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1.
Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) ; 11(2): 126-139, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35533332

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite the huge investment in health care, there is still a lack of precise and easily accessible screening systems. With proven associations to many systemic diseases, the eye could potentially provide a credible perspective as a novel screening tool. This systematic review aims to summarize the current applications of ocular image-based artificial intelligence on the detection of systemic diseases and suggest future trends for systemic disease screening. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted on September 1, 2021, using 3 databases-PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science library. Date restrictions were not imposed and search terms covering ocular images, systemic diseases, and artificial intelligence aspects were used. RESULTS: Thirty-three papers were included in this systematic review. A spectrum of target diseases was observed, and this included but was not limited to cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, central nervous system diseases, renal dysfunctions, and hepatological diseases. Additionally, one- third of the papers included risk factor predictions for the respective systemic diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Ocular image - based artificial intelligence possesses potential diagnostic power to screen various systemic diseases and has also demonstrated the ability to detect Alzheimer and chronic kidney diseases at early stages. Further research is needed to validate these models for real-world implementation.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Atenção à Saúde , Olho , Humanos
2.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534177

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the predictive factors for myopic macular degeneration (MMD) and progression in adults with myopia. METHODS: We examined 828 Malay and Indian adults (1579 myopic eyes) with myopia (spherical equivalent (SE) ≤-0.5 dioptres) at baseline who participated in both baseline and 12-year follow-up visits of the Singapore Malay Eye Study and the Singapore Indian Eye Study. Eye examinations, including subjective refraction and axial length (AL) measurements, were performed. MMD was graded from fundus photographs following the Meta-Analysis for Pathologic Myopia classification. The predictive factors for MMD development and progression were assessed in adults without and with MMD at baseline, respectively as risk ratios (RR) using multivariable modified Poisson regression models. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to visualise the performance of the predictive models for the development of MMD, with performance quantified by the area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS: The 12-year cumulative MMD incidence was 10.3% (95% CI 8.9% to 12.0%) among 1504 myopic eyes without MMD at baseline. Tessellated fundus was a major predictor of MMD (RR=2.50, p<0.001), among other factors including age, worse SE and longer AL (all p<0.001). The AUC for prediction of MMD development was found to be 0.78 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.80) for tessellated fundus and increased significantly to an AUC of 0.86 (95% CI 0.84 to 0.88) with the combination of tessellated fundus with age, race, gender and SE (p<0.001). Older age (p=0.02), worse SE (p<0.001) and longer AL (p<0.001) were found to be predictors of MMD progression. CONCLUSIONS: In adults with myopia without MMD, tessellated fundus, age, SE and AL had good predictive value for incident MMD. In adults with MMD, 1 in 10 eyes experienced progression over the same period. Older age, more severe myopia and longer AL were independent risk factors for progression.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35390150

RESUMO

CONTEXT: While Asians have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) than Europeans for a given BMI, it remains unclear whether the same markers of metabolic pathways are associated with diabetes. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated associations between metabolic biomarkers and incident T2D in three major Asian ethnic groups (Chinese, Malay, and Indian) and a European population. METHODS: We analyzed data from adult males and females of two cohorts from Singapore (n = 6,393) consisting of Chinese, Malays and Indians, and three cohorts of European-origin participants from Finland (n = 14,558). We used nuclear magnetic resonance to quantify 154 circulating metabolic biomarkers at baseline and performed logistic regression to assess associations with T2D risk adjusted for age, sex, BMI and glycaemic markers. RESULTS: Of the 154 metabolic biomarkers, 59 were associated with higher risk of T2D in both Asians and Europeans (P < 0.0003; Bonferroni-corrected). These included branched-chain and aromatic amino acids, the inflammatory marker glycoprotein acetyls, total fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, apolipoprotein B, larger very low-density lipoprotein particle sizes, and triglycerides. In addition, 13 metabolites were associated with a lower T2D risk in both populations including omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and larger high-density lipoprotein particle sizes. Associations were consistent within the Asian ethnic groups (all Phet ≥ 0.05) and largely consistent for the Asian and European populations (Phet ≥ 0.05 for 128 of 154 metabolic biomarkers). CONCLUSION: Metabolic biomarkers across several biological pathways were consistently associated with T2D risk in Asians and Europeans.

5.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 329, 2022 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35393509

RESUMO

South Asians are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). We carried out a genome-wide association meta-analysis with South Asian T2D cases (n = 16,677) and controls (n = 33,856), followed by combined analyses with Europeans (neff = 231,420). We identify 21 novel genetic loci for significant association with T2D (P = 4.7 × 10-8 to 5.2 × 10-12), to the best of our knowledge at the point of analysis. The loci are enriched for regulatory features, including DNA methylation and gene expression in relevant tissues, and highlight CHMP4B, PDHB, LRIG1 and other genes linked to adiposity and glucose metabolism. A polygenic risk score based on South Asian-derived summary statistics shows ~4-fold higher risk for T2D between the top and bottom quartile. Our results provide further insights into the genetic mechanisms underlying T2D, and highlight the opportunities for discovery from joint analysis of data from across ancestral populations.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , /genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
6.
Age Ageing ; 51(4)2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35363255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ageing is an important risk factor for a variety of human pathologies. Biological age (BA) may better capture ageing-related physiological changes compared with chronological age (CA). OBJECTIVE: we developed a deep learning (DL) algorithm to predict BA based on retinal photographs and evaluated the performance of our new ageing marker in the risk stratification of mortality and major morbidity in general populations. METHODS: we first trained a DL algorithm using 129,236 retinal photographs from 40,480 participants in the Korean Health Screening study to predict the probability of age being ≥65 years ('RetiAGE') and then evaluated the ability of RetiAGE to stratify the risk of mortality and major morbidity among 56,301 participants in the UK Biobank. Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs). RESULTS: in the UK Biobank, over a 10-year follow up, 2,236 (4.0%) died; of them, 636 (28.4%) were due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and 1,276 (57.1%) due to cancers. Compared with the participants in the RetiAGE first quartile, those in the RetiAGE fourth quartile had a 67% higher risk of 10-year all-cause mortality (HR = 1.67 [1.42-1.95]), a 142% higher risk of CVD mortality (HR = 2.42 [1.69-3.48]) and a 60% higher risk of cancer mortality (HR = 1.60 [1.31-1.96]), independent of CA and established ageing phenotypic biomarkers. Likewise, compared with the first quartile group, the risk of CVD and cancer events in the fourth quartile group increased by 39% (HR = 1.39 [1.14-1.69]) and 18% (HR = 1.18 [1.10-1.26]), respectively. The best discrimination ability for RetiAGE alone was found for CVD mortality (c-index = 0.70, sensitivity = 0.76, specificity = 0.55). Furthermore, adding RetiAGE increased the discrimination ability of the model beyond CA and phenotypic biomarkers (increment in c-index between 1 and 2%). CONCLUSIONS: the DL-derived RetiAGE provides a novel, alternative approach to measure ageing.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Idoso , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Humanos , Morbidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
7.
Ophthalmology ; 2022 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35358591

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the transancestry portability of current myopia polygenic risk scores (PRSs) to predict high myopia (HM) and myopic macular degeneration (MMD) in an Asian population. DESIGN: Population-based study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 5894 adults (2141 Chinese, 1913 Indian, and 1840 Malay) from the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases study were included in the analysis. The mean ± standard deviation age was 57.05 ± 9.31 years. A total of 361 adults had a diagnosis of HM (spherical equivalent [SE] < -5.00 diopters [D]) from refraction measurements, 240 individuals had a diagnosis of MMD graded by the International Photographic Classification and Grading System for Myopic Maculopathy criteria from fundus photographs, and 3774 individuals were control participants without myopia (SE > -0.5 D). METHODS: The PRS, derived from 687 289 HapMap3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the largest genome-wide association study of myopia in Europeans to date (n = 260 974), was assessed on its ability to predict patients with HM and MMD versus control participants. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcomes were the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) to predict HM and MMD. RESULTS: The PRS had an AUC of 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70-0.75) for HM and 0.66 (95% CI, 0.63-0.70) for MMD versus no myopia. The inclusion of the PRS with other predictors (age, sex, educational attainment [EA], and ancestry; age-by-ancestry, sex-by-ancestry, and EA-by-ancestry interactions; and 20 genotypic principal components) increased the AUC to 0.84 (95% CI, 0.82-0.86) for HM and 0.79 (95% CI, 0.76-0.82) for MMD. Individuals with a PRS in the top 5% showed up to a 4.66 (95% CI, 3.34-6.42) times higher risk of HM developing and up to a 3.43 (95% CI, 2.27-5.05) times higher risk of MMD developing compared with the remaining 95% of individuals. CONCLUSIONS: The PRS is a good predictor for HM and facilitates the identification of high-risk children to prevent myopia progression to HM. In addition, the PRS also predicts MMD and helps to identify high-risk adults with myopia who require closer monitoring for myopia-related complications.

8.
Ophthalmology ; 2022 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35306094

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and risk factors of primary angle-closure disease (PACD) over 6 years in a multi-ethnic Asian population. DESIGN: Population-based, longitudinal study. PARTICIPANTS: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases study is a population-based cohort study conducted among adults aged 40 years or more. The baseline examination was conducted between 2004 and 2010, and the 6-year follow-up visit was conducted between 2011 and 2017. Of 6762 participants who attended the follow-up examination, 5298 at risk for primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) and 5060 at risk for PACD were included for analyses. METHODS: Standardized examinations including slit-lamp biomicroscopy, indentation gonioscopy, intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement, and static automated perimetry were performed. In this study, PACD includes primary angle-closure suspect (PACS), primary angle-closure (PAC), and PACG. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The 6-year PACD incidence was evaluated among an at-risk population excluding adults with baseline glaucoma, PACS, PAC, pseudophakia at baseline or follow-up, or laser peripheral iridotomy or iridectomy at baseline visit. Logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, gender, and ethnicity was performed to evaluate associations between PACD development and demographic or ocular characteristics. Forward selection based on the Quasi-likelihood Information Criterion was used in multivariable analysis to reduce potential multicollinearity. RESULTS: The 6-year age-adjusted PACD incidence was 3.50% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.94-4.16). In multivariable analysis, increasing age per decade (odds ratio [OR], 1.35; 95% CI, 1.15-1.59), higher IOP (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.00-1.08), and shallower anterior chamber depth (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.08-1.14) at baseline were associated with higher odds of PACD, whereas late posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC) (OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.48-0.76) was associated with lower odds of PACD. The 6-year age-adjusted incidences of PACG, PAC, and PACS were 0.29% (95% CI, 0.14-0.55), 0.46% (95% CI, 0.29-0.75), and 2.54% (95% CI, 2.07-3.12), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that the 6-year incidence of PACD was 3.50%. Increasing age, higher IOP, and shallower anterior chamber were associated with a higher risk of incident PACD, whereas late PSC was associated with a lower odds of PACD. These findings can aid in future projections and formulation of health care policies for screening of at-risk individuals for timely intervention.

9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3831, 2022 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35264578

RESUMO

This study aimed to describe the topographic variation of the macula's choroidal angioarchitecture using three-dimensional (3D) choroidal vascularity index (CVI) of healthy eyes from an Asian population and to investigate the associations of CVI. 50 participants were recruited via stratified randomisation based on subfoveal choroidal thickness from the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study. Macular volume scans were acquired using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with enhanced depth imaging. CVI was assessed based on B-scan binarisation and choroid segmentation. The 3D CVI of the whole, superior, central, and inferior macula were 62.92 ± 1.57%, 62.75 ± 1.93%, 63.35 ± 1.72%, and 62.66 ± 1.70%, respectively, pairwise comparisons P all > 0.05). 3D CVI (Whole Macula) and 2D CVI (Subfoveal) were associated only with each other and not with other ocular and systemic factors. 2D CVI (Subfoveal) had a moderate agreement with 3D CVI (Central Macula) [intraclass corelation coefficient (ICC) = 0.719], and had poorer agreement with 3D CVI of the whole macula, superior, and inferior macula (ICC = 0.591, 0.483, and 0.394, respectively). Scanning volume did not influence 3D CVI measurements. In conclusion, 3D CVI demonstrated no significant topographic variation. CVI was not correlated with demographic or ocular structural features. 2D CVI of the fovea is partially representative of 3D CVI of the macula.


Assuntos
Corioide , Macula Lutea , Corioide/diagnóstico por imagem , Face , Fóvea Central/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Macula Lutea/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos
10.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 240: 205-216, 2022 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35247336

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess whether the 3-dimensional (3D) structural configuration of the central retinal vessel trunk and its branches (CRVT&B) could be used as a diagnostic marker for glaucoma. DESIGN: Retrospective, deep-learning approach diagnosis study. METHODS: We trained a deep learning network to automatically segment the CRVT&B from the B-scans of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) volume of the optic nerve head. Subsequently, 2 different approaches were used for glaucoma diagnosis using the structural configuration of the CRVT&B as extracted from the OCT volumes. In the first approach, we aimed to provide a diagnosis using only 3D convolutional neural networks and the 3D structure of the CRVT&B. For the second approach, we projected the 3D structure of the CRVT&B orthographically onto sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes to obtain 3 two-dimensional (2D) images, and then a 2D convolutional neural network was used for diagnosis. The segmentation accuracy was evaluated using the Dice coefficient, whereas the diagnostic accuracy was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs). The diagnostic performance of the CRVT&B was also compared with that of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness (calculated in the same cohorts). RESULTS: Our segmentation network was able to efficiently segment retinal blood vessels from OCT scans. On a test set, we achieved a Dice coefficient of 0.81 ± 0.07. The 3D and 2D diagnostic networks were able to differentiate glaucoma from nonglaucoma subjects with accuracies of 82.7% and 83.3%, respectively. The corresponding AUCs for the CRVT&B were 0.89 and 0.90, higher than those obtained with RNFL thickness alone (AUCs ranging from 0.74 to 0.80). CONCLUSIONS: Our work demonstrated that the diagnostic power of the CRVT&B is superior to that of a gold-standard glaucoma parameter, that is, RNFL thickness. Our work also suggested that the major retinal blood vessels form a "skeleton"-the configuration of which may be representative of major optic nerve head structural changes as typically observed with the development and progression of glaucoma.

11.
Ophthalmology ; 2022 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35288144

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop a classification system of visual field (VF) abnormalities in highly myopic eyes with and without glaucoma. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of VF data from a longitudinal cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: One thousand eight hundred ninety-three VF tests from 1302 eyes (825 individuals). METHODS: All participants underwent VF testing (Humphrey 24-2 Swedish interactive threshold algorithm standard program; Carl Zeiss Meditec) and detailed ophthalmic examination. A comprehensive set of VF defect patterns was defined via observation of the 1893 VF reports, literature review, and consensus meetings. The classification system comprised 4 major types of VF patterns, including normal type, glaucoma-like defects (paracentral defect, nasal step, partial arcuate defect, arcuate defect), high myopia-related defects (enlarged blind spot, vertical step, partial peripheral rim, nonspecific defect), and combined defects (nasal step with enlarged blind spot). A subset (n = 1000) of the VFs was used to evaluate the interobserver and intraobserver agreement and weighted κ values of the classification system by 2 trained readers. The prevalence of various VF patterns and their associated factors were determined. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The classification of VF in highly myopic eyes and its associated risk factors. RESULTS: We found that normal type, glaucoma-like defects, high myopia-related defects, and combined defects accounted for 74.1%, 10.8%, 15.0%, and 0.1% of all unique VF tests, respectively. The interobserver and intraobserver agreements were > 89%, and the corresponding κ values were 0.86 or more between readers. Both glaucoma-like and high myopia-related VF defects were associated with older age (odds ratios [ORs], 1.07 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-1.10; P < 0.001] and 1.06 [95% CI, 1.04-1.10; P < 0.001]) and longer axial length (ORs, 1.65 [95% CI, 1.32-2.07; P < 0.001] and 1.37 [95% CI, 1.11-1.68; P = 0.003]). Longer axial length showed a stronger effect on the prevalence of glaucoma-like VF defects than on the prevalence of high myopia-related VF defects (P = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: We propose a new and reproducible classification system of VF abnormalities for nonpathologic high myopia. Applying a comprehensive classification system will facilitate communication and comparison of findings among studies.

13.
Neurology ; 98(16): e1605-e1616, 2022 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35228332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Age-related cognitive impairment is driven by the complex interplay of neurovascular and neurodegenerative disease. There is a strong relationship between cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), and the cognitive decline observed in conditions such as Alzheimer disease. However, in the early, preclinical phase of cognitive impairment, the extent to which CMBs and underlying CAA affect volumetric changes in the brain related to neurodegenerative disease remains unclear. METHODS: We performed cross-sectional analyses from 3 large cohorts: The Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS), Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), and the Epidemiology of Dementia in Singapore study (EDIS). We conducted a confirmatory analysis of 82 autopsied cases from the Brain Arterial Remodeling Study (BARS). We implemented multivariate regression analyses to study the association between 2 related markers of cerebrovascular disease-MRI-based CMBs and autopsy-based CAA-as independent variables and volumetric markers of neurodegeneration as dependent variables. NOMAS included mostly dementia-free participants age 55 years or older from northern Manhattan. ADNI included participants living in the United States age 55-90 years with a range of cognitive status. EDIS included community-based participants living in Singapore age 60 years and older with a range of cognitive status. BARS included postmortem pathologic samples. RESULTS: We included 2,657 participants with available MRI data and 82 autopsy cases from BARS. In a meta-analysis of NOMAS, ADNI, and EDIS, superficial CMBs were associated with larger gray matter (ß = 4.49 ± 1.13, p = 0.04) and white matter (ß = 4.72 ± 2.1, p = 0.03) volumes. The association between superficial CMBs and larger white matter volume was more evident in participants with 1 CMB (ß = 5.17 ± 2.47, p = 0.04) than in those with ≥2 CMBs (ß = 1.97 ± 3.41, p = 0.56). In BARS, CAA was associated with increased cortical thickness (ß = 6.5 ± 2.3, p = 0.016) but not with increased brain weight (ß = 1.54 ± 1.29, p = 0.26). DISCUSSION: Superficial CMBs are associated with larger morphometric brain measures, specifically white matter volume. This association is strongest in brains with fewer CMBs, suggesting that the CMB/CAA contribution to neurodegeneration may not relate to tissue loss, at least in early stages of disease.


Assuntos
Angiopatia Amiloide Cerebral , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Doença de Alzheimer , Biomarcadores , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Angiopatia Amiloide Cerebral/complicações , Angiopatia Amiloide Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiopatia Amiloide Cerebral/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/complicações , Hemorragia Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia
14.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2022 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35236713

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the association between the extent of iridotrabecular contact and other quantitative anterior segment dimensions measured by swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT; CASIA SS-1000, Tomey, Nagoya, Japan) with intraocular pressure (IOP). METHODS: Cross-sectional study. All subjects who were ≥50 years with no history of glaucoma, ocular surgery or trauma, underwent SS-OCT imaging (eight equally spaced radial scans), Goldman applanation tonometry and gonioscopy on the same day. We measured iridotrabecular contact (ITC) index and area, total volume of trabeculo-iris space area and angle opening distance at 500 and 750 from the scleral spur (TISA 500 and 750, AOD 500 and 750, respectively), anterior chamber depth (ACD), volume, area and width, pupil diameter, lens vault and iris volume.Their relationship with IOP (dependent variable) was assessed by locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (Lowess) regression with change-point analysis and generalised additive models adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: 2027 right eyes of mostly Chinese Singaporeans (90%) were analysed. ITC index above a threshold of ~60% (95% CI 34% to 92%) was significantly associated with higher IOP. Independent of the extent of ITC, ACD was also significantly associated with higher IOP below a threshold of 2.5 mm (95% CI 2.33 mm to 2.71 mm). Greater ITC index and shallower ACD had a joint association with IOP. A model including ACD and ITC index was more predictive of IOP than a model considering these variables separately, particularly for women with gonioscopically closed angles (R2 52.7%, p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The extent of angle closure and the ACD below a certain threshold had a significant joint association with IOP. These parameters, as biometrical surrogates of mechanical obstruction of the aqueous outflow, may jointly contribute to elevated IOP, particularly in women with gonioscopic angle closure.

15.
Eur Heart J ; 43(18): 1702-1711, 2022 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35195259

RESUMO

AIMS: To construct a polygenic risk score (PRS) for coronary artery disease (CAD) and comprehensively evaluate its potential in clinical utility for primary prevention in Chinese populations. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using meta-analytic approach and large genome-wide association results for CAD and CAD-related traits in East Asians, a PRS comprising 540 genetic variants was developed in a training set of 2800 patients with CAD and 2055 controls, and was further assessed for risk stratification for CAD integrating with the guideline-recommended clinical risk score in large prospective cohorts comprising 41 271 individuals. During a mean follow-up of 13.0 years, 1303 incident CAD cases were identified. Individuals with high PRS (the highest 20%) had about three-fold higher risk of CAD than the lowest 20% (hazard ratio 2.91, 95% confidence interval 2.43-3.49), with the lifetime risk of 15.9 and 5.8%, respectively. The addition of PRS to the clinical risk score yielded a modest yet significant improvement in C-statistic (1%) and net reclassification improvement (3.5%). We observed significant gradients in both 10-year and lifetime risk of CAD according to the PRS within each clinical risk strata. Particularly, when integrating high PRS, intermediate clinical risk individuals with uncertain clinical decision for intervention would reach the risk levels (10-year of 4.6 vs. 4.8%, lifetime of 17.9 vs. 16.6%) of high clinical risk individuals with intermediate (20-80%) PRS. CONCLUSION: The PRS could stratify individuals into different trajectories of CAD risk, and further refine risk stratification for CAD within each clinical risk strata, demonstrating a great potential to identify high-risk individuals for targeted intervention in clinical utility.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Ophthalmology ; 129(5): 571-584, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990643

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop deep learning models to perform automated diagnosis and quantitative classification of age-related cataract from anterior segment photographs. DESIGN: DeepLensNet was trained by applying deep learning models to the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) dataset. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 18 999 photographs (6333 triplets) from longitudinal follow-up of 1137 eyes (576 AREDS participants). METHODS: Deep learning models were trained to detect and quantify nuclear sclerosis (NS; scale 0.9-7.1) from 45-degree slit-lamp photographs and cortical lens opacity (CLO; scale 0%-100%) and posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC; scale 0%-100%) from retroillumination photographs. DeepLensNet performance was compared with that of 14 ophthalmologists and 24 medical students. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean squared error (MSE). RESULTS: On the full test set, mean MSE for DeepLensNet was 0.23 (standard deviation [SD], 0.01) for NS, 13.1 (SD, 1.6) for CLO, and 16.6 (SD, 2.4) for PSC. On a subset of the test set (substantially enriched for positive cases of CLO and PSC), for NS, mean MSE for DeepLensNet was 0.23 (SD, 0.02), compared with 0.98 (SD, 0.24; P = 0.000001) for the ophthalmologists and 1.24 (SD, 0.34; P = 0.000005) for the medical students. For CLO, mean MSE was 53.5 (SD, 14.8), compared with 134.9 (SD, 89.9; P = 0.003) for the ophthalmologists and 433.6 (SD, 962.1; P = 0.0007) for the medical students. For PSC, mean MSE was 171.9 (SD, 38.9), compared with 176.8 (SD, 98.0; P = 0.67) for the ophthalmologists and 398.2 (SD, 645.4; P = 0.18) for the medical students. In external validation on the Singapore Malay Eye Study (sampled to reflect the cataract severity distribution in AREDS), the MSE for DeepSeeNet was 1.27 for NS and 25.5 for PSC. CONCLUSIONS: DeepLensNet performed automated and quantitative classification of cataract severity for all 3 types of age-related cataract. For the 2 most common types (NS and CLO), the accuracy was significantly superior to that of ophthalmologists; for the least common type (PSC), it was similar. DeepLensNet may have wide potential applications in both clinical and research domains. In the future, such approaches may increase the accessibility of cataract assessment globally. The code and models are available at https://github.com/ncbi/deeplensnet.


Assuntos
Extração de Catarata , Catarata , Aprendizado Profundo , Catarata/diagnóstico , Humanos , Fotografação
17.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 106(4): 491-496, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334817

RESUMO

AIMS: To compare the shape of the anterior surface of the peripapillary sclera (PPS) between glaucoma and healthy subjects. METHODS: 88 primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), 98 primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) and 372 age-matched and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited in this study. The optic nerve head of one randomly selected eye of each subject was imaged with spectral domain optical coherence tomography. The shape of the PPS was measured through an angle defined between a line parallel to the nasal anterior PPS boundary and one parallel to the temporal side. A negative value indicated that the PPS followed an inverted v-shaped configuration (peak pointing towards the vitreous), whereas a positive value indicated that it followed a v-shaped configuration. RESULTS: The mean PPS angle in normal controls (4.56±5.99°) was significantly smaller than that in POAG (6.60±6.37°, p=0.011) and PACG (7.90±6.87°, p<0.001). The v-shaped PPS was significantly associated with older age (ß=1.79, p<0.001), poorer best-corrected visual acuity (ß=3.31, p=0.047), central corneal thickness (ß=-0.28, p=0.001), peripapillary choroidal thickness (ß=-0.21, p<0.001) and presence of POAG (ß=1.94, p<0.009) and PACG (ß=2.96, p<0.001). The v-shaped configuration of the PPS significantly increased by 1.46° (p=0.001) in healthy controls for every 10-year increase in age, but not in glaucoma groups. CONCLUSIONS: The v-shaped configuration of the PPS was more pronounced in glaucoma eyes than in healthy eyes. This posterior bowing of the PPS may have an impact on the biomechanical environment of the optic nerve head.


Assuntos
Glaucoma de Ângulo Fechado , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto , Disco Óptico , Glaucoma de Ângulo Fechado/diagnóstico , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/diagnóstico , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular , Esclera , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos
18.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 106(2): 267-274, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208351

RESUMO

AIMS: To use machine learning (ML) to determine the relative contributions of modifiable and non-modifiable clinical, metabolic, genetic, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors on the risk of major eye diseases. METHODS: We conducted analyses in a cross-sectional multi-ethnic population-based study (n=10 033 participants) and determined a range of modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors of common eye diseases, including diabetic retinopathy (DR), non-diabetic-related retinopathy (NDR); early and late age-related macular degeneration (AMD); nuclear, cortical and posterior subcapsular (PSC) cataract; and primary open-angle (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). Risk factors included individual characteristics, metabolic profiles, genetic background, lifestyle patterns and socioeconomic status (n~100 risk factors). We used gradient boosting machine to estimate the relative influence (RI) of each risk factor. RESULTS: Among the range of risk factors studied, the highest contributions were duration of diabetes for DR (RI=22.1%), and alcohol consumption for NDR (RI=6.4%). For early and late AMD, genetic background (RI~20%) and age (RI~15%) contributed the most. Axial length was the main risk factor of PSC (RI=30.8%). For PACG, socioeconomic factor (mainly educational level) had the highest influence (20%). POAG was the disease with the highest contribution of modifiable risk factors (cumulative RI~35%), followed by PACG (cumulative RI ~30%), retinopathy (cumulative RI between 20% and 30%) and late AMD (cumulative RI ~20%). CONCLUSION: This study illustrates the utility of ML in identifying factors with the highest contributions. Risk factors possibly amenable to interventions were intraocular pressure (IOP) and Body Mass Index (BMI) for glaucoma, alcohol consumption for NDR and levels of HbA1c for DR.


Assuntos
Catarata , Retinopatia Diabética , Oftalmopatias , Glaucoma de Ângulo Fechado , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto , Degeneração Macular , Estudos Transversais , Retinopatia Diabética/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular , Aprendizado de Máquina , Degeneração Macular/epidemiologia , Degeneração Macular/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
19.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 106(3): 381-387, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257306

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the normative profiles for neuroretinal rim area (RA) in a multiethnic Asian population. METHODS: Subjects were recruited from the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases (2009-2015) study and underwent standardised examinations. RA measurements were performed using Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography (Carl Zeiss Meditec). Multivariable linear regression with generalised estimating equation model was used to evaluate the associations between demographic, systemic and ocular factors with RA. RESULTS: A total of 9394 eyes from 5116 subjects (1724 Chinese, 1463 Malay, 1929 Indian) were included in the final analysis. The mean (±SD) of RA was 1.28 (±0.23) mm2 for Chinese, 1.33 (±0.26) mm2 for Malays, and 1.23 (±0.23) mm2 for Indians. The 5th percentile value for RA was 0.94 mm2 for Chinese, 0.96 mm2 for Malay, and 0.89 mm2 for Indian. In multivariable analysis, following adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidaemia, history of cataract surgery, axial length, intraocular pressure (IOP) and disc area, Indian eyes have smaller RA when compared with Malays (ß=-0.074; 95% CI -0.090 to -0.058; p<0.001) and Chinese (ß=-0.035; 95% CI -0.051 to -0.019; p<0.001), respectively. Additionally, older age (per decade, ß=-0.022), male gender (ß=-0.031), longer axial length (per mm, ß=-0.025), spherical equivalent (per negative dioptre, ß=-0.005), higher IOP (per mm Hg, ß=-0.009) were associated with smaller RA (all p≤0.004). CONCLUSION: In this multiethnic population-based study, we observed significantly smaller RA in Indian eyes, compared with Chinese and Malays. This indicates the need of a more refined ethnic-specific RA normative databases among Asians.


Assuntos
Glaucoma , Disco Óptico , Glaucoma/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Singapura/epidemiologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos
20.
Ophthalmology ; 129(3): 285-294, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592243

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We hypothesized that the effect of blood lipid-related metabolites on primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) would differ according to specific lipoprotein particles and lipid sub-fractions. We investigated the associations of blood levels of lipoprotein particles and lipid sub-fractions with POAG. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals recruited for the baseline visit of the population-based Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Disease study (n = 8503). METHODS: All participants underwent detailed standardized ocular and systemic examinations. A total of 130 blood lipid-related metabolites were quantified using a nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics platform. The analyses were conducted in 2 stages. First, we investigated whether and which lipid-related metabolites were directly associated with POAG using regression analyses followed by Bayesian network modeling. Second, we investigated if any causal relationship exists between the identified lipid-related metabolites, if any, and POAG using 2-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on high-density lipoprotein (HDL) 3 cholesterol (after inverse normal transformation) and used the top variants associated with HLD3 cholesterol as instrumental variables (IVs) in the MR analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Primary open-angle glaucoma. RESULTS: Of the participants, 175 (2.1%) had POAG. First, a logistic regression model showed that total HDL3 cholesterol (negatively) and phospholipids in very large HDL (positively) were associated with POAG. Further analyses using a Bayesian network analysis showed that only total HDL3 cholesterol was directly associated with POAG (odds ratio [OR], 0.72 per 1 standard deviation increase in HDL3 cholesterol; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-0.84), independently of age, gender, intraocular pressure (IOP), body mass index (BMI), education level, systolic blood pressure, axial length, and statin medication. Using 5 IVs identified from the GWAS and with the inverse variance weighted MR method, we found that higher levels of HDL3 cholesterol were associated with a decreased odds of POAG (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.84-0.99, P = 0.021). Other MR methods, including weighted median, mode-based estimator, and contamination mixture methods, derived consistent OR estimates. None of the routine lipids (blood total, HDL, or low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol) were associated with POAG. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these results suggest that the relationship between HDL3 cholesterol and POAG might be causal and specific, and that dysregulation of cholesterol transport may play a role in the pathogenesis of POAG.


Assuntos
HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/sangue , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Metabolômica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/diagnóstico , Gonioscopia , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Microscopia com Lâmpada de Fenda , Tonometria Ocular
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