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1.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 131960, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438213

RESUMO

The present report investigates the various MoO3 morphologies prepared via different approaches such as morphologies are cubic sheet, ribbon, and hexagonal sheet. These prepared nanostructures are modified as a MoO3/Ni-F electrode used to detect hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The influence of the morphology on the microstructural, morphological, electronic state, optical and electrochemical properties of MoO3 nanostructures are systematically studied. The recorded XRD spectra confirmed that the good crystalline nature with the orthorhombic crystal structure. The FESEM analysis shows that preparation approaches strongly influenced the MoO3 morphology. The elemental mapping and XPS analysis confirm the formation of MoO3. The obtained optical band gap values show that the MoO3 morphology-based bandgap values are 3.38, 3.17, and 2.94 eV. The modified MoO3/Ni-F electrode electrochemical impedance spectra show the CP-MoO3 has good conductivity. Moreover, the CP-MoO3/Ni-F electrode has a wide detection window, long-term stability, reproducibility, and a low detection limit is 1.2 µM. Hence, the CP-MoO3/Ni-F electrode electrochemical results suggest that the modified electrode has offered a good matrix for toxic contaminants sensing applications.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Nanoestruturas , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Eletrodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
2.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 132014, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523445

RESUMO

Biohydrogen and biosyngas are among the sustainable bioenergy products from biomass resources through gasification. Microwave-assisted gasification (MAG) is still a novel technology, but it is definitely a promising conversion technology to achieve a sustainable bioeconomy. Although this technology shows a massive potential to be fully implemented in the near future, the selectivity and efficiency of biohydrogen and syngas production still need enhancements and further research to secure a cost-effective and energy-efficient industrialization. This article comprehensively reviews the regular, microwave-induced plasma, and catalytic MAG systems in relation to their biohydrogen and biosyngas production, carbon conversion efficiency, and tar removal while discussing the significance of optimal operating conditions and considerations in the gasification system design. Several perspectives such as benefits, challenges, numerical simulations, and scalable opportunities are also explored to provide factual insights for further research and industrial application.


Assuntos
Carbono , Micro-Ondas , Biomassa , Catálise , Tecnologia
3.
Bioresour Technol ; 343: 126082, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610427

RESUMO

Antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) has been commonly found in various water matrices, therefore effective decontamination method is urgently needed. Metal-free pristine coconut-shell-derived biochar (CSBC), synthesized by thermochemical conversion at 700 °C, was used for activating peroxymonosulfate (PMS), an oxidant, to degrade SMX, a sulfonamide antibiotic, in water. SMX degradation, maximized at 0.05 mM concentration, was 85% in 30 min at pH 5.0 in the presence of 150 mg L-1 of CSBC. Remarkably, SMX removal reached 99% in a chloride-rich CSBC/PMS system. SMX degradation was mainly attributed to the role of CSBC in enhancing PMS activation to produce combined radical (SO4•-/HO•) and nonradical (1O2) reaction pathways. The most abundant genus in the CSBC/PMS system was Methylotenera, which belonged to the Proteobacteria phylum. Thus, from a perspective of biowaste-to-resource recycling and circular bioeconomy view point, CSBC is a potential catalytic activator of PMS for the removal of sulfonamide antibiotics from aqueous environments.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Água , Antibacterianos , Carvão Vegetal , Peróxidos , Sulfonamidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 422: 126922, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425433

RESUMO

Phthalate esters (PAEs) are a group of ubiquitous organic environmental contaminants. Engineered ferromanganese-bearing sludge-derived biochar (SDB), synthesized using one-step pyrolysis in the temperature range between 300 and 900 °C, was used to enable Fenton-like processes that decontaminated PAE-laden sediments. SDB was thoroughly characterized using scanning electron microscopyenergy-dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy coupled with parallel factor analysis. The maximum PAE degradation was remarkable at 90% in 12 h at pH 6.0 in the presence of 1.7 g L-1 of SDB 900. The highly-effective PAE degradation was mainly attributed to the synergism between FeOx and MnOx, which strengthened the activation of percarbonate (PC) via electron transfer, hydroxy addition, and hydrogen abstraction through radical (HO•) and nonradical (1O2) oxidation mechanisms, thereby facilitating PAE catalytic degradation over SDB in real sediments, which clearly proved the efficacy of ferromanganese-bearing SDB and PC for the remediation of contaminated sediments. The cytotoxicity exhibited by human skin keratinocyte cells exposure to high SDB concentration (100-400 µg mL-1) for 24-48 h was low indicating insignificant cellular toxicity and oxidative damages. This study provides a new strategy for freshwater sludge treatment and reutilization, which enables a water-cycle-based circular economy and waste-to-resource recycling.

5.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126708, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352521

RESUMO

The level and distribution of 16 USEPA Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) in aquaculture farmed fish (Mugil cephalus and Oreochromis mossambicus) and shellfish (Corbicula fluminea Formosa and Meretrix lusoria) were determined in Taiwan and then assessed cancer and non-cancer risks for those consuming these kinds of seafood. Results indicated that C. fluminea Formosa accumulated the highest average concentration of total PAHs (43.0 ± 11.3 ng/g wet weight) while M. lusoria contained the lowest concentration (20.0 ± 5.8 ng/g) among all species. The low-molecular-weight PAHs were dominant for both fish and shellfish, which consistent with other studies. Notably, parts of high-molecular-weight PAHs were found in shellfish whereas that was little in fish. The calculated hazard quotients (HQ) of all PAHs were smaller than 1 and the incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR) for Benzo[a]pyrene were below 1 × 10-5, suggesting that PAHs in the collected seafood could pose a low hazard to residents. Although the results indicated that the studied seafood is safe for human consumption, children and seniors post relatively higher risks, suggesting that it needs to continue monitoring and control the PAHs concentration in seafood and the associated environments.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Animais , Aquicultura , Criança , Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Lagoas , Medição de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Taiwan
6.
Bioresour Technol ; : 126415, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838977

RESUMO

The bioprocessing of lignocellulosic biomass to produce bio-based products under biorefinery setup is gaining global attention. The economic viability of this biorefinery would be inclined by the efficient bioconversion of all three major constituents of lignocellulosic biomass i.e. cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin for value-added biochemicals and biofuels production. Although the lignocellulosic biorefinery setup has a clear value proposition, the commercial success at the industrial scale is still inadequate. This can be attributed mainly to irregular biomass supply chain, market uncertainties, and scale-up challenges. Global research efforts are underway by public and private sectors to get deeper market penetration. A comprehensive account of important factors, limitations, and propositions are worth consideration for the commercial success of lignocellulosic biorefineries. In this article, the importance of integration of lignocellulosic biorefineries with existing petrochemical refineries, the technical challenges of industrialization, SWOT analysis, and future directions have been reviewed.

7.
Bioresour Technol ; : 126343, 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780908

RESUMO

Bacterial cellulose (BC) represents a novel bio-origin nonomaterial with its unique properties having diverse applications. Increased market demand and low yield are the major reason for its higher cost. Bacteria belonging to Komagataeibacter sp are the most exploited ones for BC production. Development of a cost-effective bioprocess for higher BC production is desirable. Though static fermentation modes have been majorly employed for BC production using tray fermenters, agitated mode has also been employed successfully with air-lift fermenters as well as stirred tank reactors. Bioprocess advances in recent years has led BC production to an upper level; however, challenges of aeration requirement and labor cost towards the higher end is associated with static cultivation at large scale. We have discussed the bioprocess development for BC production in recent years along with the challenges associated and the path forward.

8.
Bioresour Technol ; : 126351, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798257

RESUMO

In this study, biochar derived from brown algal Ascophyllum nodosum was synthesized through hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) coupling with ZnCl2 chemical activation and applied as a sustainable adsorbent for antibiotic removal from water exemplified by ciprofloxacin (CIP). Various surface analysis techniques such as Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and zeta potential were used to clarify the surface properties of prepared biochars. The adsorption performance of biochars was investigated using batch adsorption experiments with a variety of parameters (initial pH, ionic types, temperature and water matrixes). The application of prepared biochar in CIP removal showed a good result of adsorption capacity (150-400 mg g-1) in different conditions. Overall, algal biochars, as a product recycled from biowaste, demonstrated a novel and promising adsorbent for effective and sustainable method for removal of antibiotics from water.

9.
J Int Med Res ; 49(11): 3000605211058890, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34842480

RESUMO

Primary spinal chondrosarcoma (CS) is rare. Only a few previous case reports have included a detailed description of the surgical process used to treat the CS. In addition, a paucity of documentation exists comparing differences in the outcomes between the approaches in en bloc resection. Here, we present a case of CS in the lumbar (L) spine treated with two-stage (anterior and posterior approach) en bloc surgery and analyze the differences between one-stage and two-stage approaches in the treatment of primary lumbar CS. A 30-year-old male patient with an L3 vertebral body CS presented with back pain and lower limb weakness. Lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an L3 vertebral body tumor with cord and root compression. Two-stage surgery comprising posterior total laminectomy and transpedicular screw fixation over L2-L4 in the first stage, with subsequent anterior corpectomy, cage implantation, and anterior lumbar interbody fusion was performed to achieve total tumor removal and stabilization. The patient's symptoms improved postoperatively, with no recurrence as of the 2-year follow-up. The analysis of previous similar cases showed that two-stage surgery, compared with one-stage surgery, appears to be beneficial in lumbar spine multisegment disease, providing a lower recurrence rate.

10.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 5838101, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777689

RESUMO

Luteolin (LUT) possesses multiple biologic functions and has beneficial effects for cardiovascular and cerebral vascular diseases. Here, we investigated the protective effects of LUT against subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and the involvement of underlying molecular mechanisms. In a rat model of SAH, LUT significantly inhibited SAH-induced neuroinflammation as evidenced by reduced microglia activation, decreased neutrophil infiltration, and suppressed proinflammatory cytokine release. In addition, LUT markedly ameliorated SAH-induced oxidative damage and restored the endogenous antioxidant systems. Concomitant with the suppressed oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, LUT significantly improved neurologic function and reduced neuronal cell death after SAH. Mechanistically, LUT treatment significantly enhanced the expression of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), while it downregulated nod-like receptor pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation. Inhibition of Nrf2 by ML385 dramatically abrogated LUT-induced Nrf2 activation and NLRP3 suppression and reversed the beneficial effects of LUT against SAH. In neurons and microglia coculture system, LUT also mitigated oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and neuronal degeneration. These beneficial effects were associated with activation of the Nrf2 and inhibitory effects on NLRP3 inflammasome and were reversed by ML385 treatment. Taken together, this present study reveals that LUT confers protection against SAH by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway, which may be modulated by Nrf2 activation.

11.
Environ Technol ; : 1-11, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34694956

RESUMO

ABSTRACTThe concentrations level and distribution of 16 US EPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) from the water treatment plant (WTP), sewage treatment plant (STP), and industrial water treatment plant (ITP) sludge in Taiwan were determined and then assessed the sources, and potential toxicity (carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [CPAHs] and toxic BaP equivalent [TEQ]). Results indicated that the total concentrations of PAHs ranged between 58 and 16,436 µg/kg dw. Among the 17 samples, the 2-4 ring of total PAHs were the predominant compound in three kinds of treatment plant (> 60%). Especially, ITP1 owns 95.8% of 2-4 ring of total PAHs and ITP3 owns 54% of five- and six-ring of total PAHs. The molecular indices and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to determine the source contributions, with the results showing that the contributions of combustion/grass, coal or wood combustion and combustion/ liquid (oil) fossil fuel combustion. A PAH toxicity indicated by TEQ was 2.5-506 µg TEQ/g dw. Although, the results indicated that these were not recommended for land applications, but analyses are beneficial to develop effective management strategies for controlling PAH discharge in treatment plants and establishing strategies for its reuse in managing pollutants.

12.
Bioresour Technol ; 344(Pt A): 126171, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695586

RESUMO

The need to develop sustainable alternatives for pretreatment and hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) is a massive concern in the industrial sector today. Breaking down of LCB yields sugars and fuel in the bulk scale. If explored under nanotechnology, LCB can be refined to yield high-performance fuel sources. The toxicity and cost of conventional methods can be reduced by applying nanoparticles (NPs) in refining LCB. Immobilization of enzymes onto NPs or used in conjugation with nanomaterials would instill specific and eco-friendly options for hydrolyzing LCB. Nanomaterials increase the proficiency, reusability, and stability of enzymes. Notably, magnetic NPs have bagged their place in the downstream processing of LCB effluents due to their efficient separation and cost-effectiveness. The current review highlights the role of nanotechnology and its particles in refining LCB into various commercial precursors and value-added products. The relationship between nanotechnology and LCB refinery is portrayed effectively in the present study.

13.
Foods ; 10(10)2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34681412

RESUMO

Chondroitin sulfate (ChS) is usually used as an oral nutraceutical supplement, and has been popular in Asia, Europe, and United States for many years. In this study, a potential and sustainable source of ChS from jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) cartilage was explored; ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was used to extract ChS from jumbo squid cartilage. The result of mass transfer coefficients based on Fick's law showed that UAE had higher mass transfer efficacy. The response surface methodology (RSM) combined with Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to evaluate the effects of the extraction parameters. The optimal conditions were extraction temperature of 52 °C, extraction time of 46 min, and NaOH concentration of 4.15%. The crude extract was precipitated by 50% ethanol, which obtained a purified ChS with 23.7% yield and 82.3% purity. The purified ChS measured by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) had a carbon to sulfur molar ratio of approximately 14:1. The FTIR, 1H, and 13C NMR confirmed jumbo squid ChS were present in the form of chondroitin-4-sulfate and chondroitin-6-sulfate, with a 4S/6S ratio of 1.62. The results of this study provide an efficient process for production and purification of ChS, and are significant for the development and utilization of ChS from jumbo squid cartilage in the nutrient food or pharmaceutical industries.

14.
Chemosphere ; : 132577, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662641

RESUMO

In this study, biochar derived from spent coffee grounds (SCGB) was used to adsorb norfloxacin (NOR) in water. The biochar properties were interpreted by analysis of the specific surface area, morphology, structure, thermal stability, and functional groups. The impacts of pH, NOR, and ion's present on SCGB performance were examined. The NOR adsorption mode of SCGB is best suited to the Langmuir model (R2 = 0.974) with maximum absorption capacity (69.8 mg g-1). By using a Response Surface Method (RSM), optimal adsorption was also found at pH of 6.26, NOR of 24.69 mg L-1, and SCGB of 1.32 g L-1. Compared with biochars derived from agriculture such as corn stalks, willow branches, potato stem, reed stalks, cauliflower roots, wheat straw, the NOR adsorption capacity of SCGB was 2-30 times higher, but less than 3-4 times for biochars made from Salix mongolica, luffa sponge and polydopamine microspheres. These findings reveal that spent coffee grounds biochar could effectively remove NOR from aqueous solutions. Approaching biochar derived from coffee grounds would be a promising eco-friendly solution because it utilizes solid waste, saves costs, and creates adsorbents to deal with emerging pollutants like antibiotics.

15.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 686718, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34589516

RESUMO

Outside a few affluent countries with adequate vaccination and screening coverage, cervical cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women in many countries. Currently, a major problem is that a substantial proportion of patients are already at an advanced cancer stage when diagnosed. There is increasing evidence that indicates the involvement of translationally controlled tumor protein 1 (TPT1) overexpression in cancer development, but little is known about its implication in cervical cancer. We assessed the levels of TPT1 in surgical tissue and sera of patients with cervicitis, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III, and cervical cancer, as well as in normal and cancerous cervical cell lines. Gene sets, pathways, and functional protein interactions associated with TPT1 were identified using the TCGA data cohort of cervical cancer. We found that the TPT1 expression was significantly increased in cervical cancer tissue compared to all nonmalignant cervical tissues, including samples of cervicitis, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III, and normal controls. Serum level of TPT1 was also increased in cervical cancer patients compared to healthy subjects. Furthermore, elevated TPT1 expression was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis and a low differentiation degree of the cancer. In the cancerous tissues and cell lines, selective markers of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway over-activation, apoptosis repression, and EMT were detected, and their interaction with TPT1 was supported by biometrics analyses. Our results, for the first time, demonstrate a strong correlation of upregulated TPT1 expression with cervical cancer progression, suggesting that TPT1 might provide a potential biomarker for cervical cancer progression.

16.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500721

RESUMO

Fish bones (FBs) are aquatic by-products that are sources of antioxidant-active peptides, calcium dietary supplements, and biomedical materials. Usually, fermentation of these by-products via microorganisms brings desirable changes, enhancing their value. This study investigates the value addition of FB when fermented with Monascus purpureus (MP) for different time intervals, such as 3 days (F3) and 6 days (F6). The results indicate that the soluble protein, peptide, amino acid and total phenol content, as well as the antioxidant capacity (DPPH, ABTS+ radical scavenging activity, and relative reducing power), of F3 and F6 were significantly increased after fermentation. Furthermore, the ROS contents of F3 and F6 were reduced to a greater extent than that of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in Clone-9 cells. The MMP integrity, as well as the SOD, CAT, and GPx activity, of F3 and F6 were also increased significantly compared to the H2O2 in Clone-9 cells. Notably, F3 and F6 displayed significant reductions in ROS content, as well as elevate, SOD activity and MMP integrity in Clone-9 cells, when compared with the native FB. These results indicate that the FBs fermented with MP for 3 days (F3), and 6 days (F6) have antioxidant capacity, with possible applications as natural food supplements.

17.
Bioresour Technol ; 340: 125708, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391187

RESUMO

Malachite green (MG) is used as fungicide/parasiticide in aquaculture, its persistence is detrimental as it exhibits carcinogenic effects to aquatic organisms. Bacterial laccase evaluated as the best enzyme at extreme condition for aquatic MG removal. Study aims to increase laccase concentration, CotA-laccase from Bacillus subtilis was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Optimal catalysis for purified CotA-laccase were at pH 5.0, 60 °C, and 1 mM of (2,2-azino-di-[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-sulphonate-(6)]) with Km and Kcat 0.087 mM and 37.64 S-1 respectively. MG biodegradation by CotA-laccase in clam and tilapia pond wastewaters and cytotoxic effect of biodegraded products in grouper fin-1 cells were determined. MG degradation by CotA-laccase was equally efficient, exhibiting upto 90-94% decolorization at freshwater and saline conditions and treated solution was non-toxic to GF-1 cells. Thus, recombinant-CotA-laccase could be an environmentally-friendly enzyme for aquaculture to remove MG, thereby effective to reduce its accumulation in aquatic organisms and ensuring safe aquaculture products.


Assuntos
Lacase , Corantes de Rosanilina , Bacillus subtilis , Proteínas de Bactérias , Corantes , Escherichia coli/genética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lacase/genética , Corantes de Rosanilina/toxicidade
19.
Membranes (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436360

RESUMO

In order to overcome the challenges of low permeate flux (Jp) and the accompanying reverse solute flux (JS) during the forward osmosis (FO) membrane separation process, we synthesized four hybrid materials of polyacid-based organic compounds and incorporated them into the selective polyamide (PA) layer to make novel thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) FO membranes. The Jp and JS of each membrane were evaluated and used along with membrane selectivity (Jp/JS) as indicators of membrane separation performance. The fabricated and modified membranes were also characterized for ridge and valley surface morphologies with increasing hydrophilicity and finger-shaped parallel channels in the PSf substrate. Moreover, two highly hydrophilic nanoparticles of graphene oxide (GO) and titanium oxide (TiO2) were introduced with the hybrid materials for PA modification, which can further enhance the Jp of the TFN membranes. The highest Jp of the TFN membranes achieved 12.1 L/m2-h using 0.1% curcumin-acetoguanamine @ cerium polyacid (CATCP) and 0.0175% GO. The characteristic peaks of the hybrid materials were detected on the membrane surface using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, evidencing successful incorporation of the hybrid materials during membrane modification. Here, we present the novel TFN membranes using hybrid materials for separation applications. The reactions for synthesizing the hybrid materials and for incorporating them with PA layer are proposed.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34386921

RESUMO

A new electrode was constructed via the anodic electropolymerization of poly-(L-serine) (PLS) on an rGO-Nafion-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for the detection of the emerging organic contaminant naproxen (NPX). The morphology, crystal phase, and surface elements of the electrode were investigated with SEM, TEM, XRD, Raman, ATR-FTIR, zeta potential, C-H-O, and XPS analyses. Results of the surface analysis showed a porous structure resembling graphene sheets inside the Nafion/GCE architecture. Various electrochemical parameters, including scan rate, pH, and NPX concentration, were studied to evaluate the performance of the electrode. The synergistic effect of PLS and rGO-Nafion greatly facilitated the catalytic oxidation of NPX on PLS/rGO-Nafion/GCE. Electrochemical NPX oxidation was a one-electron transfer and adsorption limited process. The optimal working potential was 0.92 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The oxidation current of NPX increased with the increase in the concentration of analyte and scan rate but decreased with pH. The modified electrode exhibited excellent linearity with respect to NPX concentration in the range of 4.3 to 87 µM and limit of detection of 0.23 µM (S/N = 3). The PLS/rGO-Nafion/GCE is a fast, sensitive, reliable, and economical electrode for the detection of NPX in water.

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