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1.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807690

RESUMO

Poor sleep is a determinant of obesity, with overconsumption of energy contributing to this relationship. Eating behavior characteristics are predictive of energy intake and weight change and may underlie observed associations of sleep with weight status and obesity risk factors. However, relationships between sleep and dimensions of eating behavior, as well as possible individual differences in these relations, are not well characterized. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether sleep behaviors, including duration, timing, quality, and regularity relate to dietary restraint, disinhibition, and tendency towards hunger and to explore whether these associations differ by sex. This cross-sectional study included 179 adults aged 20-73 years (68.7% women, 64.8% with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). Sleep was evaluated by accelerometry over 2 weeks. Eating behavior dimensions were measured with the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire. Prolonged wake after sleep onset (WASO) (0.029 ± 0.011, p = 0.007), greater sleep fragmentation index (0.074 ± 0.036, p = 0.041), and lower sleep efficiency (-0.133 ± 0.051, p = 0.010) were associated with higher dietary restraint. However, higher restraint attenuated associations of higher WASO and sleep fragmentation with higher BMI (p-interactions < 0.10). In terms of individual differences, sex influenced associations of sleep quality measures with tendency towards hunger (p-interactions < 0.10). Stratified analyses showed that, in men only, higher sleep fragmentation index, longer sleep onset latency, and lower sleep efficiency were associated with greater tendency towards hunger (ß = 0.115 ± 0.037, p = 0.003, ß = 0.169 ± 0.072, p = 0.023, ß = -0.150 ± 0.055, p = 0.009, respectively). Results of this analysis suggest that the association of poor sleep on food intake could be exacerbated in those with eating behavior traits that predispose to overeating, and this sleep-eating behavior relation may be sex-dependent. Strategies to counter overconsumption in the context of poor quality sleep should be evaluated in light of eating behavior traits.

2.
Food Chem ; 355: 129656, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813158

RESUMO

A visible-light-responsive azobenzene derivative, 3,5-dichloro-4-((2,6-dichloro-4-(methacryloyloxy)phenyl)diazenyl)benzoic acid, was synthesized and used as the functional monomer to fabricate a visible-light-responsive core-shell structured surface molecularly imprinted polymer (PS-co-PMAA@VSMIP). After removal of the sacrificial PS-co-PMAA core, a hollow structured surface molecularly imprinted polymer (HVSMIP) was obtained. Both the PS-co-PMAA@VSMIP and HVSMIP were used for the detection of chlorpyrifos, a moderately toxic organophosphate pesticide. They exhibited good visible-light-responsive properties (550 nm for trans→cis and 440 nm for cis→trans isomerization for an azobenzene chromophore) in ethanol/water (9:1, v/v). Compared with the PS-co-PMAA@VSMIP, the HVSMIP had a larger surface area, pore volume, binding capacity, imprinting effect, maximum chemical binding capacity, dissociation constant, and photo-isomerization rate. The HVSMIP was applied to detect trace chlorpyrifos in fruit and vegetable samples. This was achieved by measuring the trans→cis rate constant of the HVSMIP in the sample solution, with good recoveries, low relative standard deviations, and a low detection limit.

3.
Chem Biodivers ; 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709565

RESUMO

Five new peptaibols, longibramides A-E (1-5) with 11 amino acid residues, were isolated from a fungus Trichoderma longibrachiatum Rifai DMG-3-1-1, which was isolated from a mushroom Clitocybe nebularis (Batsch) P. Kumm collected from coniferous forest in the subboreal area of northeast China. The structures of longibramides A-E were determined by their spectroscopic data (NMR and MS-MS spectra), their absolute configurations were determined by X-ray diffractions and Marfey's analyses. The X-ray diffractions of longibramides A, B and the similar CD spectra of A-E showed that they all had α-helix conformations. Longibramides B and E showed moderate cytotoxicities against BV2 and MCF-7 cells, and also showed some inhibitory effects against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA T144. L-trans-Hyp was not commonly found in natural peptaibols, which was the 6th or 10th amino acid residue in longibramides C-E . The X-ray diffractions of longibramides A and B afforded the accuracy conformations of their secondary structures, which maybe help to interpret the structure-activity relationships of the family of peptaibols in the future.

4.
Mol Med Rep ; 23(5)2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33760191

RESUMO

The present study investigated the role of electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve in the acute lung injury (ALI) inflammatory response induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats. A rat model of ALI was established using LPS and by connecting an electrode to the left vagus nerve proximal to the heart in order to provide continuous electrical stimulation (1 mA; 1 msec; 10 Hz). After 120 min, the rat lung tissue was stained with hematoxylin and eosin and the expression of inflammatory factors was evaluated by reverse transcription­quantitative PCR and western blot analysis. The change in apoptosis rate in cells from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was analyzed using flow cytometry. The results of the present study demonstrated that inflammatory cell infiltration, alveolar wall and interstitial thickening, and lung hyperemia in rats with LPS­induced ALI were decreased following electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve. Electrical stimulation inhibited the expression levels of IL­1, IL­6, IL­10, IL-8 and TNF­α at both the mRNA and protein levels and decreased early and late apoptosis rates in inflammatory cells from BALF. The results indicated that vagus nerve stimulation can reverse the inflammatory response in lung injury, thereby exerting a pulmonary protective effect.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782049

RESUMO

Hypergastrinemia has been associated with high grade dysplasia and adenocarcinoma in patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE), and experimental studies suggest pro-inflammatory and pro-neoplastic effects of gastrin on BE. This is of potential concern, as BE patients are treated with medications that suppress gastric acid production, resulting in increased physiologic levels of gastrin. We aimed to determine whether treatment with the novel gastrin/CCK2 receptor antagonist netazepide reduces expression of markers associated with inflammation and neoplasia in BE. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of netazepide in patients with BE without dysplasia. Subjects were treated for 12 weeks, with endoscopic assessment at baseline and at end of treatment. The primary outcome was within-individual change in cellular proliferation as assessed by Ki67. Secondary analyses included changes in gene expression, assessed by RNA-sequencing, and safety and tolerability. A total of 20 subjects completed the study and were included in the analyses. There was no difference between arms in mean change in cellular proliferation (netazepide: +35.6 Ki67+ cells/ mm2, SD 620.7; placebo: +307.8 Ki67+ cells/ mm2, SD 640.3; p=0.35). Netazepide treatment resulted in increased expression of genes related to gastric phenotype (TFF2, MUC5B) and certain cancer-associated markers (REG3A, PAX9, MUC1), and decreased expression of intestinal markers MUC2, FABP1, FABP2, and CDX1. No serious adverse events related to study drug occurred. The gastrin/CCK2 receptor antagonist netazepide did not reduce cellular proliferation in patients with non-dysplastic BE. Further research should focus on the biological effects of gastrin in Barrett's esophagus.

6.
J Food Biochem ; : e13687, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33665859

RESUMO

D. candidum Wall. ex Lindl. (D. candidum) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine with multiple therapeutic properties. D. candidum was administered to mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its mechanism of action was elucidated. D. candidum was intragastrically administered to HFD mice for 6 weeks at a dosage of 200 or 400 mg/kg. D. candidum reduced body weight gain and blood glucose levels in HFD mice in a dose-dependent manner, while significantly reducing lipid accumulation in the liver. D. candidum significantly regulated the expression of lipid metabolism- and gluconeogenesis-related genes and inhibited activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. In summary, D. candidum significantly inhibits fat accumulation, maintains lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis, and inhibits the inflammatory response in the liver of HFD mice. Our findings suggest that D. candidum may be an effective therapeutic strategy against NAFLD injury. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The occurrence and development of fatty liver is closely related to abnormalities in lipid and glucose metabolism. An HFD-induced NAFLD mouse model was used to study the effects of D. candidum. After treatment with D. candidum, lipid and glucose metabolism in the mice was effectively regulated, which reduced liver damage and fat storage with obvious protective effects on the liver. Our results suggest that D. candidum has potential for further clinical application in the treatment of NAFLD.

7.
J Org Chem ; 86(7): 5265-5273, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755472

RESUMO

The synthesis of two kinds of five-membered organosulfur heterocycles (i.e., 1,4,2-oxathiazoles and 1,3,4-thiadiazoles) from α-enolic dithioesters with active 1,3-dipoles (nitrile oxides and nitrilimines) generated in situ was achieved under mild reaction conditions. This transformation further expands the synthetic application of α-enolic dithioesters as the sulfur-containing building blocks.

8.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(5): 7284-7299, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653965

RESUMO

Glycolysis markers including glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4), hexokinase 2 (HK2), pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) play vital roles in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, their prognostic value in HNSCC is still controversial. In this meta-analysis, we searched the PubMed, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases and included thirty-seven studies (3272 patients) that met the inclusion criteria. Higher expression levels of the glycolysis markers in tumor tissues correlated with poorer overall survival (OS; P < 0.001), disease-free survival (DFS; P = 0.03) and recurrence-free survival (RFS; P < 0.001) of HNSCC patients. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses demonstrated that higher expression levels of GLUT1 (P < 0.001), MCT4 (P = 0.002), HK2 (P = 0.002) and PKM2 (P < 0.001) correlated with poorer OS among HNSCC patients. Higher expression of MCT4 (P < 0.001) and PKM2 (P = 0.008) predicted poorer DFS among HNSCC patients. However, GLUT4 expression levels did not associate with clinical outcomes in HNSCC patients. These results demonstrate that glycolysis markers, such as GLUT1, MCT4, HK2 and PKM2, are potential prognostic predictors and therapeutic targets in HNSCC.

9.
Int J Mol Med ; 47(4): 1, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537835

RESUMO

Metastasis is the primary cause of the high mortality rates in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). MicroRNA (miR)­411­5p has been discovered to serve an important role in cancer metastases. However, to the best of our knowledge, the association between miR­411­5p expression levels and HNSCC metastasis has not been thoroughly investigated. The present study aimed to research the function of miR­411­5p in HNSCC metastasis. The results of the present study revealed that miR­411­5p expression levels were upregulated in patients with HNSCC with lymph node metastasis and the upregulated expression levels of miR­411­5p were positively associated with the metastatic potential of HNSCC. Moreover, miR­411­5p promoted HNSCC cell migration, invasion and epithelial­mesenchymal transition (EMT). The results of the dual­luciferase reporter assays identified RING1 and YY1 binding protein (RYBP) as a functional downstream target gene for miR­411­5p. Therefore, whether miR­411­5p downregulated the expression levels of RYBP in HNSCC cells was subsequently investigated. Notably, the silencing of RYBP expression restored the stimulatory effects of miR­411­5p on HNSCC cell migration, invasion and EMT. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of miR­411­5p and RYBP were found to be inversely correlated in HNSCC samples. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that the miR­411­5p­mediated downregulation of RYBP expression levels may exert an important role in HNSCC metastasis and may provide a novel target for the treatment of HNSCC.


Assuntos
Metástase Linfática/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Regulação para Cima/genética , Sequência de Bases , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Masculino , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Metástase Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Proteínas Repressoras/genética
10.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 39, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602298

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a disease that causes vision loss, vision impairment, and blindness, most frequently manifesting among preterm infants. ROPScore and CHOP ROP (Children's Hospital of Philadelphia ROP) are similar scoring models to predict ROP using risk factors such as postnatal weight gain, birth weight (BW), and gestation age (GA). The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy and difference between using ROPScore and CHOP ROP for the early prediction of ROP. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted from January 2009 to December 2019 in China. Patients eligible for enrollment included infants admitted to NICU at ≤32 weeks GA or those with ≤1500 g BW. The sensitivity and specificity of ROPScore and CHOP ROP were analyzed, as well as its suitability as an independent predictor of ROP. RESULTS: Severe ROP was found in 5.0% of preterm infants. The sensitivity and specificity of the ROPScore test at any stage of ROP was 55.8 and 77.8%, respectively. For severe ROP, the sensitivity and specificity was 50 and 87.0%, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the ROPScore for predicting severe ROP was 0.76. This value was significantly higher than the values for birth weight (0.60), gestational age (0.73), and duration of ventilation (0.63), when each was category measured separately. For the CHOP ROP, it correctly predicted infants who developed type 1 ROP (sensitivity, 100%, specificity, 21.4%). CONCLUSIONS: The CHOP ROP model predicted infants who developed type 1 ROP at a sensitivity of 100% whereas ROPScore had a sensitivity of 55.8%. Therefore, the CHOP ROP model is more suitable for Chinese populations than the ROPScore test. CLINICAL REGISTRATION NUMBER AND STROBE GUIDELINES: This article was a retrospective cohort study and reported the results of the ROPScore and CHOP ROP algorithms. No results pertaining to interventions on human participants were reported. Thus, registration was not required and this study followed STROBE guidelines.

11.
Virol J ; 18(1): 37, 2021 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is difficult to cure. HBV-specific immune tolerance plays a key role in HBV persistence, and enhancing cellular and humoral immunity will improve the control of HBV infection. The purpose of the study was to explore the anti-HBV and immunostimulatory effects of msiRNAs that introduce unpaired uridine bulges in the passenger strand. METHODS: msiRNAs targeting the HBV S and X genes were designed and named msiHBs and msiHBx, respectively. HepG2 cells were cotransfected with siRNA or msiRNA and the HBV replication-competent plasmid pHY106-wta or pHY106-X15. HepG2.215 cells were transfected with siRNA or msiRNA. The levels of HBsAg, HBeAg, and the cytokines TNF-α, IFN-α, IFN-ß, IL-1α, and IL-6 in the culture supernatant was detected by ELISA. The levels of intracellular HBV RNA, nuclear HBV replication intermediates, and HBV DNA in the supernatant were measured by quantitative RT-PCR and PCR. The levels of HBV replication intermediates were detected by Southern blotting. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were transfected with siRNA or msiRNA, and the levels of secreted cytokines IFN-α and IFN-ß were detected by ELISA. The bioactivity of type I interferons in the supernatants was detected by the virus protection assay. RESULTS: msiHBx treatment led to a significant decrease in HBsAg (to a negative level) and HBV DNA (95.5%) in the supernatant and intrahepatocellular HBV replication intermediates (89.8%) in HepG2 cells with transient HBV replication and in HepG2.2.15 cells. There was no significant difference between msiHBx and siHBx in terms of the reduction in HBV proteins and HBV replication (P > 0.05). Compared with siHBx, msiHBx treatment of HepG2 cells transfected with the HBV replication-competent plasmid led to a significant increase in the levels of the antiviral cytokines TNF-α (3.3-fold), IFN-α (1.4-fold), and IFN-ß (2.5-fold) (P < 0.01), without upregulation of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1α and IL-6. The virus protection assay results showed msiHBx-mediated type I interferons effectively protected L929 cells against ECMV infection. CONCLUSIONS: msiHBx could effectively inhibit HBV expression and replication and induce an antiviral innate immune response without proinflammatory activation. The dual RNAi and immunostimulatory activity of msiRNAs may play an important role in the control of HBV infection.

12.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(2): 1842-1850, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a novel modality in the treatment of solid tumours. The aim of the study is to evaluate the technical feasibility, safety and efficacy of multiple-round EUS-RFA with low ablation power for unresectable pancreatic cancer. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of eleven cases with unresectable pancreatic cancer who underwent EUS-RFA between November 2013 and November 2018. For each lesion, RITA 1500X radiofrequency generator was used to deliver 5-10 watts ablation power for 90 seconds, repeatedly. Eight cases underwent the same procedure one week later. Additionally, one patient with the lesion size of 29.7 mm underwent 8 total sessions of RFA every other week. RESULTS: The procedure was successful in all cases and no major adverse events were observed. The post procedure imaging studies and serum CA19-9 level were performed 1 month after procedure, showing two patients had decreased lesion sizes and five patients had decreased serum CA19-9 level. Follow-up duration ranged 2 to 12 months. The patient who underwent 8 total sessions of RFA survived 12 months after followup and showed increased tumour apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value and 20% ablated area inside the tumour. CONCLUSIONS: A multiple-round ablation with optimal RFA energy could be a technically feasible, safe and short-term efficacy option for those patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer.

13.
J Cell Physiol ; 236(6): 4273-4289, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452710

RESUMO

While mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been widely used to repair radiation-induced bone damage, the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of MSCs in the maintenance of bone homeostasis under radiation stress remains largely unknown. In this study, the role and mechanisms of R-spondin 1 (Rspo1)-leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 4 (LGR4) axis on the initiation of self-defense of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and maintenance of bone homeostasis under radiation stress were investigated. Interestingly, radiation increased levels of Rspo1 and LGR4 in BMSCs. siRNA knockdown of Rspo1 or LGR4 aggravated radiation-induced impairment of self-renewal ability and osteogenic differentiation potential of BMSCs. However, exogenous Rspo1 significantly attenuated radiation-induced depletion of BMSCs, and promoted the lineage shift towards osteoblasts. This alteration was associated with the reversal of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation and autophagy decrement. Pharmacological and genetic blockade of autophagy attenuated the radio-protective effects of Rspo1, rendering BMSCs more vulnerable to radiation-induced injury. Then bone radiation injury was induced in C57BL6J mice to further determine the radio-protective effects of Rspo1. In mice, administration of Rspo1 recombinant protein alleviated radiation-induced bone loss. Our results uncover that Rspo1-LGR4-mTOR-autophagy axis are key mechanisms by which BMSCs initiate self-defense against radiation and maintain bone homeostasis. Targeting Rspo1-LGR4 may provide a novel strategy for the intervention of radiation-induced bone damage.

15.
Food Funct ; 12(2): 587-601, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350422

RESUMO

Gut microbiota (GM) is considered to play an important role in obesity. Additionally, the impact of dietary fiber (DF) consumption on GM has been well established. Brown seaweeds are known to be a rich source of DF. However, the effect of insoluble DFs (IDFs) alone from brown seaweed on obesity and GM remains to be determined. This study investigated the effect of IDFs prepared from Laminaria japonica Aresch on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and GM dysbiosis in mice. Although HFD-induced body weight gain was not significantly attenuated by the IDF treatment, HFD-induced liver injury was ameliorated, and the HFD-elevated serum cholesterol concentration and glucose level of obese mice were significantly lowered. IDF treatment significantly modulated the GM composition disturbed by the HFD. It was found that 5% IDFs restored the GM to a very similar composition to that in the normal mice. The relative abundance of Akkermansia genus was decreased by >300-fold in HFD-fed mice, and it was fully restored by 5% IDF administration. Akkermansia muciniphila, a short-chain fatty acid producer, was identified as a marker species in both control and high-dose IDF groups. Furthermore, IDFs significantly restored the HFD-reduced acetate and propionate levels in the cecal content. In conclusion, the beneficial effect of IDFs derived from L. japonica on obesity was confirmed in mice, and the underlying mechanism may be associated with the modulation of GM composition, possibly through the enrichment of Akkermansia.

16.
Res Vet Sci ; 134: 51-57, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296811

RESUMO

To explore the effect of glutamine (Gln) on the growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, absorption function and mRNA expression of intestinal transporters in heat-stressed chickens, 540 21-day-old Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to a control group (no stress, NS), Gln group (Chickens were administered 0.5% and 1.0% Gln, respectively), heat stress group (HT), and Gln + HT group (Chickens were administered 0.5% and 1.0% Gln, respectively). The chickens in the HT and Gln + HT groups were reared under HT (36 ± 1 °C for 10 h/d and 22 ± 1 °C for 14 h/d), for 21 days. In contrast to the NS group, heat stress caused a reduction in the body weight gain (BWG); feed intake (FI); activity of trypsin, lipase, alkaline phosphatases, Ca2+ and Mg2+ adenosine triphosphatases, and Na+-K+-ATPase; and content of glutathione and d-xylose (P < 0.05) in the other groups. In addition, compared to the F:G and expression levels in the NS group, the heat stress increased the feed intake:body weight gain (F:G) and mRNA expression levels of SGLT1, CaBP-D28k, and L-GSBP (P < 0.05). Furthermore, HT-challenged birds were pretreated with Gln, the BWG; FI; activity of trypsin, lipase, alkaline phosphatase, Ca2+ and Mg2+ adenosine triphosphatases, and Na+-K+-ATPase; and content of glutathione and d-xylose (P < 0.05) were dramatically increased, but it decreased the F:G and mRNA expression levels of SGLT1, CaBP-D28k, and L-GSBP (P < 0.05) in the HT group. In summary, Gln can effectively improve growth performance and may promote digestion and absorption in the gastrointestinal tract by mediating the mRNA expression level of nutrient transporters and Gln metabolism in heat-stressed broilers.

17.
Ann Palliat Med ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33302641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided celiac plexus neurolysis (EUS-CPN) is widely practiced to palliate cancer pain in patients with inoperable abdominal malignancy. During CPN, the dehydrated alcohol is injected to ablate neural tissue and local anesthetics is to minimize the discomfort from alcohol injection. This study aims to compare the efficacy and safety of bupivacaine and ropivacaine in EUS-CPN. METHODS: We retrospectively pooled and analyzed two large EUS centers' 150 consecutive patients underwent EUS-CPN from January 2012 to March 2019. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on the selection of anesthetics: 0.5% ropivacaine (ROPI, n=23), 0.375% bupivacaine (0.375% BUPI, n=21), 0.75% bupivacaine (0.75% BUPI, n=106). Visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure pre/post-operative pain at 11 observation points. Additional data were collected from medical records. RESULTS: The incidence of procedure-related pain within 12 hours after CPN was significantly different among the three groups, 10.38% in 0.75% BUPI [OR =0.26 (95% CI: 0.07-0.94); P=0.04], 26.09% in ROPI and 23.81% in 0.375% BUPI group, respectively. The risk of post-procedural arrhythmia was similar between the 0.375% and 0.75% BUPI groups (19.05% versus 18.87%), while relatively lower in ROPI group (13.04%). No patients in any group developed symptoms of CNS toxicity related to anesthetics. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with 0.375% bupivacaine and 0.5% ropivacaine, 0.75% bupivacaine in CPN can reduce post-procedural pain. Ropivacaine shows a tendency of less arrhythmogenic effect in CPN.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272569

RESUMO

Mild hypothermia is a well-established technique for alleviating neurological injuries in clinical surgery. RNA-binding protein motif 3 (RBM3) has been identified as a crucial factor in mediating hypothermic neuroprotection, providing its induction as a promising strategy for mimicking therapeutic hypothermia. However, little is known about molecular control of RBM3 and signaling pathways affected by hypothermia. In the present study, human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were used as a neural cell model. Screening of signaling pathways showed that cold exposure led to inactivation of ERK and AMPK pathways, and activation of FAK and PLCγ pathways, with activities of p38, JNK and AKT pathways moderately changed. Next, various small molecule inhibitors specific to these signaling pathways were applied. Interestingly, only FAK-specific inhibitor exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on hypothermia-induced RBM3 gene transcription and protein expression. Likewise, FAK silencing using siRNA technique significantly abrogated the induction of RBM3 by hypothermia. Moreover, FAK inhibition accounted for an inactivation of Src, a known kinase downstream of FAK. Next, either the silencing of Src by siRNA or its inactivation by a chemical inhibitor, strongly blocked the induction of RBM3 by cooling. Notably, in HEK293 and PC12 cells, FAK/Src activation was also shown to be indispensable for hypothermia-stimulated RBM3 expression. Lastly, the CCK8 and Western blot assays showed that both FAK/Src inacitivation and their knockdown substantially abrogate the neuroprotective effects of mild hypothermia against rotenone in SH-SY5Y cells. These data suggest that FAK/Src signaling axis regulates the transcription of Rbm3 gene and mediates neuroprotective effects of mild hypothermia.

19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21181, 2020 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273680

RESUMO

There is currently a lack of effective drugs to cure recurrent aphthous stomatitis. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of probiotics alone or as an adjunct in recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) patients. Seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included, of which three were included in quantitative analysis. Of five studies evaluating the efficacy of probiotics alone compared with placebo or Oracure gel, two reported no significant difference in relieving oral pain, while probiotics exhibited a higher capacity for decreasing oral pain in the other three. A significant decrease in ulcer severity was found in one, while no significant difference was found in the other four. The remaining two studies demonstrated that probiotics, as an adjunct to steroids or anaesthetic antiseptic gel, significantly reduced the ulcer severity and oral pain. The meta-analysis showed a significant decrease in oral pain (- 1.72, P = 0.0001) with probiotics compared with placebo. In conclusion, probiotics alone were capable of relieving oral pain but not effective in reducing ulcer severity. A combination of probiotics and steroids or anaesthetic antiseptic gel was more effective than steroids or anaesthetic antiseptic gel alone in RAS patients. Probiotics are promising for the treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

20.
J Vac Sci Technol A ; 38(6): 063208, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33281279

RESUMO

We report the results of a Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards interlaboratory study on the intensity scale calibration of x-ray photoelectron spectrometers using low-density polyethylene (LDPE) as an alternative material to gold, silver, and copper. An improved set of LDPE reference spectra, corrected for different instrument geometries using a quartz-monochromated Al Kα x-ray source, was developed using data provided by participants in this study. Using these new reference spectra, a transmission function was calculated for each dataset that participants provided. When compared to a similar calibration procedure using the NPL reference spectra for gold, the LDPE intensity calibration method achieves an absolute offset of ∼3.0% and a systematic deviation of ±6.5% on average across all participants. For spectra recorded at high pass energies (≥90 eV), values of absolute offset and systematic deviation are ∼5.8% and ±5.7%, respectively, whereas for spectra collected at lower pass energies (<90 eV), values of absolute offset and systematic deviation are ∼4.9% and ±8.8%, respectively; low pass energy spectra perform worse than the global average, in terms of systematic deviations, due to diminished count rates and signal-to-noise ratio. Differences in absolute offset are attributed to the surface roughness of the LDPE induced by sample preparation. We further assess the usability of LDPE as a secondary reference material and comment on its performance in the presence of issues such as variable dark noise, x-ray warm up times, inaccuracy at low count rates, and underlying spectrometer problems. In response to participant feedback and the results of the study, we provide an updated LDPE intensity calibration protocol to address the issues highlighted in the interlaboratory study. We also comment on the lack of implementation of a consistent and traceable intensity calibration method across the community of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) users and, therefore, propose a route to achieving this with the assistance of instrument manufacturers, metrology laboratories, and experts leading to an international standard for XPS intensity scale calibration.

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