]i during 15-Hz contractions were significantly increased, whereas force was slightly decreased and [Ca2+]i unchanged during 50-Hz contractions. Moderate elevation of [K+]o can transiently potentiate force and power during contractions at subtetanic frequencies, which can be explained by a higher [Ca2+]i during contractions.

4.
J Physiol ; 597(17): 4615-4625, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246276

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: Skeletal muscle fatigue limits performance in various physical activities, with exercise intolerance being a key symptom in a broad spectrum of diseases. We investigated whether a small molecule fast skeletal troponin activator (FSTA), CK-2066260, can mitigate muscle fatigue by reducing the cytosolic free [Ca2+ ] required to produce a given submaximal force and hence decreasing the energy requirement. Isolated intact single mouse muscle fibres and rat muscles in-situ treated with CK-2066260 showed improved muscle endurance., which was accompanied by decreased ATP demand and reduced glycogen usage. CK-2066260 treatment improved in-vivo exercise capacity in healthy rats and in a rat model of peripheral artery insufficiency. In conclusion, we show that the FSTA CK-2066260 effectively counteracts muscle fatigue in rodent skeletal muscle in vitro, in situ, and in vivo. This may translate to humans and provide a promising pharmacological treatment to patients suffering from severe muscle weakness and exercise intolerance. ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle fatigue limits performance during physical exercise and exacerbated muscle fatigue is a prominent symptom among a broad spectrum of diseases. The present study investigated whether skeletal muscle fatigue is affected by the fast skeletal muscle troponin activator (FSTA) CK-2066260, which increases myofibrillar Ca2+ sensitivity and amplifies the submaximal force response. Because more force is produced for a given Ca2+ , we hypothesized that CK-2066260 could mitigate muscle fatigue by reducing the energetic cost of muscle activation. Isolated single mouse muscle fibres were fatigued by 100 repeated 350 ms contractions while measuring force and the cytosolic free [Ca2+ ] or [Mg2+ ] ([Mg2+ ]i ). When starting fatiguing stimulation at matching forces (i.e. lower stimulation frequency with CK-2066260): force was decreased by ∼50% with and by ∼75% without CK-2066260; [Mg2+ ]i was increased by ∼10% with and ∼32% without CK-2066260, reflecting a larger decrease in [ATP] in the latter. The glycogen content in in situ stimulated rat muscles fatigued by repeated contractions at matching forces was about two times higher with than without CK-2066260. Voluntary exercise capacity, assessed by rats performing rotarod exercise and treadmill running, was improved in the presence of CK-2066260. CK-2066260 treatment also increased skeletal muscle fatigue resistance and exercise performance in a rat model of peripheral artery insufficiency. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the FSTA CK-2066260 mitigates skeletal muscle fatigue by reducing the metabolic cost of force generation.

5.
J Physiol ; 597(12): 3133-3146, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074054

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: How defects in muscle contractile function contribute to weakness in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) were systematically investigated. Weakness in whole muscles from late stage SOD1G93A mice was explained by muscle atrophy as seen by reduced mass and maximal force. On the other hand, surviving single muscle fibres in late stage SOD1G93A have preserved intracellular Ca2+ handling, normal force-generating capacity and increased fatigue resistance. These intriguing findings provide a substrate for therapeutic interventions to potentiate muscular capacity and delay the progression of the ALS phenotype. ABSTRACT: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a motor neuron disease characterized by degeneration and loss of motor neurons, leading to severe muscle weakness and paralysis. The SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS displays motor neuron degeneration and a phenotype consistent with human ALS. The purpose of this study was to determine whether muscle weakness in ALS can be attributed to impaired intrinsic force generation in skeletal muscles. In the current study, motor neuron loss and decreased force were evident in whole flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscles of mice in the late stage of disease (125-150 days of age). However, in intact single muscle fibres, specific force, tetanic myoplasmic free [Ca2+ ] ([Ca2+ ]i ), and resting [Ca2+ ]i remained unchanged with disease. Fibre-type distribution was maintained in late-stage SOD1G93A FDB muscles, but remaining muscle fibres displayed greater fatigue resistance compared to control and showed increased expression of myoglobin and mitochondrial respiratory chain proteins that are important determinants of fatigue resistance. Expression of genes central to both mitochondrial biogenesis and muscle atrophy where increased, suggesting that atrophic and compensatory adaptive signalling occurs simultaneously within the muscle tissue. These results support the hypothesis that muscle weakness in SOD1G93A is primarily attributed to neuromuscular degeneration and not intrinsic muscle fibre defects. In fact, surviving muscle fibres displayed maintained adaptive capacity with an exercise training-like phenotype, which suggests that compensatory mechanisms are activated that can function to delay disease progression.

6.
JCI Insight ; 52019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920392

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle weakness in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) adds to their impaired working abilities and reduced quality of life. However, little molecular insight is available on muscle weakness associated with RA. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the disease pathogenesis of RA. Here we show that oxidative post-translational modifications of the contractile machinery targeted to actin result in impaired actin polymerization and reduced force production. Using mass spectrometry, we identified the actin residues targeted by oxidative 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) or malondialdehyde adduct (MDA) modifications in weakened skeletal muscle from mice with arthritis and patients afflicted by RA. The residues were primarily located to three distinct regions positioned at matching surface areas of the skeletal muscle actin molecule from arthritis mice and RA patients. Moreover, molecular dynamic simulations revealed that these areas, here coined "hotspots", are important for the stability of the actin molecule and its capacity to generate filaments and interact with myosin. Together, these data demonstrate how oxidative modifications on actin promote muscle weakness in RA patients and provide novel leads for targeted therapeutic treatment to improve muscle function.

8.
J Gen Physiol ; 151(4): 567-577, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635368

RESUMO

Effective practices to improve skeletal muscle fatigue resistance are crucial for athletes as well as patients with dysfunctional muscles. To this end, it is important to identify the cellular signaling pathway that triggers mitochondrial biogenesis and thereby increases oxidative capacity and fatigue resistance in skeletal muscle fibers. Here, we test the hypothesis that the stress induced in skeletal muscle fibers by endurance exercise causes a reduction in the association of FK506-binding protein 12 (FKBP12) with ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1). This will result in a mild Ca2+ leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), which could trigger mitochondrial biogenesis and improved fatigue resistance. After giving mice access to an in-cage running wheel for three weeks, we observed decreased FKBP12 association to RYR1, increased baseline [Ca2+]i, and signaling associated with greater mitochondrial biogenesis in muscle, including PGC1α1. After six weeks of voluntary running, FKBP12 association is normalized, baseline [Ca2+]i returned to values below that of nonrunning controls, and signaling for increased mitochondrial biogenesis was no longer present. The adaptations toward improved endurance exercise performance that were observed with training could be mimicked by pharmacological agents that destabilize RYR1 and thereby induce a modest Ca2+ leak. We conclude that a mild RYR1 SR Ca2+ leak is a key trigger for the signaling pathway that increases muscle fatigue resistance.

9.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 316(2): C246-C251, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566390

RESUMO

Discrepant results have been reported regarding an intramuscular mechanism underlying the ergogenic effect of caffeine on neuromuscular function in humans. Here, we reevaluated the effect of caffeine on muscular force production in humans and combined this with measurements of the caffeine dose-response relationship on force and cytosolic free [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) in isolated mouse muscle fibers. Twenty-one healthy and physically active men (29 ± 9 yr, 178 ± 6 cm, 73 ± 10 kg, mean ± SD) took part in the present study. Nine participants were involved in two experimental sessions during which supramaximal single and paired electrical stimulations (at 10 and 100 Hz) were applied to the femoral nerve to record evoked forces. Evoked forces were recorded before and 1 h after ingestion of 1) 6 mg caffeine/kg body mass or 2) placebo. Caffeine plasma concentration was measured in 12 participants. In addition, submaximal tetanic force and [Ca2+]i were measured in single mouse flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscle fibers exposed to 100 nM up to 5 mM caffeine. Six milligrams of caffeine per kilogram body mass (plasma concentration ~40 µM) did not increase electrically evoked forces in humans. In superfused FDB single fibers, millimolar caffeine concentrations (i.e., 15- to 35-fold above usual concentrations observed in humans) were required to increase tetanic force and [Ca2+]i. Our results suggest that toxic doses of caffeine are required to increase muscle contractility, questioning the purported intramuscular ergogenic effect of caffeine in humans.

11.
Front Physiol ; 9: 1395, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30364087

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory disease that affects 1% of the general population. Fatigue is a common complaint of patients with RA, however their perceived fatigue may be more exacerbated than objective measures of fatigue may indicate. The assessment of fatigue is made complex due to inconsistent and vague terms used to define fatigue, and the task dependence of fatigability. Fatigue is defined as a state of exhaustion and decreased strength, while fatigability indicates an individual's susceptibility to fatigue. In order to offer some clarity to the manifestation of fatigue in clinical populations, in this review we outline that fatigue should be described with subsections that are related to the symptom, such as: perceived fatigability and performance fatigability. Where perceived fatigability indicates the subjective state of the individual and thus involves the individual's subjective measure of fatigue, performance fatigability would be measured through clinical and laboratory-based assessments that quantify the functional decline in performance. This review describes RA and the various neuromuscular changes associated with the disease that can lead to alterations in both perceived and performance fatigue. From there, we discuss fatigue and RA, how fatigue can be assessed, effects of exercise interventions on RA symptoms and fatigue, and recommendations for future studies investigating subjective and objective measures of fatigability.

12.
Pflugers Arch ; 470(8): 1243-1254, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29671103

RESUMO

Fatigue of single mouse fibers during repeated high-frequency stimulation results initially from decreased Ca2+ sensitivity while free myoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]m) increases, followed by decreasing [Ca2+]m. Recovery of active force with low-frequency stimulation is slow and persistent fatigue results from low [Ca2+]m. However, the consequences of intermittent submaximal contractions are not known. The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes in [Ca2+]m and active force during intermittent submaximal contractions and subsequent recovery. Single fibers of mouse flexor digitorum brevis muscles at 32 °C were stimulated with 40 or 50 Hz, for 350 ms every 2 s for 2 min and then every 1 s until < 40% of initial force. Values obtained during the intermittent stimulation were compared with a control force-[Ca2+]m relationship. A "P"-shaped pattern in the force-[Ca2+]m relationship was observed during intermittent stimulation. Early in the intermittent stimulation, [Ca2+]m increased while active force decreased. Subsequent force potentiation was accompanied by increased Ca2+ sensitivity. Later, as active force declined, [Ca2+]m decreased significantly (p < 0.001). This was followed, in the final phase, by a significant decrease in Ca2+ sensitivity determined by [Ca2+]m at half-maximal force (Ca50) (p = 0.001). Low-frequency fatigue persisted during recovery while Ca50 was not significantly different from prefatigue (p > 0.5). In conclusion, the main mechanism of fatigue is due to decreases in both [Ca2+]m and Ca2+ sensitivity following the initial force potentiation. The intermittent submaximal contractions resulted in persistent low-frequency fatigue seen during recovery, which was explained by depressed [Ca2+]m with no change in Ca2+ sensitivity.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28432118

RESUMO

The contractile function of skeletal muscle declines during intense or prolonged physical exercise, that is, fatigue develops. Skeletal muscle fibers fatigue acutely during highly intense exercise when they have to rely on anaerobic metabolism. Early stages of fatigue involve impaired myofibrillar function, whereas decreased Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) becomes more important in later stages. SR Ca2+ release can also become reduced with more prolonged, lower intensity exercise, and it is then related to glycogen depletion. Increased reactive oxygen/nitrogen species can cause long-lasting impairments in SR Ca2+ release resulting in a prolonged force depression after exercise. In this article, we discuss molecular and cellular mechanisms of the above fatigue-induced changes, with special focus on multiple mechanisms to decrease SR Ca2+ release to avoid energy depletion and preserve muscle fiber integrity. We also discuss fatigue-related effects of exercise-induced Ca2+ fluxes over the sarcolemma and between the cytoplasm and mitochondria.

14.
J Physiol ; 595(24): 7413-7426, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28980321

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: We investigated whether intramuscular temperature affects the acute recovery of exercise performance following fatigue-induced by endurance exercise. Mean power output was better preserved during an all-out arm-cycling exercise following a 2 h recovery period in which the upper arms were warmed to an intramuscular temperature of Ì´ 38°C than when they were cooled to as low as 15°C, which suggested that recovery of exercise performance in humans is dependent on muscle temperature. Mechanisms underlying the temperature-dependent effect on recovery were studied in intact single mouse muscle fibres where we found that recovery of submaximal force and restoration of fatigue resistance was worsened by cooling (16-26°C) and improved by heating (36°C). Isolated whole mouse muscle experiments confirmed that cooling impaired muscle glycogen resynthesis. We conclude that skeletal muscle recovery from fatigue-induced by endurance exercise is impaired by cooling and improved by heating, due to changes in glycogen resynthesis rate. ABSTRACT: Manipulation of muscle temperature is believed to improve post-exercise recovery, with cooling being especially popular among athletes. However, it is unclear whether such temperature manipulations actually have positive effects. Accordingly, we studied the effect of muscle temperature on the acute recovery of force and fatigue resistance after endurance exercise. One hour of moderate-intensity arm cycling exercise in humans was followed by 2 h recovery in which the upper arms were either heated to 38°C, not treated (33°C), or cooled to ∼15°C. Fatigue resistance after the recovery period was assessed by performing 3 × 5 min sessions of all-out arm cycling at physiological temperature for all conditions (i.e. not heated or cooled). Power output during the all-out exercise was better maintained when muscles were heated during recovery, whereas cooling had the opposite effect. Mechanisms underlying the temperature-dependent effect on recovery were tested in mouse intact single muscle fibres, which were exposed to ∼12 min of glycogen-depleting fatiguing stimulation (350 ms tetani given at 10 s interval until force decreased to 30% of the starting force). Fibres were subsequently exposed to the same fatiguing stimulation protocol after 1-2 h of recovery at 16-36°C. Recovery of submaximal force (30 Hz), the tetanic myoplasmic free [Ca2+ ] (measured with the fluorescent indicator indo-1), and fatigue resistance were all impaired by cooling (16-26°C) and improved by heating (36°C). In addition, glycogen resynthesis was faster at 36°C than 26°C in whole flexor digitorum brevis muscles. We conclude that recovery from exhaustive endurance exercise is accelerated by raising and slowed by lowering muscle temperature.


Assuntos
Exercício , Hipertermia Induzida/métodos , Hipotermia Induzida/efeitos adversos , Contração Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Adulto , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipertermia Induzida/efeitos adversos , Hipotermia Induzida/métodos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fadiga Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
15.
Front Physiol ; 8: 712, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28979214

RESUMO

Electrically-evoked low-frequency (submaximal) force is increased immediately following high-frequency stimulation in human skeletal muscle. Although central mechanisms have been suggested to be the major cause of this low-frequency force potentiation, intramuscular factors might contribute. Thus, we hypothesized that two intramuscular Ca2+-dependent mechanisms can contribute to the low-frequency force potentiation: increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release and increased myofibrillar Ca2+ sensitivity. Experiments in humans were performed on the plantar flexor muscles at a shortened, intermediate, and long muscle length and electrically evoked contractile force and membrane excitability (i.e., M-wave amplitude) were recorded during a stimulation protocol. Low-frequency force potentiation was assessed by stimulating with a low-frequency tetanus (25 Hz, 2 s duration), followed by a high-frequency tetanus (100 Hz, 2 s duration), and finally followed by another low-frequency (25 Hz, 2 s duration) tetanus. Similar stimulation protocols were performed on intact mouse single fibers from flexor digitorum brevis muscle, whereby force and myoplasmic free [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) were assessed. Our data show a low-frequency force potentiation that was not muscle length-dependent in human muscle and it was not accompanied by any increase in M-wave amplitude. A length-independent low-frequency force potentiation could be replicated in mouse single fibers, supporting an intramuscular mechanism. We show that at physiological temperature (31°C) this low-frequency force potentiation in mouse fibers corresponded with an increase in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release. When mimicking the slower contractile properties of human muscle by cooling mouse single fibers to 18°C, the low-frequency force potentiation was accompanied by minimally increased SR Ca2+ release and hence it could be explained by increased myofibrillar Ca2+ sensitivity. Finally, introducing a brief 200 ms pause between the high- and low-frequency tetanus in human and mouse muscle revealed that the low-frequency force potentiation is abolished, arguing that increased myofibrillar Ca2+ sensitivity is the main intramuscular mechanism underlying the low-frequency force potentiation in humans.

16.
Nat Protoc ; 12(9): 1763-1776, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28771237

RESUMO

Mechanical dissection of single intact mammalian skeletal muscle fibers permits real-time measurement of intracellular properties and contractile function of living fibers. A major advantage of mechanical over enzymatic fiber dissociation is that single fibers can be isolated with their tendons remaining attached, which allows contractile forces (in the normal expected range of 300-450 kN/m2) to be measured during electrical stimulation. Furthermore, the sarcolemma of single fibers remains fully intact after mechanical dissection, and hence the living fibers can be studied with intact intracellular milieu and normal function and metabolic properties, as well as ionic control. Given that Ca2+ is the principal regulator of the contractile force, measurements of myoplasmic free [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) can be used to further delineate the intrinsic mechanisms underlying changes in skeletal muscle function. [Ca2+]i measurements are most commonly performed in intact single fibers using ratiometric fluorescent indicators such as indo-1 or fura-2. These Ca2+ indicators are introduced into the fiber by pressure injection or by using the membrane-permeable indo-1 AM, and [Ca2+]i is measured by calculating a ratio of the fluorescence at specific wavelengths emitted for the Ca2+-free and Ca2+-bound forms of the dye. We describe here the procedures for mechanical dissection, and for force and [Ca2+]i measurement in intact single fibers from mouse flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscle, which is the most commonly used muscle in studies using intact single fibers. This technique can also be used to isolate intact single fibers from various muscles and from various species. As an alternative to Ca2+ indicators, single fibers can also be loaded with fluorescent indicators to measure, for instance, reactive oxygen species, pH, and [Mg2+], or they can be injected with proteins to change functional properties. The entire protocol, from dissection to the start of an experiment on a single fiber, takes ∼3 h.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/citologia , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
17.
J Physiol ; 595(5): 1657-1670, 2017 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27869319

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: We report that the small molecule CK-2066260 selectively slows the off-rate of Ca2+ from fast skeletal muscle troponin, leading to increased myofibrillar Ca2+ sensitivity in fast skeletal muscle. Rodents dosed with CK-2066260 show increased hindlimb muscle force and power in response to submaximal rates of nerve stimulation in situ. CK-2066260 has no effect on free cytosolic [Ca2+ ] during contractions of isolated muscle fibres. We conclude that fast skeletal muscle troponin sensitizers constitute a potential therapy to address an unmet need of improving muscle function in conditions of weakness and premature muscle fatigue. ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle dysfunction occurs in many diseases and can lead to muscle weakness and premature muscle fatigue. Here we show that the fast skeletal troponin activator, CK-2066260, counteracts muscle weakness by increasing troponin Ca2+ affinity, thereby increasing myofibrillar Ca2+ sensitivity. Exposure to CK-2066260 resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in the Ca2+ sensitivity of ATPase activity in isolated myofibrils and reconstituted hybrid sarcomeres containing fast skeletal muscle troponin C. Stopped-flow experiments revealed a ∼2.7-fold decrease in the Ca2+ off-rate of isolated troponin complexes in the presence of CK-2066260 (6 vs. 17 s-1 under control conditions). Isolated mouse flexor digitorum brevis fibres showed a rapidly developing, reversible and concentration-dependent force increase at submaximal stimulation frequencies. This force increase was not accompanied by any changes in the free cytosolic [Ca2+ ] or its kinetics. CK-2066260 induced a slowing of relaxation, which was markedly larger at 26°C than at 31°C and could be linked to the decreased Ca2+ off-rate of troponin C. Rats dosed with CK-2066260 showed increased hindlimb isometric and isokinetic force in response to submaximal rates of nerve stimulation in situ producing significantly higher absolute forces at low isokinetic velocities, whereas there was no difference in force at the highest velocities. Overall muscle power was increased and the findings are consistent with a lack of effect on crossbridge kinetics. In conclusion, CK-2066260 acts as a fast skeletal troponin activator that may be used to increase muscle force and power in conditions of muscle weakness.


Assuntos
Cálcio/fisiologia , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Fibras Musculares de Contração Rápida/efeitos dos fármacos , Miofibrilas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirazinas/farmacologia , Adenosina Trifosfatases/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Membro Posterior/efeitos dos fármacos , Membro Posterior/fisiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fibras Musculares de Contração Rápida/fisiologia , Miofibrilas/fisiologia , Coelhos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Troponina C/fisiologia
18.
Crit Care ; 20(1): 254, 2016 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27510990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Critical illness myopathy is an acquired skeletal muscle disorder with severe myosin loss and muscle weakness frequently seen in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. It is unknown if impaired excitation-contraction coupling contributes to the muscle weakness. METHODS: We used a unique ICU model where rats were deeply sedated, post-synaptically pharmacologically paralyzed, mechanically ventilated and closely monitored for up to ten days. Single intact fibers from the flexor digitorum brevis muscle were isolated and used to measure force and free myoplasmic [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)]i) during tetanic contractions. RESULTS: Fibers from ICU rats had 80 % lower tetanic [Ca(2+)]i and produced only 15 % of the force seen in fibers from sham-operated (SHAM) rats. In the presence of 5 mM caffeine, tetanic [Ca(2+)]i was similar in fibers from ICU and SHAM rats but force was 50 % lower in fibers from ICU rats than SHAM rats. Confocal imaging showed disrupted tetanic [Ca(2+)]i transients in fibers from ICU rats compared to SHAM rats. Western blots showed similar levels of Na(+) channel and dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) protein expression, whereas ryanodine receptor (RyR) and sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase 1 (SERCA1) expression was markedly lower in muscle of ICU rats than in SHAM rats. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that distribution of Na(+) channel and DHPR protein on the sarcolemma was disrupted in fibers from ICU rats compared with SHAM rats. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that impaired SR Ca(2+) release contributes to the muscle weakness seen in patients in ICU.


Assuntos
Ácido Edético/provisão & distribução , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Debilidade Muscular/fisiopatologia , Doenças Musculares/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Estado Terminal , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Masculino , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Doenças Musculares/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
20.
Front Physiol ; 7: 252, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27445844

RESUMO

The interpolated twitch technique (ITT) is the gold standard to assess voluntary activation and central fatigue. Yet, its validity has been questioned. Here we studied how peripheral fatigue can affect the ITT. Repeated contractions at submaximal frequencies were produced by supramaximal electrical stimulations of the human adductor pollicis muscle in vivo and of isolated rat soleus fiber bundles; an extra stimulation pulse was given during contractions to induce a superimposed twitch. Human muscles fatigued by repeated 30-Hz stimulation trains (3 s on-1 s off) showed an ~80% reduction in the superimposed twitch force accompanied by a severely reduced EMG response (M-wave amplitude), which implies action potential failure. Subsequent experiments combined a less intense stimulation protocol (1.5 s on-3 s off) with ischemia to cause muscle fatigue, but which preserved M-wave amplitude. However, the superimposed twitch force still decreased markedly more than the potentiated twitch force; with ITT this would reflect increased "voluntary activation." In contrast, the superimposed twitch force was relatively spared when a similar protocol was performed in rat soleus bundles. Force relaxation was slowed by >150% in fatigued human muscles, whereas it was unchanged in rat soleus bundles. Accordingly, results similar to those in the human muscle were obtained when relaxation was slowed by cooling the rat soleus muscles. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that muscle fatigue can confound the quantification of central fatigue using the ITT.

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