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1.
Bioresour Technol ; 343: 126123, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653621

RESUMO

As a clean and renewable energy, bioenergy is one of the most promising alternatives to fossil fuels. Lignocellulose possesses great potential for bioenergy production, but the recalcitrant and heterogeneous structure limits its application. Pretreatment technology offers an effective solution to fractionate the main components of the lignocellulose and uncover the available cellulose. The obtained feedstock can be applied to bioconversion into energy, e.g., bioethanol, biogas, biohydrogen, etc. Here, the current state of lignocellulose pretreatment technologies was comprehensively reviewed, the advances in bioenergy production from pretreated lignocellulose was described, with particular attention to key challenges involved. Several new strategies for overcoming pretreatment barriers to realize highly efficient lignocellulose bioconversion were highlighted. The insights given in this review will facilitate further development on lignocellulosic bioenergy production, towards addressing the global energy crisis and climate change related to the use of fossil fuels.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Lignina , Biomassa , Celulose
2.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 606(Pt 1): 491-499, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403858

RESUMO

CoP, a noble-metal-free cocatalyst, was first introduced onto the surface of Al-doped SrTiO3 (Al:STO) via an in situ photodeposition-phosphorization method for photocatalytic overall water splitting (POWS) into stoichiometric H2 and O2. Compared with pure Al:STO, the POWS activity was enhanced by a factor of ~ 421 over 1.0%CoP/Al:STO, with the highest evolution rates of 2106 and 1002 µmol h-1 g-1 for H2 and O2, respectively. The mechanism for the remarkably boosted POWS activity was systematically analyzed based on the comprehensive characterization. On the one hand, benefiting from the in situ photodeposition process, CoP with metallic character were intimately decorated onto the surface of Al:STO and accelerated the separation and migration of photoinduced charge carriers. On the other hand, CoP, serving as reactive sites for H2 evolution reaction, lowered the overpotential and facilitated the surface reduction reaction, thereby enhancing the POWS activity. Furthermore, Cr2O3 was photodeposited on the surface of 1.0%CoP/Al:STO composite to suppress the undesired reverse reaction and the POWS activity was further enhanced up to 3558 and 1722 µmol h-1 g-1 for H2 and O2, respectively, with apparent quantum yield of 7.1% at 350 ± 10 nm. This work presents a new avenue for designing POWS system without noble-metal cocatalyst.

3.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(18): 1461, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734013

RESUMO

Background: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive hematologic malignancy. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) on the management of AML have great value in clinical practice. However, the reporting quality of CPGs for AML has not yet been evaluated. This is the first study aiming to evaluate the reporting quality of the most recent AML CPGs published worldwide using the Reporting Items for Practice Guidelines in Healthcare (RIGHT) checklist. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, and Chinese Biomedical Literature (CBM) to extract CPGs for AML published between January 2016 and December 2020. Websites for guideline development organizations and medical associations were also searched. Two independent researchers assessed compliance of the guidelines to each of the 35 checklist items and summarized reporting rates for the 7 domains of the RIGHT checklist. Results: We identified 16 guidelines, of which 3 (18.8%) were written in Chinese and 13 (81.3%) were written in English. The average overall reporting rate of the 16 guidelines was 52.9%, and only 7 CPGs (43.8%) had a reporting rate >50%. The average reporting rates of the 7 domains (basic information; background; evidence; recommendations; review and quality assurance; funding, declaration, and management of interests; and other information) were 79.2%, 62.5%, 38.8%, 53.6%, 21.9%, 32.8%, and 43.8%, respectively. For the 35 checklist items, the average reporting rate was 52.9%, and only 16 items had a reporting rate >50%, of which 5 items were reported by all the guidelines. There was 1 item which was not reported by any of the guidelines. Conclusions: The reporting quality of recently published AML guidelines remains poor. While the recommendations of CPGs have great value in clinical practice, the reporting quality of CPGs for AML still needs to be improved.

4.
J Clin Psychol ; 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735716

RESUMO

The Dual-Disposition Model proposes to understand psychopathy through two dispositions (i.e., threat sensitivity and poor inhibitory control) with distinct etiological substrates. In the current study, we examined the predictive contributions of threat sensitivity, poor inhibitory control, and their interaction to emotion dysregulation in 694 Chinese undergraduates based on the Disinhibition subscale of Triarchic Psychopathy Measure, Behavioral Inhibition System Scale, and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Our results suggested that two dispositions have independent contributions to emotion dysregulation. Additionally, interactive effects of two dispositions were found for emotion awareness, impulse control, emotional acceptance, and limited emotion regulation strategies when upset. These provide evidence that deficits associated with poor inhibitory control can be selectively suppressed by low threat sensitivity or exacerbated by high threat sensitivity. Training individuals with high psychopathic dispositions to focus on their emotional state might be able to enhance their ability of emotion regulation.

5.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 43(5): 716-726, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728032

RESUMO

Objective To compare the effects of carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage on post-exercise rehydration of healthy young men in different seasons,and to explore the influence of seasonal adaptability on fluid and electrolyte balance.Methods Fifteen healthy men,aged(24.4±0.5)years,completed 2 trails in a random crossover design both in summer and winter.During recovery,they consumed a drink volume equivalent to 100% of their sweat loss with plain boiled water(the water group)or carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage(the beverage group).Recovery was monitored for further 180 minutes by the collection of blood and urine samples.Results The dehydration time in summer was significantly shorter by about 20 minutes than that in winter(t=3.045,P=0.004).In summer,the fluid retention rate of the beverage group was significantly higher than that of the water group at 120 minutes after rehydration [(83.7±2.8)% vs.(73.7±3.7)%,F=5.312,P=0.028],and significantly higher than the water group at 180 minutes [(74.8±3.6)% vs.(66.1±4.3)%,F=4.340,P=0.046].In winter,the fluid retention rate of the beverage group at 180 minutes after rehydration was significantly higher than that of the water group [(74.9±4.7)% vs.(68.0±6.0)%,F=4.128,P=0.048].There was no significantly seasonal difference in the fluid retention effect of carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage at 180 minutes after rehydration.In the beverage group,the changes of blood glucose and serum sodium levels(all P<0.05)in summer were significantly higher than those in winter at 10-180 minutes after rehydration,and the fractional excretion of sodium in summer was significantly higher in summer than in winter at 120 and 180 minutes after rehydration(F120=4.972,P=0.034;F180=8.425,P=0.007);however,there was no significant difference in plasma osmolality(all P> 0.05).For the water group,the plasma osmolality in winter was lower than that in summer,while the degree of dryness and thirst was higher in winter than in summer.Conclusions Seasonal adaptability influenced the hydration status and its regulating factors.People dehydrated faster after exercise in summer than in winter,and the hydration status was relatively stable in winter.However,in summer,the blood glucose and electrolytes responded more rapidly to carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage supply,and the plasma osmolality and subjective perception recovered faster.Therefore,during the 180-minute recovery period,the carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage had a higher rehydration efficiency in a short recovery time in summer although there was no significantly seasonal difference in the fluid retention rate.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta , Hidratação , Adulto , Bebidas , Estudos Cross-Over , Eletrólitos , Humanos , Masculino , Estações do Ano
6.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(20): 1575, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790781

RESUMO

Background: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematological malignancy with a low remission rate and high recurrence rate. Overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 is associated with a lower overall survival rate in AML patients. Venetoclax (ABT199) is a selective inhibitor of Bcl-2 that has a significant effect in AML, but single-drug resistance often occurs due to the high expression of Mcl-1 protein. Studies have confirmed that chidamide can downregulate the expression levels of Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 and induce apoptosis. Methods: This study aimed to use AML cell lines and primary cells to study the effects of venetoclax and chidamide combination therapy on AML cell apoptosis, the cell cycle, and changes in related signaling pathways in vitro; establish an AML mouse model to observe the efficacy and survival time of combination therapy in vivo; and analyze the drug effects with multi-omics sequencing technology. The changes in gene and protein expression before and after treatment were examined to clarify the molecular mechanism driving the synergistic effect of the two drugs. Results: (I) Both venetoclax and chidamide promoted apoptosis in AML cell lines and primary cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The effect was further enhanced when the two drugs were combined, and a synergistic effect was observed (combination index <1). (II) At both the mRNA and protein levels, the expression of Mcl-1 was upregulated by venetoclax and downregulated by chidamide, and the expression of Mcl-1 decreased further after combination treatment. (III) Transcriptome sequencing showed that differentially expressed genes in the combination group compared with the venetoclax monotherapy group were mainly enriched in the PI3K-AKT pathway and JAK2/STAT3 pathway. Moreover, qRT-PCR and Western blot confirmed these results. (IV) The combination therapy group exhibited significantly inhibited disease progression and a prolonged survival time among AML mice. Conclusions: Chidamide combined with venetoclax synergistically promoted apoptosis in AML cell lines and primary cells by inhibiting activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway and JAK2/STAT3 pathway.

7.
Opt Express ; 29(24): 40668-40676, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809401

RESUMO

Coherence and steerability are two essential characteristics of quantum systems. For a two-qubit state, the first-order coherence and the maximal violation of linear steering inequality are used to operationally measure the degree of coherence and steerability, respectively. Recently, a complementary relation between first-order coherence and linear steerability has been proposed. In this paper, we report an experimental verification of the complementary relation by preparing biphoton polarization entangled states in an all-optical setup. We propose an operable method for experimental measurement of the first-order coherence and linear steerability and calculate the purity of the initial states by reconstructing the density matrices of them. The experimental results coincide with the theoretical predictions very well, which provides a valuable reference for the application of optical quantum technology.

8.
J Clin Med ; 10(21)2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768613

RESUMO

For patients with acute myocardial infarction scheduled to undergo percutaneous coronary stent implantation, in most cases a drug-eluting stent is recommended as the first choice for treatment. However, there is a lack of research on the effectiveness of bare-metal stents and drug-eluting stents on patients with different types of myocardial infarction. Our objective was to explore the effects of bare-metal stents and drug-eluting stents on patients with different types of myocardial infarction in terms of major cardiovascular incidents. This retrospective cohort study included 934 patients with myocardial infarction undergoing coronary artery stent implantation for the first time at the cardiac catheter room of the Tri-Service General Hospital in the Neihu District between 2014 and 2018. Patients' information, including demographic data, laboratory data, cardiac echocardiography results, and angiocardiography results, was collected by reviewing medical records. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to adjust the potential confounding factors, and the adjusted data were then used to compare the correlation between different types of stents and major cardiovascular incidents in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. After the confounding factors were adjusted, in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction receiving a drug-eluting stent compared with those receiving a bare-metal stent, it was found that the mortality risk was lower in terms of all causes of death (Adj-HR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.14-0.48, p < 0.001) and cardiogenic death (Adj-HR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.08-0.55, p = 0.002), the risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction was lower (Adj-HR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.04-0.73, p = 0.017), and there was no difference in the risk of revascularization at the lesion site (Adj-HR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.24-1.43, p = 0.243). It terms of the findings in patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction, those receiving a drug-eluting stent had a lower risk of revascularization at the lesion site (Adj-HR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.24-0.97, p = 0.04); however, there was no difference in the mortality risk in terms of all causes of death (Adj-HR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.37-1.35, p = 0.296) or cardiogenic death (Adj-HR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.18-1.90, p = 0.379),or in the risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction (Adj-HR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.06-1.25, p = 0.093). Compared with bare-metal stents, drug-eluting stents provide better protection against death to receivers with ST-elevation myocardial infarction; however, this protection is decreased in receivers with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. It is recommended that for patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction who are indicated to receive a drug-eluting stent, the clinical effectiveness of the treatment must be considered.

9.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(21)2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34771286

RESUMO

Our research was designed to evaluate the effect on bone regeneration with 3-dimensional (3D) printed polylactic acid (PLA) and 3D printed polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds, determine the more effective option for enhancing bone regeneration, and offer tentative evidence for further research and clinical application. Employing the 3D printing technique, the PLA and PCL scaffolds showed similar morphologies, as confirmed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mechanical strength was significantly higher in the PLA group (63.4 MPa) than in the PCL group (29.1 MPa) (p < 0.01). Average porosity, swelling ratio, and degeneration rate in the PCL scaffold were higher than those in the PLA scaffold. SEM observation after cell coculture showed improved cell attachment and activity in the PCL scaffolds. A functional study revealed the best outcome in the 3D printed PCL-TGF-ß1 scaffold compared with the 3D printed PCL and the 3D printed PCL-Polydopamine (PDA) scaffold (p < 0.001). As confirmed via SEM, the 3D printed PCL- transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-ß1) scaffold also exhibited improved cell adhesion after 6 h of cell coculture. The 3D printed PCL scaffold showed better physical properties and biocompatibility than the 3D printed PLA scaffold. Based on the data of TGF-ß1, this study confirms that the 3D printed PCL scaffold may offer stronger osteogenesis.

10.
Am J Transl Res ; 13(10): 11255-11270, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34786056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: FGFR2 (fibroblast growth factor receptor 2) mutations are implicated in the etiopathogenesis of syndromic craniosynostosis, and C278F- or C342Y-FGFR2 mutations can lead to Crouzon syndrome. The dura mater exerts crucial effects in the regulation of cranial suture development. However, the underlying mechanisms of these biological processes are rarely studied. This research explored and analyzed the biological function of FGFR2 overexpressed by dura cells on cranial osteoblasts. METHODS: Dura cells and cranial osteoblasts from C57BL/6 mice aged 6 days were obtained and cultured respectively. Lentivirus-FGFR2 constructs were engineered with C278F- and C342Y-FGFR2 mutations. The dura cells were infected with the constructs and co-cultured with osteoblasts in a trans-well system. Four experimental groups were established, namely the Oste group, the Oste+Dura-vector group, the Oste+Dura-C278F group, and the Oste+Dura-C342Y group. FACS, CCK8, and EdU assays were used to evaluate the osteoblast proliferation levels. Western blot and RT-qPCR were used to measure the expressions of the factors related to proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Furthermore, the expression levels of the key factors in the Hippo/YAP-PI3K-AKT proliferation pathway were measured and analyzed. Finally, rescue experiments were performed with an RNA interfering assay. RESULTS: The proliferation and differentiation levels of the osteoblasts in the Oste+Dura-C278F and Oste+Dura-C342Y groups were significantly up-regulated, but the apoptosis levels in the four groups were not significantly different. The YAP, TEADs1-4, p-PI3K, and p-AKT1 expressions in the mutant FGFR2 groups were higher than the corresponding expressions in the control groups, and the results of the rescue experiments showed a reverse expression tendency, which further confirmed the effects of the FGFR2 mutations in the dura cells on the proliferation of the osteoblasts and the underlying possible mechanisms. CONCLUSION: Our studies suggest that the Crouzon mutations (C278F- and C342Y-) of FGFR2 in dura cells can enhance osteoblast proliferation and differentiation and might influence the pathogenesis of craniosynostosis by affecting the Hippo/YAP-PI3K-AKT proliferation signaling pathway.

11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1145, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global spread of the novel coronavirus pneumonia is still continuing, and a new round of more serious outbreaks has even begun in some countries. In this context, this paper studies the dynamics of a type of delayed reaction-diffusion novel coronavirus pneumonia model with relapse and self-limiting treatment in a temporal-spatial heterogeneous environment. METHODS: First, focus on the self-limiting characteristics of COVID-19, incorporate the relapse and self-limiting treatment factors into the diffusion model, and study the influence of self-limiting treatment on the diffusion of the epidemic. Second, because the traditional Lyapunov stability method is difficult to determine the spread of the epidemic with relapse and self-limiting treatment, we introduce a completely different method, relying on the existence conditions of the exponential attractor of our newly established in the infinite-dimensional dynamic system to determine the diffusion of novel coronavirus pneumonia. Third, relapse and self-limiting treatment have led to a change in the structure of the delayed diffusion COVID-19 model, and the traditional basic reproduction number [Formula: see text] no longer has threshold characteristics. With the help of the Krein-Rutman theorem and the eigenvalue method, we studied the threshold characteristics of the principal eigenvalue and found that it can be used as a new threshold to describe the diffusion of the epidemic. RESULTS: Our results prove that the principal eigenvalue [Formula: see text] of the delayed reaction-diffusion COVID-19 system with relapse and self-limiting treatment can replace the basic reproduction number [Formula: see text] to describe the threshold effect of disease transmission. Combine with the latest official data and the prevention and control strategies, some numerical simulations on the stability and global exponential attractiveness of the diffusion of the COVID-19 epidemic in China and the USA are given. CONCLUSIONS: Through the comparison of numerical simulations, we find that self-limiting treatment can significantly promote the prevention and control of the epidemic. And if the free activities of asymptomatic infected persons are not restricted, it will seriously hinder the progress of epidemic prevention and control.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Epidemias , Número Básico de Reprodução , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 196: 113745, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753078

RESUMO

In this study, we developed a low-cost and easy-to-use capacitive biosensor employing printed-circuit-board (PCB)-based technique for electrode fabrication and a specific alternative current (AC) signal for AC Electrokinetics (ACEK) effect excitation. Fast, accurate, and highly sensitive detection and quantification of bisphenol A (BPA) was achieved. An easy characterization of the biofunctionalization process is introduced by measuring interfacial capacitance which is simple and superior to most of methods currently in use. The frequency and amplitude of the AC signal used for capacitive interrogation were optimized to achieve maximum interfacial capacitance and maximum sensitivity. To evaluate the performance of the developed biosensor, its operation was compared with in-house microfabricated and commercially available electrodes. The limit-of-detection (LOD) obtained using the PCB-based electrodes was found to be at least one order of magnitude lower than that obtained with the commercial and in-house microfabricated electrodes. The linear range for BPA detection was wide from 1 fM to 10 pM with an LOD of 109.5 aM and sample to result in 20s. The biosensor operation was validated by spike-and-recovery tests of BPA using commercial food samples. Thus, the platform has a potential as an on-site detection of bisphenol A in low-resource settings.

13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6444, 2021 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750364

RESUMO

Synaptic pruning during adolescence is important for appropriate neurodevelopment and synaptic plasticity. Aberrant synaptic pruning may underlie a variety of brain disorders such as schizophrenia, autism and anxiety. Dopamine D2 receptor (Drd2) is associated with several neuropsychiatric diseases and is the target of some antipsychotic drugs. Here we generate self-reporting Drd2 heterozygous (SR-Drd2+/-) rats to simultaneously visualize Drd2-positive neurons and downregulate Drd2 expression. Time course studies on the developing anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) from control and SR-Drd2+/- rats reveal important roles of Drd2 in regulating synaptic pruning rather than synapse formation. Drd2 also regulates LTD, a form of synaptic plasticity which includes some similar cellular/biochemical processes as synaptic pruning. We further demonstrate that Drd2 regulates synaptic pruning via cell-autonomous mechanisms involving activation of mTOR signaling. Deficits of Drd2-mediated synaptic pruning in the ACC during adolescence lead to hyper-glutamatergic function and anxiety-like behaviors in adulthood. Taken together, our results demonstrate important roles of Drd2 in cortical synaptic pruning.

14.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800075

RESUMO

Sea Island cotton (Gossypium barbadense) is the source of the world's finest fiber-quality cotton, yet relatively little is understood about genetic variations among diverse germplasms, genes underlying important traits, and the effects of pedigree selection. Here, we resequenced 336 G. barbadense accessions and identified 16 million SNPs. Phylogenetic and population structure analyses revealed two major gene pools and a third admixed subgroup derived from geographical dissemination and interbreeding. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 15 traits including fiber quality, yield, disease resistance, maturity, and plant architecture. The highest number of associated loci was for fiber quality, followed by disease resistance and yield. Using gene expression analyses and VIGS transgenic experiments, we confirmed the roles of five candidate genes regulating four key traits, i.e., disease resistance, fiber length, fiber strength, and lint percentage. Geographical and temporal considerations demonstrated selection for the superior fiber quality (fiber length and fiber strength), and high lint-percentage in improving G. barbadense in China. Pedigree selection breeding increased Fusarium wilt disease resistance, and separately improved fiber-quality and yield. Our work provides a foundation for understanding genomic variation and selective breeding of Sea Island cotton.

15.
Korean J Physiol Pharmacol ; 25(6): 517-523, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34697262

RESUMO

The present study aims to investigate the impact of hydrogen-rich water on the lactic acid level in metformin-treated diabetic rats under hypoxia. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups, including normal diet group, and diabetes model (DM) group, DM + metformin treatment (DMM) group, DMM + hypoxia treatment (DMMH) group and DMMH + hydrogenrich water (DMMHR) group. We found that the levels of lactic acid, pyruvate and lactate dehydrogenase were significantly lower in the blood of DMMHR group than DMMH group. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels in liver and heart were significantly higher in DMMH group after hydrogen-rich water treatment, while malondialdehyde and oxidized glutathione levels were decreased in DMMHR group when compared with DMMH group, which indicates that hydrogen-rich water could reduce oxidative stress. qPCR analysis demonstrated that that pro-apoptotic genes Bax/Caspase-3 were upregulated in DM group and metformin treatment suppressed their upregulation (DMM group). However, hypoxic condition reversed the effect of metformin on apoptotic gene expression, and hydrogen-rich water showed little effect on these genes under hypoxia. HE staining showed that hydrogen-rich water prevented myocardial fiber damages under hypoxia. In summary, we conclude that hydrogen-rich water could prevent lactate accumulation and reduce oxidant stress in diabetic rat model to prevent hypoxia-induced damages. It could be served as a potential agent for diabetes patients with metformin treatment to prevent lactic acidosis and reduce myocardial damages under hypoxic conditions.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626218

RESUMO

Hubs in the brain network are the regions with high centrality and are crucial in the network communication and information integration. Patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) exhibit wide range of abnormality in the hub regions and their connected functional connectivity (FC) at the whole-brain network level. Study of the hubs in the brain networks supporting complex social behavior (social brain network, SBN) would contribute to understand the social dysfunction in patients with SCZ. Forty-nine patients with SCZ and 27 healthy controls (HC) were recruited to undertake the resting-state magnetic resonance imaging scanning and completed a social network (SN) questionnaire. The resting-state SBN was constructed based on the automatic analysis results from the NeuroSynth. Our results showed that the left temporal lobe was the only hub of SBN, and its connected FCs strength was higher than the remaining FCs in both two groups. SCZ patients showed the lower association between the hub-connected FCs (compared to the FCs not connected to the hub regions) with the real-life SN characteristics. These results were replicated in another independent sample (30 SCZ and 28 HC). These preliminary findings suggested that the hub-connected FCs of SBN in SCZ patients exhibit the abnormality in predicting real-life SN characteristics.

17.
Food Funct ; 12(19): 9391-9404, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606557

RESUMO

Cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of a wide variety of cancers. However, cisplatin has been associated with nephrotoxicity, which limits its application in clinical treatment. Various studies have indicated the protective effect of phospholipids against acute kidney injury. However, no study has focused on the different effects of phospholipids with different fatty acids on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and on the combined effects of phospholipids and cisplatin in tumour-bearing mice. In the present study, the potential renoprotective effects of phospholipids with different fatty acids against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity were investigated by determining the serum biochemical index, renal histopathological changes, protein expression level and oxidative stress. The results showed that docosahexaenoic acid-enriched phospholipids (DHA-PL) and eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched phospholipids (EPA-PL) could alleviate cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by regulating the caspase signaling pathway, the SIRT1/PGC1α pathway, and the MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signaling pathway and by inhibiting oxidative stress. In particular, DHA-PL exhibited a better inhibitory effect on oxidative stress and apoptosis compared to EPA-PL. Furthermore, DHA-PL exhibited an additional effect with cisplatin on the survival of ascitic tumor-bearing mice. These findings suggested that DHA-PL are one kind of promising supplement for the alleviation of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity without compromising its antitumor activity.

18.
Shock ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618729

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Blocking ferroptosis reduces ischemia-reperfusion injury in some pathological contexts. However, there is no evidence that ferroptosis contributes to post-resuscitation myocardial dysfunction (PRMD). Here, we evaluated the therapeutic performance of ferroptosis inhibitors (UAMC-3203 or/and Deferoxamine) on the PRMD in a rat model of cardiac arrest and surveyed the changes of essential ferroptosis markers in the myocardium. Remarkably, all treatments reduce the severity of cardiac dysfunction and microcirculation hypoperfusion after resuscitation compared with control. Consistently, we observe that the ferroptosis marker Glutathione peroxidase 4, 4-hydroxynonenal and non-heme iron altered (1 ±â€Š0.060 vs. 0.021 ±â€Š0.016, 1 ±â€Š0.145 vs. 3.338 ±â€Š0.221, 52.010 ±â€Š3.587 ug/g vs. 70.500 ±â€Š3.158 ug/g, all P < 0.05) in the myocardium after resuscitation. These changes were significantly suppressed by UAMC-3203 [(0.187 ±â€Š0.043, 2.848 ±â€Š0.169, all P < 0.05), (72.43 ±â€Š4.920 ug/g, P  > 0.05)], or Deferoxamine (0.203 ±â€Š0.025, 2.683 ±â€Š0.273, 55.95 ±â€Š2.497 ug/g, all P < 0.05). Briefly, UAMC-3203 or/and Deferoxamine improve post-resuscitation myocardial dysfunction and provide evidence of ferroptosis involvement, suggesting that ferroptosis inhibitors could potentially provide an innovative therapeutic approach for mitigating the myocardial damage caused by cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

19.
Can J Cardiol ; 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chest pain is the most common symptom of aortic dissection (AD), but it is often confused with other prevalent cardiopulmonary diseases. We aimed to develop deep-learning models (DLMs) with ECG and CXR features to detect AD and evaluate their performance. METHODS: This study included 43,473 patients in the emergency department (ED) between July 2012 and December 2019 for retrospective DLM development. A development cohort including 49,071 ED records (120 AD-type A and 64 AD-type B) was used to train DLMs for ECG and CXR, and 9,904 independent ED records (40 AD-type A and 34 AD-type B) were used to validate DLM performance. Human-machine competitions of ECG and CXR were conducted. Patient characteristics and laboratory results were used to enhance the diagnostic accuracy. The DLM-enabled AD diagnostic process was prospectively evaluated in 25,885 ED visits. RESULTS: The AUCs of the ECG and CXR models were 0.918 and 0.857 for detecting AD in a human-machine competition, respectively, which were better than those of the participating physicians. In the validation cohort, the AUCs of the integrated model were 0.882, 0.960, and 0.813 in all AD, AD-type A, and AD-type B patients, respectively, with a sensitivity of 100.0% and a specificity of 81.7% for AD-type A. In patients with chest pain and D-dimer tests, the DLM could predict more precisely, achieving a positive predictive value of 62.5% in the prospective evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: DLMs may serve as decision-supporting tools for AD identification and facilitate differential diagnosis in patients with acute chest pain.

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