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1.
Toxicol In Vitro ; : 104888, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416136

RESUMO

Compound DCMQA (4, 5-O-dicaffeoyl-1-O-[4-malic acid methyl ester]-quinic acid) is a natural caffeoylquinic acid derivative isolated from Arctium lappa L. roots. Caffeoylquinic acid derivatives have been reported to possess neuroprotective effects through inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis in vitro. However, whether DCMQA exerts protective effects on N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-induced neurotoxicity and the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. In this study, the results indicated that pretreatment of DCMQA prevented the loss of cell viability and attenuated the LDH leakage in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to NMDA. Hoechst 33342 staining and Annexin V-PI double staining illustrated that DCMQA suppressed NMDA-induced morphological damage and neuronal apoptosis. Moreover, DCMQA inhibited NMDA-mediated Ca2+ influx, excessive intracellular ROS generation and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Western blot analysis showed that DCMQA attenuated the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, release of cytochrome c as well as expression of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Besides, DCMQA down-regulated GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and up-regulated GluN2A-containing NMDARs, promoted the disruption of nNOS and PSD95 as well as activation of CaMK II-α. Furthermore, computational docking study indicated that DCMQA possessed a good affinity for NMDARs. These results indicated that DCMQA protects SH-SY5Y cells against NMDA-induced neuronal damage. In addition, the underlying mechanisms of DCMQA-mediated neuroprotection are associated with modulating NMDARs and disruption of nNOS-PSD95 as well as the activation of CaMK II-α.

2.
Heart ; 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381650

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Whether lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is a predictor for recurrent cardiovascular events (RCVEs) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been established. This study, hence, aimed to examine the potential impact of Lp(a) on RCVEs in a real-world, large cohort of patients with the first cardiovascular event (CVE). METHODS: In this multicentre, prospective study, 7562 patients with angiography-diagnosed CAD who had experienced a first CVE were consecutively enrolled. Lp(a) concentrations of all subjects were measured at admission and the participants were categorised according to Lp(a) tertiles. All patients were followed-up for the occurrence of RCVEs including cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and stroke. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 61.45±19.57 months, 680 (9.0%) RCVEs occurred. The results showed that events group had significantly higher Lp(a) levels than non-events group (20.58 vs 14.95 mg/dL, p<0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that Lp(a) tertile 2 (p=0.001) and tertile 3 (p<0.001) groups had significantly lower cumulative event-free survival rates compared with tertile 1 group. Moreover, multivariate Cox regression analysis further revealed that Lp(a) was independently associated with RCVEs risk (HR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.44 to 2.80, p<0.001). Moreover, adding Lp(a) to the SMART risk score model led to a slight but significant improvement in C-statistic (∆C-statistic: 0.018 (95% CI: 0.011 to 0.034), p=0.002), net reclassification (6.8%, 95% CI: 0.5% to 10.9%, p=0.040) and integrated discrimination (0.3%, 95% CI: 0.1% to 0.7%, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Circulating Lp(a) concentration was indeed a useful predictor for the risk of RCVEs in real-world treated patients with CAD, providing additional information concerning the future clinical application of Lp(a).

3.
Hepatology ; 2020 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359177

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new infectious disease. To reveal the hepatic injury related to this disease and its clinical significance, we conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study that included 5,771 adult patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in Hubei Province. We reported the distributional and temporal patterns of liver injury indicators in these patients and determined their associated factors and death risk. Longitudinal liver function tests were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with the risk factors and death. Liver injury dynamic patterns differed in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin (TBIL). AST elevated first, followed by ALT, in severe patients. ALP modestly increased during hospitalization and largely remained in the normal range. The fluctuation in TBIL levels was mild in the non-severe and the severe group. AST abnormality was associated with the highest mortality risk compared to other indicators of liver injury during hospitalization. Common factors associated with elevated liver injury indicators were lymphocyte count decrease, neutrophil count increase, and male gender. CONCLUSION: The dynamic patterns of liver injury indicators and their potential risk factors may provide an important explanation for the COVID-19-associated liver injury. Because elevated liver injury indicators, particularly AST, are strongly associated with the mortality risk, our study indicates that these parameters should be monitored during hospitalization.

4.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 576: 264-279, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434059

RESUMO

A novel visible-light-driven 2D/1D MgIn2S4/CdS catalyst with heterostructure was fabricated for sewage treatment and energy conversion. In this study, MIS/CdS-0.3 heterostructure catalyst displayed the remarkable photocatalytic performance, which could reduce about 100% of Cr(VI) within 30 min and decompose approximately 95.98% of oxytetracycline (OTC) after 60 min. Meanwhile, the degradation details and possible decomposition pathways for OTC solution were further verified by 3D EEM and LC-MS. Moreover, the as-obtained 2D/1D MgIn2S4/CdS hybrid composites signally promoted the hydrogen evolved in the light illumination at 420 nm. Meanwhile, some consequences based on various characterization technologies confirmed that the significant photo-induced charge separation rate is a crucial factor in the enhancement of photocatalytic capacity. The intimate contact and the formation of heterostructure between 2D MgIn2S4 nanosheets and 1D CdS nanorods with matched band gaps were beneficial for charge migration. Moreover, the band structures and the density of states (DOS) of MgIn2S4 and CdS were obtained based on density functional theory (DFT). In addition, the results of cycling experiments, XRD spectra and PL showed that the composition and performance of the composite are well-maintained, suggesting the great recyclability and stability. This work indicated that developing a 2D/1D heterostructure photocatalyst offers a cracking approach to enhance the photocatalytic property of semiconductor-based catalysts for pollutant removal and the generation of clean energy.

5.
Steroids ; : 108655, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439406

RESUMO

The BF3·Et2O-catalysed acetolysis of steroid sapogenins diosgenin, sarsasapogenin and tigogenin in dichloromethane as the solvent instead of acetic anhydride afforded (20S)- and (20R)-22,26-epoxycholestanes (compounds 1 and 2). 22S-23-Acetylsapogenins (compounds 4) were synthesized stereospecifically from 20R-22,26-epoxycholestanes (compounds 2) in good yield. The rearrangement of 22S-23-acetylsapogenins (compounds 4) afforded novel disubstituted dihydropyran furostanol frameworks. Exhaustive NMR characterization of the obtained compounds is provided. Additionally, the structures of the critical compounds (6a and 7a) were unequivocallyconfirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies.

6.
Autophagy ; : 1-22, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32432943

RESUMO

SCAP (SREBF chaperone) regulates SREBFs (sterol regulatory element binding transcription factors) processing and stability, and, thus, becomes an emerging drug target to treat dyslipidemia and fatty liver disease. However, the current known SCAP inhibitors, such as oxysterols, induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and NR1H3/LXRα (nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group H member 3)-SREBF1/SREBP-1 c-mediated hepatic steatosis, which severely limited the clinical application of this inhibitor. In this study, we identified a small molecule, lycorine, which binds to SCAP, which suppressed the SREBF pathway without inducing ER stress or activating NR1H3. Mechanistically, lycorine promotes SCAP lysosomal degradation in a macroautophagy/autophagy-independent pathway, a mechanism completely distinct from current SCAP inhibitors. Furthermore, we determined that SQSTM1 captured SCAP after its exit from the ER. The interaction of SCAP and SQSTM1 requires the WD40 domain of SCAP and the TB domain of SQSTM1. Interestingly, lycorine triggers the lysosome translocation of SCAP independent of autophagy. We termed this novel protein degradation pathway as the SQSTM1-mediated autophagy-independent lysosomal degradation (SMAILD) pathway. In vivo, lycorine ameliorates high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance in mice. Our study demonstrated that the inhibition of SCAP through the SMAILD pathway could be employed as a useful therapeutic strategy for treating metabolic diseases. ABBREVIATION: 25-OHD: 25-hydroxyvitamin D; 3-MA: 3-methyladenine; ABCG5: ATP binding cassette subfamily G member 5; ABCG8: ATP binding cassette subfamily G member 8; ACACA: acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha; AEBSF: 4-(2-aminoethyl) benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride; AHI: anhydroicaritin; AKT/protein kinase B: AKT serine/threonine kinase; APOE: apolipoprotein E; ATF6: activating transcription factor 6; ATG: autophagy-related; BAT: brown adipose tissue; CD274/PD-L1: CD274 molecule; CETSA: cellular thermal shift assay; CMA: chaperone-mediated autophagy; COPII: cytoplasmic coat protein complex-II; CQ: chloroquine; DDIT3/CHOP: DNA damage inducible transcript 3; DNL: de novo lipogenesis; EE: energy expenditure; EGFR: epithelial growth factor receptor; eMI: endosomal microautophagy; ERN1/IRE1α: endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1; FADS2: fatty acid desaturase 2; FASN: fatty acid synthase; GOT1/AST: glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 1; GPT/ALT: glutamic-pyruvate transaminase; HMGCR: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase; HMGCS1: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 1; HSP90B1/GRP94: heat shock protein 90 beta family member 1; HSPA5/GRP78: heat hock protein family A (Hsp70) member 5; HSPA8/HSC70: heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 8; INSIG1: insulin induced gene 1; LAMP2A: lysosomal associated membrane protein 2A; LDLR: low density lipoprotein receptor; LyTACs: lysosome targeting chimeras; MAP1LC3B/LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MBTPS1: membrane bound transcription factor peptidase, site 1; MEF: mouse embryonic fibroblast; MST: microscale thermophoresis; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; MVK: mevalonate kinase; PROTAC: proteolysis targeting chimera; RQ: respiratory quotient; SCAP: SREBF chaperone; SCD1: stearoyl-coenzemy A desaturase 1; SMAILD: sequestosome 1 mediated autophagy-independent lysosomal degradation; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; SREBF: sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor; TNFRSF10B/DR5: TNF receptor superfamily member 10b; TRAF6: TNF receptor associated factor 6; UPR: unfolded protein response; WAT: white adipose tissue; XBP1: X-box binding protein 1.

7.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 572: 306-317, 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251909

RESUMO

Solar-driven reduction of CO2 and H2O into fuels is a promising approach for addressing global warming and energy crisis. Herein, Cu+ doped W18O49 nanowires were prepared by a facile solvothermal method and applied in photocatalytic reduction of CO2. The composition and structure of pristine and Cu+ doped W18O49 samples have been characterized. It was found that the morphology of W18O49 nanowires was changed with increasing amounts of dopant. The photocatalytic CO2 reduction activity of W18O49 nanowires and the Cu+ doped W18O49 samples were evaluated using H2O as reducing agent. The strategy of Cu+ doping not only could affect the band edge position and the surface wettability, but also influenced separation of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs. It was found that Cu+ doping could introduce oxygen vacancy and change the conduction edge to a more negative position for W18O49 nanowires, which might be beneficial for the activation of CO2 and promote the following CO2 reduction. Furthermore, the higher separation efficiency of photogenerated electron-hole pairs with Cu+ doping could contribute to the CO2 photoreduction enhancement. In addition, the Cu+ doped W18O49 nanowires (Cu-W18O49-0.005) presented a relatively poor hydrophilic property, which might be beneficial for the adsorption of CO2 molecules and contribute to its superior photocatalytic CO2 reduction capability.

8.
Cell Commun Signal ; 18(1): 58, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32264893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Magnolia extract (ME) is known to inhibit cancer growth and metastasis in several cell types in vitro and in animal models. However, there is no detailed study on the preventive efficacy of ME for oral cancer, and the key components in ME and their exact mechanisms of action are not clear. The overall goal of this study is to characterize ME preclinically as a potent oral cancer chemopreventive agent and to determine the key components and their molecular mechanism(s) that underlie its chemopreventive efficacy. METHODS: The antitumor efficacy of ME in oral cancer was investigated in a 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO)-induced mouse model and in two oral cancer orthotopic models. The effects of ME on mitochondrial electron transport chain activity and ROS production in mouse oral tumors was also investigated. RESULTS: ME did not cause detectable side effects indicating that it is a promising and safe chemopreventive agent for oral cancer. Three major key active compounds in ME (honokiol, magnolol and 4-O-methylhonokiol) contribute to its chemopreventive effects. ME inhibits mitochondrial respiration at complex I of the electron transport chain, oxidizes peroxiredoxins, activates AMPK, and inhibits STAT3 phosphorylation, resulting in inhibition of the growth and proliferation of oral cancer cells. CONCLUSION: Our data using highly relevant preclinical oral cancer models, which share histopathological features seen in human oral carcinogenesis, suggest a novel signaling and regulatory role for mitochondria-generated superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in suppressing oral cancer cell proliferation, progression, and metastasis. Video abstract.

9.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 45, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevation in small dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL) is common in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), which has already been reported to be associated with incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic value of plasma sdLDL level in patients with stable CAD and DM. METHODS: A total of 4148 consecutive patients with stable CAD were prospectively enrolled into the study and followed up for major cardiovascular events (MACEs) up to 8.5 years. Plasma sdLDL level was measured in each patient by a direct method using automated chemistry analyzer. The patients were subsequently divided into four groups by the quartiles of sdLDL and the association of sdLDL level with MACEs in different status of glucose metabolism [DM, Pre-DM, normal glycaemia regulation (NGR)] was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 464 MACEs were documented. Both Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression analysis indicated that the patients in quartile 4 but not quartile 2 or 3 of sdLDL level had significantly higher rate of MACEs than that in lowest quartile. When the prognostic value of high sdLDL was assessed in different glucose metabolism status, the results showed that the high sdLDL plus DM was associated with worse outcome after adjustment of confounding risk factors (hazard ratio: 1.83, 95% confident interval: 1.24-2.70, p < 0.05). However, no significant association was observed for high sdLDL plus Pre-DM or NGR. CONCLUSIONS: The present study firstly indicated that elevated levels of plasma sdLDL were associated with increased risk of MACEs among DM patients with proven CAD, suggesting that sdLDL may be useful for CAD risk stratification in DM.

10.
Org Lett ; 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233500

RESUMO

A copper-catalyzed three-component reaction of terminal alkynes, TsN3, and tertiary allylic amines is developed toward the one-pot synthesis of α-allylic amidines. The product was synthesized on gram scale under 1 mol % of catalyst loading. Transformations of products into alkenyl amine and other nitrogen-containing compounds are demonstrated without any loss of stereochemical information.

11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6946, 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332828

RESUMO

Coal is a porous medium. Oxygen molecules in the air penetrate through the pores of coal and are adsorbed on the coal surface. Low-temperature oxidation of coal then occurs, by which coal spontaneous combustion is promoted. Given this process, the authors analysed the physisorption characteristics of O2 in pulverized coal from the perspective of nanopore structure. In this study, five different kinds of coal samples (two lignites, one bituminous coal, and two anthracites) were selected, and the surface morphology, pore structure parameters and oxygen physisorption capacity of the pulverized coals were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and oxygen adsorption with chromatography (OAC), respectively. The experimental results of SEM and MIP show that with the development of coal, the surface folds increase, and the pores increase in number and shrink, which leads to the nanopores of anthracite and bituminous coal being smaller and more complex than those of lignite. The experimental results of OAC show that adsorbed oxygen is physisorbed by pulverized coal in the order lignite > bituminous coal > anthracite. Analysis of the oxygen desorption curves shows that the oxygen desorption rates of the anthracites and bituminous coal are slower than those of the lignites. The results show that the amount of oxygen physisorbed by pulverized coal is proportional to the fractal dimension of the coal pores, proportional to the pore volume of the nanoscale pores, and inversely proportional to the number of closed pores in the coal. Based on the results of the analyses mentioned above, it is important to analyse the process of coal-oxygen chemisorption and the mechanism for low-temperature oxidation of coal to prevent coal spontaneous combustion.

12.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 104(3): 831-837, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166787

RESUMO

The requirement of net protein (NP) and metabolizable protein (MP) by Dorper crossbred ewe lambs grown from 35 to 50 kg of body weight (BW) was assessed by comparative slaughter experiment. Thirty-five ewe lambs (33.5 ± 0.6 kg BW) of F1 crosses of Dorper × thin-tailed Han sheep were used: 7 lambs were slaughtered as reference animals at the start of the trial, and the remaining 28 lambs were randomly divided into 4 groups of 7 lambs each. Three of the 4 groups were fed a pelleted mixed diet (concentrate/roughage = 44:56, dry matter basis) for ad libitum intake or 65% or 45% of ad libitum intake, and they were all slaughtered when the lambs that were fed ad libitum reached 50 kg BW. The lambs from the fourth group were also fed ad libitum and slaughtered at 43 kg BW as the intermediate group. The intake of MP by the animals of these 4 groups was estimated, and their total body protein and protein retention were measured. The daily requirements of NP and MP for maintenance were 1.52 and 3.98 g/kg BW0.75 , respectively, with a partial efficiency of MP utilization for maintenance of 0.38. The MP requirement for growth ranged from 77.4 to 124.5 g/day for average daily gains from 100 to 250 g BW, and the partial efficiency of MP utilization for growth was 0.66. The Dorper crossbred ewe lambs required more MP for both maintenance and growth in comparison with the recommendations of the US nutritional system.

13.
Molecules ; 25(5)2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182779

RESUMO

Three new inositol angelate compounds (1-3) and two new tirucallane-type alkaloids (4 and 5) were isolated from the Amoora dasyclada, and their structures were established mainly by means of combination of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance and HR-ESI-MS. Based on cytotoxicity testing, compounds 4 and 5 exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell line HepG2 with IC50 value at 8.4 and 13.2 µM. In addition, compounds 4 and 5 also showed remarkable growth inhibitory activity to Artemia salina larvae.

14.
J Nat Prod ; 83(4): 1157-1166, 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193933

RESUMO

Eight new nitrogenated azaphilones (1-8) and two known compounds (chaetoviridin A and chaetoviridin E, 9, 10) were isolated from the culture of the deep-sea-derived fungus Chaetomium globosum MP4-S01-7. The absolute configurations of new compounds were elucidated by HSQC-HECADE NMR data, J-based configuration analysis, and modified Mosher's method and finally verified by comparison of recorded and computed NMR chemical shifts from quantum chemical calculations coupled with a statistical procedure (DP4+). All of the compounds were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicities against the gastric cancer cell lines MGC803 and AGS, and most of them showed significant inhibition on cancer cell viability at 10 µM. Among them, compounds 1, 2, and 5 exerted the most potent cytotoxic activities, with IC50 values less than 1 µM. Further studies showed that compound 2 inhibited cell cycle progression, and both compounds 1 and 2 induced apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner.

16.
Nanotechnology ; 31(29): 292003, 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217816

RESUMO

Since 2012, triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) has attracted significant interest from researchers in the field of energy conversion due to its unique output characteristics of high voltage, pulse and low current. In addition, recent advancements have demonstrated that photodetection platforms based on TENG exhibit great advantages such as being simple, low-cost, portable, with high sensitivity, high response, etc, and are environment friendly. Here, this article provides a comprehensive review on the state-of-the-art photodetectors based on TENG in recent years, and a detailed introduction to the structural design and potential mechanisms. It mainly focuses on self-powered photodetectors (including photodetectors as a load resistance of a TENG and photosensitive materials such as tribo-layer of TENG) and the modulation of photodetectors based on TENG (including utilizing the voltage of TENG as well as triboelectric microplasma). Finally, we put forward some perspectives and outlook, including structure engineering and mechanism guidance, for the future development of simple, high-performance and portable photodetectors based on TENG.

17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(3): e014581, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013705

RESUMO

Background Although several studies have indicated that lipoprotein(a) is a useful prognostic predictor for patients following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), previous observations have somewhat been limited by either small sample size or short-term follow-up. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of lipoprotein(a) on long-term outcomes in a large cohort of stable coronary artery disease patients after PCI. Methods and Results In this multicenter and prospective study, we consecutively enrolled 4078 stable coronary artery disease patients undergoing PCI from March 2011 to March 2016. They were categorized according to both the median of lipoprotein(a) levels and lipoprotein(a) values of <15 (low), 15 to 30 (medium), and ≥30 mg/dL (high). All patients were followed up for occurrence of cardiovascular events, including cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and stroke. During an average of 4.9 years of follow-up, 315 (7.7%) cardiovascular events occurred. The events group had significantly higher lipoprotein(a) levels than the nonevents group. Compared with the low lipoprotein(a) group, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the high lipoprotein(a) group had a significantly lower cumulative event-free survival rate, and multivariate Cox regression analysis further revealed that the high lipoprotein(a) group had significantly increased cardiovascular events risk. Moreover, adding continuous or categorical lipoprotein(a) to the Cox model led to a significant improvement in C-statistic, net reclassification, and integrated discrimination. Conclusions With a large sample size and long-term follow-up, our data confirmed that high lipoprotein(a) levels could be associated with a poor prognosis after PCI in stable coronary artery disease patients, suggesting that lipoprotein(a) measurements may be useful for patient risk stratification before selective PCI.

18.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060099

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our primary purpose is to explore safety and efficacy of high-dose icotinib in comparison with routine-dose icotinib in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring 21-L858R mutation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with treatment-naïve, EGFR-mutant (21-L858R or exon 19 deletion at 2:1) NSCLC were enrolled. Patients with 21-L858R mutation were randomized to receive routine-dose icotinib (125 mg, thrice daily; L858R-RD) or high-dose icotinib (250 mg, thrice daily; L858R-HD), whereas patients with exon 19 deletion received only routine-dose icotinib (19-Del-RD) until progression, death, or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was median progression-free survival (mPFS), assessed by an independent review committee. RESULTS: From May 2015 to November 2017, 253 patients (86 in L858R-RD; 90 in L858R-HD; and 77 in 19-Del-RD) were enrolled. The mPFS in L858R-HD group was similar to that in 19-Del-RD group (12.9 months and 12.5 months, respectively) and was significantly longer than that in L858R-RD group [12.9 months vs. 9.2 months, hazard ratio (HR): 0.75; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.53-1.05]. A longer but statistically nonsignificant mPFS was observed between 19-Del-RD and L858R-RD groups (12.5 months vs. 9.2 months, HR: 0.80; 95% CI, 0.57-1.13). A higher objective response rate (ORR) was observed in L858R-HD group compared with L858R-RD group (73% vs. 48%), also between 19-Del-RD and L858R-RD groups (75% vs. 48%). Similar incidences of grade 3/4 toxicities were observed among the three treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: High-dose icotinib improved mPFS and ORR in patients with NSCLC harboring 21-L858R mutation with acceptable tolerability, which could be a new therapeutic option for this patient population.

19.
Onco Targets Ther ; 13: 1421-1429, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32110041

RESUMO

Objective: Oncolytic virotherapy is a promising alternative to conventional treatment, yet limited viral replication and immune-negative feedback are the major hurdles to effective viro-immunotherapy. Methods: In this study, we found that use of an adjuvant of embelin, a small molecular inhibitor of XIAP, increased the replication of oncolytic vaccinia virus (OVV) by mitigating antiviral innate immunity. Moreover, embelin suppresses constitutive STAT3 phosphorylation and mitigates OVV-induced activation of STAT3 in lymphoma. In the subcutaneous lymphoma model, embelin significantly enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of OVV and prolonged the survival. In addition, embelin significantly increased the OVV-induced infiltration of T cells and NK cells and decreased the number of OVV-induced myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the tumor microenvironment. Results: Our results explored the ability of OVV and embelin in combination to enhance lymphoma cell lysis, revealing a beneficial combinatorial effect wherein both lymphoma cell lysis and OVV replication were enhanced both in vitro and in an in vivo murine model system. Conclusion: Our findings indicate the utility of embelin as an adjuvant for oncolytic viro-immunotherapy.

20.
Z Gastroenterol ; 58(2): 137-145, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050284

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Rectal neuroendocrine tumors are rare with good prognosis. Several endoscopic methods such as endoscopic polypectomy, endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), and modified endoscopic mucosal resection (m-EMR) are used in the treatment of rectal neuroendocrine tumors. Although m-EMR is derived from traditional EMR, it has not been widely used in clinical practice. In this study, we compared the efficacy and safety of EMR and m-EMR in the treatment of rectal neuroendocrine tumors by performing a meta-analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE index up to the end of January 2017 for all published literature about EMR and m-EMR in the treatment of rectal neuroendocrine tumors. RESULTS: A total of 11 studies involving 811 patients were included. The pooled data suggested that there was a significantly higher rate of histologic complete resection and endoscopic complete resection among patients treated with m-EMR than those treated with EMR (histologic complete resection: OR = 0.23, 95 % CI = 0.10-0.51, p < 0.01; endoscopic complete resection: OR = 0.13, 95 % CI = 0.02-0.74, p = 0.02). The procedure time of EMR was longer than m-EMR (MD = 2.40, 95 % CI = 0.33-4.46, p = 0.02). There was a significantly higher rate of vertical margin involvement among patients treated with EMR than those treated with m-EMR; whereas, there was no significant difference of lateral margin involvement between the m-EMR and EMR groups (vertical margin involvement: OR = 5.00, 95 % CI = 2.67-9.33, p < 0.01; lateral margin involvement: OR = 1.44, 95 % CI = 0.48-4.37, p = 0.52). There was no significant difference in mean tumor size among patients treated with m-EMR versus those treated with EMR (MD = -0.30, 95 % CI = -0.75-0.14, p = 0.18); further, there was no significant difference in endoscopic mean sizes of the tumor and pathological mean sizes of the tumor between the m-EMR and EMR groups (endoscopic mean sizes of the tumor: MD = 0.20, 95 % CI = -0.44-0.84, p = 0.43; pathological mean sizes of the tumor: MD = 0.62, 95 % CI = -0.68-1.92, p = 0.05). No significant differences were detected among the treatment groups with regard to complications (bleeding: OR = 0.87, 95 % CI = 0.39-1.95, p = 0.73; complications (bleeding and perforation): OR = 0.87, 95 % CI = 0.40-1.88, p = 0.73). CONCLUSION: The efficacy of m-EMR are better than EMR among patients undergoing endoscopic treatment of rectal neuroendocrine tumors, and the safety of m-EMR is equivalent to EMR treatment.


Assuntos
Ressecção Endoscópica de Mucosa/métodos , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/efeitos adversos , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/cirurgia , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/cirurgia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
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