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1.
Obes Surg ; 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34817795

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the predictive tool, 6M50LSG scoring system, to identify suspected poor responders after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). METHODS: The 6M50LSG scoring system has been applied since 2019. Suspected poor responders are defined by EBWL at 1 month < 19.5% or EBWL at 3 months < 37.7% based on the 6M50LSG scoring system. Our analysis included 109 suspected poor responders. Based on the date of LSG, the patients were separated into two groups: the 2016-2018 group (before group, BG, with regular care) and the 2019-2020 group (after group, AG, with upgrade medical nutrition therapy). RESULTS: At the end of the study, the AG group had a significantly higher proportion of adequate weight loss, which was defined as EBWL ≥ 50% at 6 months after LSG, than that in the BG group (18.92% in BG vs. 48.57% in AG, p = 0.003). The AG group demonstrated significantly more 3-months-TWL (BG: 15.22% vs. AG: 17.54%, p < 0.001) and 6-months-TWL (BG: 21.08% vs. AG: 25.65%, p < 0.001). In multivariate analyses and adjustments, the scoring system (AG) resulted in significantly higher chances of adequate weight loss in suspected poor responders (adjusted OR 3.392, 95% CI = 1.345-8.5564, p = 0.010). One year after LSG, suspected poor responders in AG had a significantly higher weight loss than those in BG (BG vs. AG: TWL 27.17% vs. 32.20%, p = 0.014) . CONCLUSION: This study confirmed that the 6M50LSG scoring system with upgraded medical nutrition therapy increased the proportion of suspected poor responders with adequate weight loss after LSG.

2.
Food Chem ; 373(Pt B): 131470, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740051

RESUMO

This research demonstrated a novel and ecofriendly method for producing regenerated starch (RS)/microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) composite films with a nearly 1.4-fold improvement in tensile strength than traditional gelatinized starch (GS) films. Pure starch was dissolved in 14 wt% urea/4 wt% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution at 0 °C. Then, RS films and their biocomposite films containing MFC were prepared by dialyzing and solution-casting method. Results showed that the tensile strength and elongation at break of RS increased by 44.8% and 82.4%, compared with that of GS film, respectively. Owing to the adequate dispersion, lower viscosity-average molecular weight, higher amylose content, lower crystallinity and smaller crystal grain size, RS/MFC composite films exhibited significantly improved mechanical properties. The novel strategy used in this study will be helpful in preparing regenerated starch materials with excellent mechanical properties and biodegradability as alternatives to petrochemical plastics for the development of sustainable materials.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19721, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611259

RESUMO

Acinetobacter has been frequently detected in backwater areas of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) region. We here employed Caenorhabditis elegans to perform biosafety assessment of Acinetobacter strains isolated from backwater area in the TGR region. Among 21 isolates and 5 reference strains of Acinetobacter, exposure to Acinetobacter strains of AC1, AC15, AC18, AC21, A. baumannii ATCC 19606T, A. junii NH88-14, and A. lwoffii DSM 2403T resulted in significant decrease in locomotion behavior and reduction in lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. In nematodes, exposure to Acinetobacter strains of AC1, AC15, AC18, AC21, A. baumannii, A. junii and A. lwoffii also resulted in significant reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Moreover, exposure to Acinetobacter isolates of AC1, AC15, AC18, and AC21 led to significant increase in expressions of both SOD-3::GFP and some antimicrobial genes (lys-1, spp-12, lys-7, dod-6, spp-1, dod-22, lys-8, and/or F55G11.4) in nematodes. The Acinetobacter isolates of AC1, AC15, AC18, and AC21 had different morphological, biochemical, phylogenetical, and virulence gene properties. Our results suggested that exposure risk of some Acinetobacter strains isolated from the TGR region exists for environmental organisms and human health. In addition, C. elegans is useful to assess biosafety of Acinetobacter isolates from the environment.

4.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(25): 7365-7371, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the development of the economy and improvements in living standards, the incidences of diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetic retinopathy (DR), which is a complication of DM, are on the rise. AIM: To analyze early DR in patients with macular zone changes in biological images using optical coherence tomography angiography. METHODS: A prospective case study was performed on 59 participants: 35 healthy eyes (control group), 35 eyes with diabetes but no DR group (no DR group), and 35 eyes with mild DR (NPDR group). All quantitative comparisons of parameters, including the fovea vascularity area, circularity index, and vascular complexity parameters, were performed using a biological image analysis software. RESULTS: The foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, FAZ circularity index, number of branches in the area, and the total of the single branches' length in the area was 0.366 ± 0.031, 0.834 ± 0.037, 3241.8 ± 268.3, and 3.860 × 107 ± 0.194 × 107, and 0.421 ± 0.030, 0.739 ± 0.023, 2956.6 ± 476.4, and 3.177 × 107 ± 0.161 × 107 in the no DR group and the NPDR group, respectively, which were significantly different from the corresponding parameters of the control group (P < 0.05). Moreover, there were significant differences between these two groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study shows that early microcirculation changes in the macular area of the retina is associated with disease progression. Early changes in DR can be analyzed using optical coherence tomography angiography.

5.
Front Psychol ; 12: 713497, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34659026

RESUMO

Flipped teaching is one of the most popular innovative teaching methods which has attracted a lot of attention and lead to amount of discussion in recent years. Many educators have generally encountered same doubt when implementing flipped education: Is this kind of teaching mode only applicable to students with high learning achievements? In addition, collaborative learning is often applied in flip teaching and it is also an issue worth to explore. In this study, both quantitative and qualitative studies were conducted to examine the potential factors in affecting the learners' satisfaction in flipped education. The survey results from 171 participants showed that collaborative learning and need for cognition are significant predictors of learning satisfaction. In addition, a deeper look at the collaborative learning process was further examined by conducting deep interview. A total of 12 students from 6 different flipped-teaching courses participated the interview. The findings suggested that arranging some activities to encourage students to know each other before class that helps students find corresponding group and facilitates their expertise for collaborative learning. The mechanism significantly influenced team members' engagement, discussion atmosphere, and efficiency. In addition, when learning tasks diversity, it will also enhance students' innovative ability, empathy, and even promote mutual learning.

6.
Cancer Cell Int ; 21(1): 542, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemoresistance is a critical risk problem for breast cancer treatment. However, mechanisms by which chemoresistance arises remains to be elucidated. The expression of T-box transcription factor 15 (TBX-15) was found downregulated in some cancer tissues. However, role and mechanism of TBX15 in breast cancer chemoresistance is unknown. Here we aimed to identify the effects and mechanisms of TBX15 in doxorubicin resistance in breast cancer. METHODS: As measures of Drug sensitivity analysis, MTT and IC50 assays were used in DOX-resistant breast cancer cells. ECAR and OCR assays were used to analyze the glycolysis level, while Immunoblotting and Immunofluorescence assays were used to analyze the autophagy levels in vitro. By using online prediction software, luciferase reporter assays, co-Immunoprecipitation, Western blotting analysis and experimental animals models, we further elucidated the mechanisms. RESULTS: We found TBX15 expression levels were decreased in Doxorubicin (DOX)-resistant breast cancer cells. Overexpression of TBX15 reversed the DOX resistance by inducing microRNA-152 (miR-152) expression. We found that KIF2C levels were highly expressed in DOX-resistant breast cancer tissues and cells, and KIF2C was a potential target of miR-152. TBX15 and miR-152 overexpression suppressed autophagy and glycolysis in breast cancer cells, while KIF2C overexpression reversed the process. Overexpression of KIF2C increased DOX resistance in cancer cells. Furthermore, KIF2C directly binds with PKM2 for inducing the DOX resistance. KIF2C can prevent the ubiquitination of PKM2 and increase its protein stability. In addition, we further identified that Domain-2 of KIF2C played a major role in the binding with PKM2 and preventing PKM2 ubiquitination, which enhanced DOX resistance by promoting autophagy and glycolysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our data identify a new mechanism by which TBX15 abolishes DOX chemoresistance in breast cancer, and suggest that TBX15/miR-152/KIF2C axis is a novel signaling pathway for mediating DOX resistance in breast cancer through regulating PKM2 ubiquitination and decreasing PKM2 stability. This finding suggests new therapeutic target and/or novel strategy development for cancer treatment to overcome drug resistance in the future.

7.
Cell Death Discov ; 7(1): 265, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580286

RESUMO

Clinical trials repurposing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) agonists as anticancer agents have exhibited lackluster efficacy across a variety of tumor types. Here, we report that increased PPARG expression is associated with a better prognosis but is anticorrelated with histone deacetylase (HDAC) 1 and 2 expressions. We show that HDAC overexpression blunts anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic responses to PPARγ agonists via transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms, however, these can be neutralized with clinically approved and experimental HDAC inhibitors. Supporting this notion, concomitant treatment with HDAC inhibitors was required to license the tumor-suppressive effects of PPARγ agonists in triple-negative and endocrine-refractory breast cancer cells, and combination therapy also restrained angiogenesis in a tube formation assay. This combination was also synergistic in estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα)-positive cells because HDAC blockade abrogated ERα interference with PPARγ-regulated transcription. Following a pharmacokinetics optimization study, the combination of rosiglitazone and a potent pan-HDAC inhibitor, LBH589, stalled disease progression in a mouse model of triple-negative breast cancer greater than either of the monotherapies, while exhibiting a favorable safety profile. Our findings account for historical observations of de-novo resistance to PPARγ agonist monotherapy and propound a therapeutically cogent intervention against two aggressive breast cancer subtypes.

9.
Arch Med Sci ; 17(5): 1145-1157, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522243

RESUMO

Introduction: Our previous study showed that naringin (NRG) protects cardiomyocytes against high glucose (HG)-induced injuries by inhibiting p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Leptin induces hypertrophy in rat cardiomyocytes via p38/MAPK activation. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that leptin-Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3), which are responsible for leptin's functions, are involved in HG-induced injuries and cardioprotective effects of NRG in cardiomyocytes. Material and methods: H9c2 cells were exposed to HG for 24 h to establish a cardiomyocyte injury model. Cells were pretreated with NRG and other drugs before exposure to HG. Protein expression was measured by western blot analysis. Cell viability was detected by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. Apoptotic cells were assessed by Hoechst 33258 staining assay. Intracellular reactive oxygen species levels were determined by dichlorofluorescein diacetate staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential was evaluated using JC-1. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to determine the inflammatory cytokines. Results: NRG significantly attenuated HG-induced increases in leptin and Ob-R expression. Pretreatment with either a leptin antagonist (LA) or NRG markedly ameliorated HG-induced elevation of phosphorylated (p)-JAK2 and p-STAT3, respectively. Pretreatment with NRG, LA, Ob-R antagonist, or AG490 clearly alleviated HG-induced injuries and inflammation. Conclusions: This study provides new evidence of the NRG protective effects of H9c2 cells against HG-induced injuries possibly via modulation of the leptin-JAK2/STAT3 pathway.

10.
Stem Cells Int ; 2021: 8859902, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349804

RESUMO

Background: Pericytes play an important role in forming functional blood vessels and establishing stable and effective microcirculation, which is crucial for vascular tissue engineering. The slow ex vivo expansion rate, limited proliferative capacity, and variability of tissue-specific phenotypes would hinder experimental studies and clinical translation of primary pericytes. In this study, the angiogenic and pericyte functions of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) and postnatal human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were investigated. Methods: Osteogenic and adipogenic induction assays were performed to evaluate the mesenchymal potential of SHEDs, DPSCs, and pericytes. An in vitro Matrigel angiogenesis assay was conducted to reveal the ability of SHEDs, DPSCs, and pericytes to stabilize vascular-like structures. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was performed to evaluate mRNA expression. Flow cytometry, western blotting, and immunostaining were used to assess the protein expression. Wound healing and transwell assays were performed to evaluate the migration ability of SHEDs, DPSCs, and pericytes. Results: The osteogenic and adipogenic induction assays showed that SHEDs, DPSCs, and pericytes exhibited similar stem cell characteristics. The mRNA expression levels of PDGFR-ß, α-SMA, NG2, and DEMSIN in SHEDs and DPSCs cultured in EC medium were significantly higher than those in the control groups on day 7 (P < 0.05), but significantly higher than those in the pericytes group on day 14 (P < 0.05). Flow cytometry showed that high proportions of SHEDs and DPSCs were positive for various pericyte markers on day 7. The DPSCs, SHEDs, and pericytes displayed strong migration ability; however, there was no significant difference among the groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The SHEDs and DPSCs display a profile similar to that of pericytes. Our study lays a solid theoretical foundation for the clinical use of dental pulp stem cells as a potential candidate to replace pericytes.

11.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(27): 4298-4321, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366606

RESUMO

Despite rapid advances in modern medical technology and significant improvements in survival rates of many cancers, pancreatic cancer is still a highly lethal gastrointestinal cancer with a low 5-year survival rate and difficulty in early detection. At present, the incidence and mortality of pancreatic cancer are increasing year by year worldwide, no matter in the United States, Europe, Japan, or China. Globally, the incidence of pancreatic cancer is projected to increase to 18.6 per 100000 in 2050, with the average annual growth of 1.1%, meaning that pancreatic cancer will pose a significant public health burden. Due to the special anatomical location of the pancreas, the development of pancreatic cancer is usually diagnosed at a late stage with obvious clinical symptoms. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the risk factors for pancreatic cancer is of great clinical significance for effective prevention of pancreatic cancer. In this paper, the epidemiological characteristics, developmental trends, and risk factors of pancreatic cancer are reviewed and analyzed in detail.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gastrointestinais , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Humanos , Incidência , Pâncreas , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
13.
Gut ; 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253573

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumour microenvironment (TME) is highly complex with diverse cellular components organising into various functional units, cellular neighbourhoods (CNs). And we wanted to define CN of HCC while preserving the TME architecture, based on which, potential targets for novel immunotherapy could be identified. DESIGN: A highly multiplexed imaging mass cytometry (IMC) panel was designed to simultaneously quantify 36 biomarkers of tissues from 134 patients with HCC and 7 healthy donors to generate 562 highly multiplexed histology images at single-cell resolution. Different function units were defined by topological analysis of TME. CN relevant to the patients' prognosis was identified as specific target for HCC therapy. Transgenic mouse models were used to validate the novel immunotherapy target for HCC. RESULTS: Three major types of intratumour areas with distinct distribution patterns of tumorous, stromal and immune cells were identified. 22 cellular metaclusters and 16 CN were defined. CN composed of various types of cells formed regional function units and the regional immunity was regulated reversely by resident Kupffer cells and infiltrating macrophages with protumour and antitumour function, respectively. Depletion of Kupffer cells in mouse liver largely enhances the T cell response, reduces liver tumour growth and sensitises the tumour response to antiprogrammed cell death protein-1 treatment. CONCLUSION: Our findings reveal for the first time the various topological function units of HCC TME, which also presents the largest depository of pathological landscape for HCC. This work highlights the potential of Kupffer cell-specific targeting rather than overall myeloid cell blocking as a novel immunotherapy for HCC treatment.

14.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 166: 818-826, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225006

RESUMO

Low temperature is a major environmental factor that severely impairs plant growth and productivity. Although the response to low temperature stress is well studied, the mechanisms of chilling tolerance are still not well understood. Here, we describe experiments that aimed to determine whether relative humidity (RH) contribute to chilling tolerance by regulating leaf water potential in watermelon seedlings. Plants exposed to chilling stress (10 °C/5 °C day/night) were severely wilted, and the water potential in their leaves was decreased. We found that maintaining high RH when plants were subjected to chilling-stress conditions attenuated the reduction in leaf water potential, reduced electrolyte leakage, improved the stability of photosynthesis, and alleviated chilling damage. Pretreatment with ABA increased chilling tolerance in low RH conditions but became ineffective in high RH conditions. Analysis of endogenous ABA content indicated that water potential mediated chilling tolerance was independent of ABA. Analysis of stomatal resistance indicated that the maintenance of water potential was related to stomatal resistance but that the balance between water absorption and loss is more important. In conclusion, high RH maintained leaf water potential and cell turgor, maintained better cell morphology, improved stomatal conductance and thus, ultimately improved the chilling tolerance of watermelon seedlings.


Assuntos
Citrullus , Plântula , Umidade , Folhas de Planta , Água
15.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(14): 18839-18851, 2021 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289452

RESUMO

Studies aiming to identify the significance of the carotid artery perivascular fat density are limited. The present study investigated the distribution pattern of pericarotid fat and its association with imaging markers of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). In total, 572 subjects who underwent both neck computed tomography angiography and cranial magnetic resonance imaging were analyzed. The pericarotid fat density near the origin of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and imaging markers of CSVD, such as lacunes, white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) and dilated perivascular spaces (PVSs), were assessed. We found that an increased pericarotid fat density was associated with the presence of lacunes and a higher WMH grade in all subjects, but in the patients with acute ischemic stroke, there was a difference only among the WMH grades. There was no significant difference in the pericarotid fat density in different grades of PVSs. The patients with acute ischemic stroke had a significantly higher mean pericarotid fat density than those without stroke. In conclusion, our study provides evidence suggesting that an increased pericarotid fat density is associated with the presence and degree of WMHs and lacunes. Our findings suggested that features that appear to extend beyond the vessel lumen of the ICA may be linked to CSVD.

16.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(7)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281940

RESUMO

The formation of a light scattering interlenticular membrane (ILM) is a known complication of polypseudophakia and has been particularly noted with the use of dual intracapsular Alcon AcrylSof intraocular lenses (IOLs). The treatment options for this condition have largely been restricted to either Nd:YAG laser membranotomy or explantation of the dual IOL complex. In this case report, we describe an unusual case of ILM in a 76-year-old woman whose ILM had formed between her primary intracapsular IOL and her piggyback sulcal IOL. Furthermore, we describe vitreoretinal interlenticular membranectomy (VIM), a novel technique involving a translimbal anterior interlenticular membranectomy using vitreoretinal instrumentation. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. Postoperative best-corrected visual acuity was 6/4, maintained for 3 years of follow-up. VIM is offered as a management option for surgeons to address ILM when Nd:YAG laser therapy fails, and the IOLs cannot be safely explanted.


Assuntos
Catarata , Lentes Intraoculares , Idoso , Remoção de Dispositivo , Feminino , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Período Pós-Operatório
17.
Bioorg Chem ; 115: 105172, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303898

RESUMO

Two series of tetrahydrocarbazole derivatives have been designed and synthesized based on ZG02, a promising candidate developed in our previous studies. The newly prepared compounds were screened for glucose consumption activity in HepG2 cell lines. Aza-tetrahydrocarbazole compound 12b showed the most potent hypoglycemic activity with a 45% increase in glucose consumption when compared to the solvent control, which had approximately 1.2-fold higher activity than the positive control compounds (metformin and ZG02). An investigation of the potential mechanism indicated that 12b may exhibit hypoglycemic activity via activation of the AMPK pathway. Metabolic stability assays revealed that 12b showed good stability profiles in both artificial gastrointestinal fluids and blood plasma from SD rats. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed and the results further confirmed that 12b was a potent hypoglycemic agent.

18.
ChemSusChem ; 14(18): 3665-3692, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328278

RESUMO

Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are attracting a tremendous attention from the scientific community due to their excellent power conversion efficiency, low cost, and great promise for the future of solar energy. The best PSCs have already achieved a certified power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 25.5 % after an unprecedented rapid performance rise. However, high requirements with respect to large area, high-efficiency devices, and stability are still the challenges. Major efforts, especially for achieving a high degree of chemical control, have been made to reach these targets. The use of halide additives has played a critical role in improving the efficiency and stability. The present paper reviews the important breakthroughs in PSC technologies made by using halide additives, especially chloride, and pseudo-halide additives for the preparation of the perovskite layers, other layers, and interfaces of the devices. These additives help perovskite (PVK) crystallization and layer morphology control, grain boundary reduction, bulk and interface defects passivation, and so on. Normally, these halide additives play different roles depending on their categories and their location. Herein, recent progresses made due to additives employment in every possible layer of PSCs are reviewed, with focus on chloride, other halides, and pseudo-halides as additives in PVK films, halide additives in carrier transport layers, and at PVK-contact interfaces. Finally, an outlook of engineering of these additives in PSC progress is given.

19.
Hum Immunol ; 82(9): 625-633, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134908

RESUMO

CD3+CD56+NKT-like cells are a rare population of lymphocytes that serve important roles in various types of immune-related diseases, and particularly in cancer. The complement system regulates inflammatory and immune responses by interacting with complement receptors expressed on a range of immune cells. However, whether CD3+CD56+NKT-like cells are regulated by the complement system has still not been definitively determined. In the present study, the expression of complement receptors and regulators in gated CD3+CD56+NKT-like cells isolated from human peripheral blood was assessed using PCR and flow cytometry. The results showed that human CD3+CD56+NKT-like cells expressed a range of complement receptors and regulators, such as CR3, C3aR, C5aR, C5L2, CD46 and CD55. Furthermore, the presence of complement component 3 (C3), a key component in complement activation in culture supernatant, mitigated the activity, IFN-γ production and killing function of CD3+CD56+NKT-like cells. The present study provides evidences supporting the relationship between complement activation and functional modulation of CD3+CD56+NKT-like cells, expanding our knowledge of the complement regulatory network, and also highlighting a potential target for treatment of numerous immune-related diseases, particularly NKT cell-based tumor adoptive immunotherapy.

20.
J Org Chem ; 86(13): 8620-8629, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097828

RESUMO

An efficient aerobic iron-catalyzed annulation of unsaturated carboxylic acids with disulfides has been developed. This procedure proceeds using FeCl3 as the catalyst and KI as an iodine source under an air atmosphere, which provides practical access to a wide range of substituted γ-lactone derivatives. The disclosed method is quite simple, highly atom-economic, environmentally friendly, and tolerates a broad substrate scope.


Assuntos
Ferro , Lactonas , Ácidos Carboxílicos , Catálise , Dissulfetos
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