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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810260

RESUMO

In recent decades, the obesity epidemic has resulted in morbidity and mortality rates increasing globally. In this study, using obese mouse models, we investigated the relationship among urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), metabolic disorders, glomerular filtration rate, and adipose tissues. Two groups, each comprised of C57BL/6J and BALB/c male mice, were fed a chow diet (CD) and a high fat diet (HFD), respectively. Within the two HFD groups, half of each group were euthanized at 8 weeks (W8) or 16 weeks (W16). Blood, urine and adipose tissues were collected and harvested for evaluation of the effects of obesity. In both mouse models, triglyceride with insulin resistance and body weight increased with duration when fed a HFD in comparison to those in the groups on a CD. In both C57BL/6J and BALB/c HFD mice, levels of serum uPA initially increased significantly in the W8 group, and then the increment decreased in the W16 group. The glomerular filtration rate declined in both HFD groups. The expression of uPA significantly decreased in brown adipose tissue (BAT), but not in white adipose tissue, when compared with that in the CD group. The results suggest a decline in the expression of uPA in BAT in obese m models as the serum uPA increases. There is possibly an association with BAT fibrosis and dysfunction, which may need further study.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/etiologia , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/sangue , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/genética
2.
Chemistry ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792104

RESUMO

Metal phosphates have been widely explored in lithium ion batteries and sodium ion batteries owing to high theoretical capacities, mild toxicity and low cost. However, their potassium ion battery applications are less reported since the limited conductivity and the slow diffusion kinetic hindered. Considering these drawbacks, novel structured M 2 P 2 O 7 /C (M=Fe, Co, Ni) nanoflake composites are prepared via an organic-phosphors precursor assisted solvothermal method and a post high temperature annealing process. The designed Co 2 P 2 O 7 /C composite exhibits the highest rate capacity with 502 mAh g -1 at 0.1 A g -1 and good cyclability for 900 cycles at 1 A g -1 and 2 A g -1 when compared with Ni and Fe based composite. The superior electrochemical performance can be attributed to their unique nanoparticles assembled nanoflake structure, which can afford enough active sites for K + intercalation. In addition, the robust pyrophosphate crystal structure and the in situ formed carbon composition also have positive effects on enhancing the long-term cycling performance and the electrode's conductivity. Finally, this organic-phosphors precursor induced simple approach can be applied for easy fabrication of other pyrophosphate/carbon hybrids as advanced electrodes.

3.
Brain Behav ; : e02118, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) rs6265 G > A polymorphism is closely related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) risk. However, the results were not consistent. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis to explore the underlying relationships between BDNF rs6265 G > A polymorphism and PTSD risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five online databases were searched, and all related studies were reviewed up to July 1, 2020. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to examine the statistical power of each genetic model. In addition, heterogeneity, sensitivity accumulative analysis, and publication bias were examined to check the statistical power. RESULT: Overall, 16 publications involving 5,369 subjects were included in this systematic review and 11 case-control studies were analyses in meta-analysis. The pooled results indicated an increasing risk of A allele mutations with PTSD risk. Moreover, the sequential subgroup analysis also demonstrated some similar situations in Asian populations and other groups. CONCLUSION: Current meta-analysis suggests that the BDNF rs6265 G > A polymorphism might be involved in PTSD susceptibility.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809086

RESUMO

Hypoxia remains a flight-safety issue in terms of aviation medicine. Hypoxia-awareness training has been used to help aircrew members recognize personal hypoxia symptoms. There is still no study, as yet, to establish the association of within-subject data between inflight hypoxia events and the altitude chamber. The main purpose of our study was to use paired subjects' data on inflight hypoxia symptoms compared with those experienced during training. A questionnaire was developed to obtain information on military aircrew members in 2018. Among 341 subjects, 46 (13.49%) suffered from inflight hypoxia. The majority of the subjects detected ongoing inflight hypoxia on the basis of their previous experience with personal hypoxia symptoms or sensations in previous chamber flights. Of the top five hypoxia symptoms, the data revealed that hot flashes, poor concentration, and impaired cognitive function appeared both during the inflight events and during the hypoxia-awareness training. The occurrence rate of hypoxia symptoms was found to not be significantly different between the in-flight events and the past chamber flights through an analysis of within-subject data. Because the individual memory had faded away over time, fresher hypoxia awareness training is still mandatory and valuable to recall personal hypoxia experience for military aircrew members.


Assuntos
Medicina Aeroespacial , Militares , Saúde do Trabalhador , Altitude , Humanos , Hipóxia/epidemiologia
5.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 12(3)2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803850

RESUMO

As coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to spread around the world, the establishment of decentralized severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) diagnostics and point-of-care testing is invaluable. While polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been the gold standard for COVID-19 screening, serological assays detecting anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in response to past and/or current infection remain vital tools. In particular, lateral flow immunoassay devices are easy to produce, scale, distribute, and use; however, they are unable to provide quantitative information. To enable quantitative analysis of lateral flow immunoassay device results, microgating technology was used to develop an innovative spectrochip that can be integrated into a portable, palm-sized device that was capable of capturing high-resolution reflectance spectrum data for quantitative immunoassay diagnostics. Using predefined spiked concentrations of recombinant anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG), this spectrochip-coupled immunoassay provided extraordinary sensitivity, with a detection limit as low as 186 pg/mL. Furthermore, this platform enabled the detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG in all PCR-confirmed patients as early as day 3 after symptom onset, including two patients whose spectrochip tests would be regarded as negative for COVID-19 using a direct visual read-out without spectral analysis. Therefore, the quantitative lateral flow immunoassay with an exceptionally low detection limit for SARS-CoV-2 is of value. An increase in the number of patients tested with this novel device may reveal its true clinical potential.

6.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 114, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882955

RESUMO

Biochemical analysis of human body fluids is a frequent and fruitful strategy for disease diagnosis. Point-of-care (POC) diagnostics offers the tantalizing possibility of providing rapid diagnostic results in non-laboratory settings. Successful diagnostic testing using body fluids has been reported on in the literature; however, small-volume detection devices, which offer remarkable advantages such as portability, inexpensiveness, capacity for mass production, and tiny sample volume requirements have not been thoroughly discussed. Here, we review progress in this research field, with a focus on developments since 2015. In this review article, we provide a summary of articles that have detailed the development of small-volume detection strategies using clinical samples over the course of the last 5 years. Topics covered include small-volume detection strategies in ophthalmology, dermatology or plastic surgery, otolaryngology, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. In ophthalmology, advances in technology could be applied to examine tear or anterior chamber (AC) fluid for glucose, lactoferrin, interferon, or VEGF. These approaches could impact detection and care for diseases including diabetic mellitus, dry-eye disease, and age-related maculopathy. Early detection and easy monitoring are critical approaches for improving overall care and outcome. In dermatology or plastic surgery, small-volume detection strategies have been applied for passive or interactive wound dressing, wound healing monitoring, and blister fluid analysis for autoimmune disease diagnosis. In otolaryngology, the analysis of nasal secretions and mucosa could be used to differentiate between allergic responses and infectious diseases. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis could be applied in neurodegenerative diseases, central neural system infection and tumor diagnosis. Other small-volume fluids that have been analyzed for diagnostic and monitoring purposes include semen and cervico-vaginal fluids. We include more details regarding each of these fluids, associated collection and detection devices, and approaches in our review.

7.
J Clin Invest ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current clinical management of patients with pulmonary nodules involves either repeated LDCT/CT scans or invasive procedures yet causes significant patient misclassification. An accurate non-invasive test is needed to identify malignant nodules and reduce unnecessary invasive tests. METHOD: We developed a diagnostic model based on targeted DNA methylation sequencing of 389 pulmonary nodule patients' plasma samples, and then validated in 140 plasma samples independently. We tested the model in different stages and subtypes of pulmonary nodules. RESULTS: A 100-feature model was developed and validated for pulmonary nodule diagnosis: the model achieved a ROC-AUC of 0.843 on 140 independent validation samples with an accuracy of 0.800. The performance was well maintained in, 1) 6-20 mm size subgroup (N=100), with a sensitivity of 1.000 and adjusted NPV of 1.000 at 10% prevalence; 2) stage I malignancy (N=90), with a sensitivity of 0.971; 3) different nodule types - solid nodules (N=78) with a sensitivity of 1.000 and adjusted NPV of 1.000, part-solid nodules (N=75) with a sensitivity of 0.947 and adjusted NPV of 0.983, and ground-glass nodules (N=67) with a sensitivity of 0.964 and adjusted NPV of 0.989 at 10% prevalence. This methylation test, called PulmoSeek, outperformed PET-CT and two clinical prediction models (Mayo and Veterans Affairs) in discriminating malignant pulmonary nodules from benign ones. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the blood-based DNA methylation model may provide a better test for classifying pulmonary nodules, which could help facilitate the accurate diagnosis of early-stage lung cancer from pulmonary nodule patients and guide clinical decisions. FUNDING: The National Key Research and Development Program of China; Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province; The National Natural Science Foundation of China National.

8.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(3): 279-82, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798310

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the influence of regulating menstruation and promoting pregnancy acupuncture therapy on negative emotions in patients with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). METHODS: A total of 60 patients with POI were randomly divided into an acupuncture group and a western medication group, 30 cases in each group. The acupuncture group was treated with regulating menstruation and promoting pregnancy acupuncture therapy at Baihui (GV 20), Shenting (GV 24), Guanyuan (CV 4), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Shenshu (BL 23), Ciliao (BL 32), etc. once a day, 5 times a week for 3 months. The western medication group was treated by oral administration of climen. The drug was given 1 tablet a day for 21 days and was stopped for 1 week as a course. The treatment was required 3 consecutive courses. The self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) score, modified Kupperman index (KI) score, agitated and depressive symptom scores in KI and serum level of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) before and after treatment were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: After treatment, the SAS scores, KI scores and serum levels of FSH in the two groups and the scores of agitated and depressive symptom in the acupuncture group were lower than those before treatment (P<0.05), and the acupuncture group was lower than the western medication group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Regulating menstruation and promoting pregnancy acupuncture therapy can effectively improve the negative emotions of patients with POI and reduce serum level of FSH .


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária , Pontos de Acupuntura , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante , Humanos , Menstruação , Gravidez , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/terapia
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5893, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723338

RESUMO

Improvement in outcomes of children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is attributed to several refinements in clinical management. We evaluated treatment outcomes of Taiwanese pediatric AML patients in the past 20 years. Overall, 860 de novo AML patients aged 0-18 years and registered in the Childhood Cancer Foundation of R.O.C during January 1996-December 2019 were included. Survival analysis was performed to identify factors that improved treatment outcomes. Regardless of treatment modalities used, patients during 2008-2019 had better 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) rates than patients during 1996-2007. For patients received the TPOG-AML-97A treatment, only 5-year OS rates were significantly different between patients diagnosed before and after 2008. Patients with RUNX1-RUNX1T1 had similar relapse-free survival rates, but 5-year OS rates were better during 2008-2019. However, the survival of patients who received hematopoietic stem-cell transplantations (HSCT) did not differ significantly before and after 2008. For patients without relapse, the 5-year OS improved during 2008-2019. Non-relapse mortality decreased annually, and cumulative relapse rates were similar. In conclusion, 5-year EFS and OS rates improved during 2008-2019, though intensities of chemotherapy treatments were similar before and after 2008. Non-relapse mortality decreased gradually. Further treatment strategies including more intensive chemotherapy, novel agents' use, identification of high-risk patients using genotyping and minimal residual disease, early intervention of HSCT, and antibiotic prophylaxis can be considered for future clinical protocol designs in Taiwan.

10.
Mol Med Rep ; 23(5)2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33760190

RESUMO

Long non­coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in the development and progression of tumors. However, the roles and underlying mechanisms of long intergenic non­protein coding RNA 1116 (LINC01116), a member of the lncRNA family, in glioma progression are largely unclear. The expression of LINC01116 and microRNA (miR)­744­5p in glioma tissues and cells was detected by reverse transcription­quantitative PCR. The influences of LINC01116 or miR­744­5p on cell proliferation and invasion were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit­8, colony formation and Transwell assays, and western blotting was used to detect the expression of p53 pathway proteins. A dual­luciferase reporter system was used to locate common binding sites between miR­744­5p and LINC01116 or the 3' untranslated region of E3 ubiquitin­protein ligase Mdm2 (MDM2). RNA immunoprecipitation was used to determine the interactions between RNAs and proteins. Moreover, a xenograft mouse model was constructed to investigate the effects of LINC01116 in vivo, followed by a TdT­mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay to determine the degree of apoptosis in nude mouse tumors. LINC01116 was found to be highly expressed in glioma tissues, which was associated with a malignant phenotype. LINC01116 promoted the proliferation and invasiveness of glioma cells, and inhibited the p53 pathway by preserving the expression of MDM2 mRNA via miR­744­5p sponging. Furthermore, a low degree of miR­744­5p expression was observed in glioma tissues, which was negatively associated with the expression of LINC01116. Overexpression of miR­744­5p inhibited the proliferation and invasiveness of glioma cells, which was rescued by LINC01116. Finally, LINC01116 knockdown inhibited tumor growth in nude mice. In conclusion, LINC01116 is aberrantly expressed and promotes the progression of glioma by regulating the miR­744­5p­MDM2­p53 pathway. In future, targeting LINC01116 may therefore be a potential therapeutic approach for patients with glioma.

11.
Oncoimmunology ; 10(1): 1862529, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33763292

RESUMO

A substantial fraction of patients with stage I-III colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC) experience disease relapse after surgery with curative intent. However, biomarkers for predicting the likelihood of CRC relapse have not been fully explored. Therefore, we assessed the association between tumor infiltration by a broad array of innate and adaptive immune cell types and CRC relapse risk. We implemented a discovery-validation design including a discovery dataset from Moffitt Cancer Center (MCC; Tampa, FL) and three independent validation datasets: (1) GSE41258 (2) the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (MECC) study, and (3) GSE39582. Infiltration by 22 immune cell types was inferred from tumor gene expression data, and the association between immune infiltration by each cell type and relapse-free survival was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Within each of the four independent cohorts, CD4+ memory activated T cell (HR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.90-0.96; FDR = 0.0001) infiltration was associated with longer time to disease relapse, independent of stage, microsatellite instability, and adjuvant therapy. Based on our meta-analysis across the four datasets, 10 innate and adaptive immune cell types associated with disease relapse of which 2 were internally validated using multiplex immunofluorescence. Moreover, immune cell type infiltration was a better predictors of disease relapse than Consensus Molecular Subtype (CMS) and other expression-based biomarkers (Immune-AICMCC:238.1-238.9; CMS-AICMCC: 241.0). These data suggest that transcriptome-derived immune profiles are prognostic indicators of CRC relapse and quantification of both innate and adaptive immune cell types may serve as candidate biomarkers for predicting prognosis and guiding frequency and modality of disease surveillance.

12.
DNA Cell Biol ; 40(4): 629-637, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646053

RESUMO

Our study aimed at validating the effect of WISP1 on osteoarthritis (OA) and the pathway involved in the WISP1-induced protection against OA. The expression of WISP1 was measured by immunohistochemical analyses. We found that WISP1 expression was shown to be upregulated within human OA cartilage compared with controls. WISP1 expression was related to knee OA severity. rhWISP1 inhibited OA chondrocyte senescence and apoptosis in vitro, which was reversed by the αvß3 antibody and PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002. WISP1 overexpression induced by knee injection of LiCI could also prevent the senescence and apoptosis of rat chondrocytes. Safranin-O staining and Mankin score revealed that WISP1 overexpression can protect rat chondrocytes from degeneration. Nearly opposite results were obtained in the treatment of ICG-001 and siRNA-WISP1 in vivo. These data strongly suggest that WISP1 can protect against the senescence and apoptosis of chondrocytes via modulating the αvß3 receptor and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway within OA. Therefore, the development of specific activators of WISP1 may present the value of an underlying OA treatment.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular CCN/metabolismo , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Osteoartrite do Joelho/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Adulto , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular CCN/fisiologia , Cartilagem Articular/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Integrina alfaVbeta3/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Masculino , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/fisiologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
13.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 12(2)2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668560

RESUMO

Escherichia coli has been known to cause a variety of infectious diseases. The conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a well-known method widely used to diagnose a variety of infectious diseases. This method is expensive and requires considerable time and effort to conduct and complete multiple integral steps. We previously proposed the use of paper-based ELISA to rapidly detect the presence of E. coli. This approach has demonstrated utility for point-of-care (POC) urinary tract infection diagnoses. Paper-based ELISA, while advantageous, still requires the execution of several procedural steps. Here, we discuss the design and experimental implementation of a turntable paper-based device to simplify the paper-based ELISA protocols for the detection of E. coli. In this process, antibodies or reagents are preloaded onto zones of a paper-based device and allowed to dry before use. We successfully used this device to detect E. coli with a detection limit of 105 colony-forming units (colony-forming unit [CFU])/mL.

14.
Eur Radiol ; 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677645

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) are diseases with a highly analogous visual presentation that are difficult to distinguish by imaging. The purpose of this research was to create a radiomics-based prediction model using dual-time PET/CT imaging for the noninvasive classification of PDAC and AIP lesions. METHODS: This retrospective study was performed on 112 patients (48 patients with AIP and 64 patients with PDAC). All cases were confirmed by imaging and clinical follow-up, and/or pathology. A total of 502 radiomics features were extracted from the dual-time PET/CT images to develop a radiomics decision model. An additional 12 maximum intensity projection (MIP) features were also calculated to further improve the radiomics model. The optimal radiomics feature set was selected by support vector machine recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE), and the final classifier was built using a linear SVM. The performance of the proposed dual-time model was evaluated using nested cross-validation for accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS: The final prediction model was developed from a combination of the SVM-RFE and linear SVM with the required quantitative features. The multimodal and multidimensional features performed well for classification (average AUC: 0.9668, accuracy: 89.91%, sensitivity: 85.31%, specificity: 96.04%). CONCLUSIONS: The radiomics model based on 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-[18F]FDG) PET/CT dual-time images provided promising performance for discriminating between patients with benign AIP and malignant PDAC lesions, which shows its potential for use as a diagnostic tool for clinical decision-making. KEY POINTS: • The clinical symptoms and imaging visual presentations of PDAC and AIP are highly similar, and accurate differentiation of PDAC and AIP lesions is difficult. • Radiomics features provided a potential noninvasive method for differentiation of AIP from PDAC. • The diagnostic performance of the proposed radiomics model indicates its potential to assist doctors in making treatment decisions.

15.
Clin Nucl Med ; 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782287

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Significant 68Ga-PSMA-11 activity is commonly observed in the lacrimal and salivary glands on PSMA PET/CT. An 80-year-old man after radical prostatectomy was evaluated with 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT. There was no obvious PSMA uptake in the bilateral lacrimal, parotid, and submandibular glands. Subsequently, based on laboratory examination results and 99mTcO4 salivary gland scintigraphy, this patient was diagnosed with Sjögren syndrome, which accounted for the absence of uptake by the glands. This case showed the potential of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT in the evaluation of the lacrimal glands and major salivary glands.

16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(7): e24589, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acupuncture has been widely used clinically to relieve chronic severe constipation. However, the efficacy of acupuncture in the treatment of chronic severe constipation is uncertain. The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture in the treatment of chronic severe constipation. METHODS: Search PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, Wanfang Database, China Science, and Technology Journal Database, China Biomedical Literature Database, and search related randomized controlled trials. Two reviewers will independently select studies, collect data, and evaluate methodological quality through the Cochrane Deviation Risk Tool. Revman V.5.3 will be used for meta-analysis. RESULTS: This study will evaluate the current status of acupuncture treatment for chronic severe constipation, aiming to illustrate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture treatment. CONCLUSION: This study will provide a basis for judging whether acupotomy is effective in treating chronic severe constipation. INPLASY REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202070002.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Constipação Intestinal/terapia , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562219

RESUMO

Seed dormancy and germination are key events in plant development and are critical for crop production, and defects in seed germination or the inappropriate release of seed dormancy cause substantial losses in crop yields. Rice is the staple food for more than half of the world's population, and preharvest sprouting (PHS) is one of the most severe problems in rice production, due to a low level of seed dormancy, especially under warm and damp conditions. Therefore, PHS leads to yield loss and a decrease in rice quality and vitality. We reveal that mutation of OsbZIP09 inhibited rice PHS. Analysis of the expression of OsbZIP09 and its encoded protein sequence and structure indicated that OsbZIP09 is a typical bZIP transcription factor that contains conserved bZIP domains, and its expression is induced by ABA. Moreover, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and DNA affinity purification sequencing (DAP-seq) analyses were performed and 52 key direct targets of OsbZIP09 were identified, including OsLOX2 and Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) family genes, which are involved in controlling seed germination. Most of these key targets showed consistent changes in expression in response to abscisic acid (ABA) treatment and OsbZIP09 mutation. The data characterize a number of key target genes that are directly regulated by OsbZIP09 and contribute to revealing the molecular mechanism that underlies how OsbZIP09 controls rice seed germination.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Germinação , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dormência de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sementes/genética
18.
Adv Mater ; 33(11): e2007388, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554430

RESUMO

Aqueous rechargeable Zn metal batteries have attracted widespread attention due to the intrinsic high volumetric capacity, low cost, and high safety. However, the low Coulombic efficiency and limited lifespan of Zn metal anodes resulting from uncontrollable growth of Zn dendrites impede their practical application. In this work, a 3D interconnected ZnF2 matrix is designed on the surface of Zn foil (Zn@ZnF2 ) through a simple and fast anodic growth method, serving as a multifunctional protective layer. The as-fabricated Zn@ZnF2 electrode can not only redistribute the Zn2+ ion flux, but also reduce the desolvation active energy significantly, leading to stable and facile Zn deposition kinetics. The results reveal that the Zn@ZnF2 electrode can effectively inhibit dendrites growth, restrain the hydrogen evolution reactions, and endow excellent plating/stripping reversibility. Accordingly, the Zn@ZnF2 electrode exhibits a long cycle life of over 800 h at 1 mA cm-2 with a capacity of 1.0 mAh cm-2 in a symmetrical cell test, the feasibility of which is also convincing in Zn@ZnF2 //MnO2 and Zn@ZnF2 //V2 O5 full batteries. Importantly, a hybrid zinc-ion capacitor of the Zn@ZnF2 //AC can work at an ultrahigh current density of ≈60 mA cm-2 for up to 5000 cycles with a high capacity retention of 92.8%.

19.
Cancer Res ; 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619118

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. About 15% of colorectal cancers are associated with microsatellite instability (MSI) due to loss of function in the DNA mismatch repair pathway. This subgroup of patients has better survival rates and is more sensitive to immunotherapy. However, it remains unclear whether microsatellite stable (MSS) patients with colorectal cancer can be further stratified into subgroups with differential clinical characteristics. In this study, we analyzed The Cancer Genome Atlas data and found that Chr20q amplification is the most frequent copy number alteration that occurs specifically in colon (46%) and rectum (61%) cancer and is mutually exclusive with MSI. Importantly, MSS patients with Chr20q amplification (MSS-A) were associated with better recurrence-free survival compared with MSS patients without Chr20q amplification (MSS-N; P = 0.03). MSS-A tumors were associated with high level of chromosome instability and low immune infiltrations. In addition, MSS-A and MSS-N tumors were associated with somatic mutations in different driver genes, with high frequencies of mutated TP53 in MSS-A and mutated KRAS and BRAF in MSS-N. Our results suggest that MSS-A and MSS-N represent two subtypes of MSS colorectal cancer, and such stratification may be used to improve therapeutic treatment in an individualized manner. SIGNIFICANCE: This study shows that chromosome 20q amplification occurs predominately in microsatellite-stable colorectal cancer and defines a distinct subtype with good prognosis, high chromosomal instability, distinct mutation profiles, and low immune infiltrations.

20.
Lab Invest ; 101(4): 430-441, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574440

RESUMO

Most biomedical datasets, including those of 'omics, population studies, and surveys, are rectangular in shape and have few missing data. Recently, their sample sizes have grown significantly. Rigorous analyses on these large datasets demand considerably more efficient and more accurate algorithms. Machine learning (ML) algorithms have been used to classify outcomes in biomedical datasets, including random forests (RF), decision tree (DT), artificial neural networks (ANN), and support vector machine (SVM). However, their performance and efficiency in classifying multi-category outcomes of rectangular data are poorly understood. Therefore, we compared these metrics among the 4 ML algorithms. As an example, we created a large rectangular dataset using the female breast cancers in the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results-18 database, which were diagnosed in 2004 and followed up until December 2016. The outcome was the five-category cause of death, namely alive, non-breast cancer, breast cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other cause. We analyzed the 54 dichotomized features from ~45,000 patients using MatLab (version 2018a) and the tenfold cross-validation approach. The accuracy in classifying five-category cause of death with DT, RF, ANN, and SVM was 69.21%, 70.23%, 70.16%, and 69.06%, respectively, which was higher than the accuracy of 68.12% with multinomial logistic regression. Based on the features' information entropy, we optimized dimension reduction (i.e., reduce the number of features in models). We found 32 or more features were required to maintain similar accuracy, while the running time decreased from 55.57 s for 54 features to 25.99 s for 32 features in RF, from 12.92 s to 10.48 s in ANN, and from 175.50 s to 67.81 s in SVM. In summary, we here show that RF, DT, ANN, and SVM had similar accuracy for classifying multi-category outcomes in this large rectangular dataset. Dimension reduction based on information gain will increase the model's efficiency while maintaining classification accuracy.

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