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1.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 6643586, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791044

RESUMO

Purpose: To precisely quantify split glomerular filtration rate by Tc-99m-DTPA renal dynamic imaging and plasma clearance in order to increase its consistency among doctors. Methods: Tc-99m-DTPA renal dynamic imaging was performed according to the conventional radionuclide renal dynamic imaging by five double-blinded doctors independently and automatically calculated split GFR, namely, gGFR. Moreover, the conventional radionuclide renal dynamic imaging was assessed to only outline the kidney, blank background, and automatically calculated split GFR, gGFR'. The total GFR value of patients, tGFR, was obtained by the double-plasma method. According to the formula, Precise GFR (pGFR) = gGFR'/(gGFR' + gGFR') × tGFR. The precise GFR value of the divided kidney, pGFR, was calculated. The Kendall's W test was used to compare the consistency of gGFR and pGFR drawn by five physicians. Results: According to Kendall's W consistency test, Kendall's coefficient of concordance was 0.834, p = 0.0001 using conventional method. The same five doctors used blank background again and the same standard Gates method to draw the kidneys, which automatically calculated gGFR'. Using input formula, the pGFR was calculated and Kendall's W consistency test (Kendall's coefficient of concordance = 0.956, p = 0.0001). Conclusion: The combination of Tc-99m-DTPA renal dynamic imaging combined with the double-plasma method could achieve accurate split GFR, and because of the omission of influence factors, the consistency of pGFR obtained by different doctors using this method was significantly higher than that of conventional Tc-99m-DTPA renal dynamic imaging.

3.
Aesthet Surg J ; 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Browning adipocytes induced by burn and cancer were assumed less viable and more prone to necrosis for their hypermetabolic properties. Recent studies have shown browning of white adipose after fat engraftment in mice. OBJECTIVES: We tend to evaluate whether fat transfer could induce browning biogenesis in fat grafts in humans and if it is associated with graft necrosis. METHODS: Necrotic adipose grafts were excised from 11 patients diagnosed with fat necrosis after fat grafting or flap transfer. Non-necrotic fat grafts were from 5 patients undergoing revisionary surgeries after flap transfer. Histology and electronic microscopy, protein and gene expression of browning related marker analyses were performed. RESULTS: Fat grafts with necrosis demonstrated a higher gene expression level of uncoupling protein-1 (>5-fold increase, **p<0.01), a master beige adipocyte marker, than non-necrotic fat grafts. Electronic microscopy and histology showed that browning adipocytes were presented in necrotic adipose in patients. CONCLUSIONS: Fat transfer induced browning adipocytes in patients and was evident in patients with post grafting necrosis.

4.
JAMA Intern Med ; 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821922

RESUMO

Importance: Taiwan is one of the few countries with initial success in COVID-19 control without strict lockdown or school closure. The reasons remain to be fully elucidated. Objective: To compare and evaluate the effectiveness of case-based (including contact tracing and quarantine) and population-based (including social distancing and facial masking) interventions for COVID-19 in Taiwan. Design, Setting, and Participants: This comparative effectiveness study used a stochastic branching process model using COVID-19 epidemic data from Taiwan, an island nation of 23.6 million people, with no locally acquired cases of COVID-19 reported for 253 days between April and December 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Effective reproduction number of COVID-19 cases (the number of secondary cases generated by 1 primary case) and the probability of outbreak extinction (0 new cases within 20 generations). For model development and calibration, an estimation of the incubation period (interval from exposure to symptom onset), serial interval (time between symptom onset in an infector-infectee pair), and the statistical distribution of the number of any subsequent infections generated by 1 primary case was calculated. Results: This study analyzed data from 158 confirmed COVID-19 cases (median age, 45 years; interquartile range, 25-55 years; 84 men [53%]). An estimated 55% (95% credible interval [CrI], 41%-68%) of transmission events occurred during the presymptomatic stage. In our estimated analysis, case detection, contact tracing, and 14-day quarantine of close contacts (regardless of symptoms) was estimated to decrease the reproduction number from the counterfactual value of 2.50 to 1.53 (95% CrI, 1.50-1.57), which would not be sufficient for epidemic control, which requires a value of less than 1. In our estimated analysis, voluntary population-based interventions, if used alone, were estimated to have reduced the reproduction number to 1.30 (95% CrI, 1.03-1.58). Combined case-based and population-based interventions were estimated to reduce the reproduction number to below unity (0.85; 95% CrI, 0.78-0.89). Results were similar for additional analyses with influenza data and sensitivity analyses. Conclusions and Relevance: In this comparative effectiveness research study, the combination of case-based and population-based interventions (with wide adherence) may explain the success of COVID-19 control in Taiwan in 2020. Either category of interventions alone would have been insufficient, even in a country with an effective public health system and comprehensive contact tracing program. Mitigating the COVID-19 pandemic requires the collaborative effort of public health professionals and the general public.

5.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 12(3)2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803850

RESUMO

As coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to spread around the world, the establishment of decentralized severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) diagnostics and point-of-care testing is invaluable. While polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been the gold standard for COVID-19 screening, serological assays detecting anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in response to past and/or current infection remain vital tools. In particular, lateral flow immunoassay devices are easy to produce, scale, distribute, and use; however, they are unable to provide quantitative information. To enable quantitative analysis of lateral flow immunoassay device results, microgating technology was used to develop an innovative spectrochip that can be integrated into a portable, palm-sized device that was capable of capturing high-resolution reflectance spectrum data for quantitative immunoassay diagnostics. Using predefined spiked concentrations of recombinant anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG), this spectrochip-coupled immunoassay provided extraordinary sensitivity, with a detection limit as low as 186 pg/mL. Furthermore, this platform enabled the detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG in all PCR-confirmed patients as early as day 3 after symptom onset, including two patients whose spectrochip tests would be regarded as negative for COVID-19 using a direct visual read-out without spectral analysis. Therefore, the quantitative lateral flow immunoassay with an exceptionally low detection limit for SARS-CoV-2 is of value. An increase in the number of patients tested with this novel device may reveal its true clinical potential.

6.
Biomedicines ; 9(4)2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807199

RESUMO

Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1 (Pin1) specifically binds and isomerizes the phosphorylated serine/threonine-proline (pSer/Thr-Pro) motif, which leads to changes in protein conformation and function. Pin1 is widely overexpressed in cancers and plays an important role in tumorigenesis. Mounting evidence has revealed that targeting Pin1 is a potential therapeutic approach for various cancers by inhibiting cell proliferation, reducing metastasis, and maintaining genome stability. In this review, we summarize the underlying mechanisms of Pin1-mediated upregulation of oncogenes and downregulation of tumor suppressors in cancer development. Furthermore, we also discuss the multiple roles of Pin1 in cancer hallmarks and examine Pin1 as a desirable pharmaceutical target for cancer therapy. We also summarize the recent progress of Pin1-targeted small-molecule compounds for anticancer activity.

7.
Chemosphere ; 278: 130404, 2021 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823354

RESUMO

A special catalytic system was obtained by using ZnMn2O4 (ZMO) materials to activate Na2S2O8 and catalytically degrade organic dye orange II under visible light irradiation. The ZMO nanoparticles were prepared by a simple one-step method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS). In this study, the ZMO/Na2S2O8 system was used to degrade orange II, and the degradation rate reached 97.44% in 60 min. ZMO catalysts could be recycled for at least five times, and its degradation rate was only decreased by 1.84%. The free radicals produced during the degradation of orange II were studied by classical quenching experiments, and the different types of free radicals produced in the system were further confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The catalytic degradation of orange II in this system was mainly caused by the production of superoxide, sulfate and hydroxyl radicals, which achieved high degradation.

8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(14): e25299, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832099

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) may lead to a poor life quality and was associated with cardiovascular mortality in patients under hemodialysis. This study investigated the autonomic nerve and cardiovascular function in the IDH episodes.In this case-control study, 70 end stage renal disease patients (198 visits) were recruited. Pulse wave analysis and heart rate variability were evaluated before hemodialysis. Two definitions of IDH were confirmed by medical records. IDH-f indicated a drop of systolic blood pressure or mean arterial pressure, accompanied with symptoms; IDH-n indicated a low nadir systolic pressure during the hemodialysis. All parameters were evaluated for the possible predisposing factors under each definition.A total of 24 IDH-f and 37 IDH-n were noted in 177 visits. For both definitions, central pulse pressure seemed to be a consistent predisposing factor. Furthermore, lower sympathetic activity (odds ratio [OR] 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35-0.87), lower pulse pressure (OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.92-0.98), and higher augmentation index (OR 17.36; 95% CI 1.48-204.10) were the possible predisposing factors for IDH-f. On the contrary, lower mean arterial pressure (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.78-0.98) was identified as the possible factor for IDH-n.It was suggested that the lower central pulse pressure and sympathetic activity might be involved in the development of IDH.

9.
EMBO Rep ; : e52063, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769697

RESUMO

Psoriasis is mainly characterized by abnormal hyperplasia of keratinocytes and immune cells infiltrating into the dermis and epidermis. Neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated 4-like (NEDD4L) is a highly conserved HECT type E3 ligase that plays an important role in regulating physiological and pathological processes. Here, we identify NEDD4L as a negative regulator of psoriasis. Nedd4l significantly inhibits imiquimod (IMQ)-induced skin hyperplasia, and this effect is attributed to the inhibitory effect of NEDD4L on IL-6/GP130 signaling in keratinocytes. Mechanistically, NEDD4L directly interacts with GP130 and mediates its Lys-27-linked ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Moreover, the expression of NEDD4L is downregulated in the epidermis from IMQ-treated mice and psoriasis patients and negatively correlates with the protein levels of GP130 and p-STAT3 in clinical samples. Collectively, we uncover an inhibitory role of NEDD4L in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and suggest a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of psoriasis.

11.
Aesthet Surg J ; 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Induced browning adipocytes were assumed less viable and more prone to necrosis for their hypermetabolic property. Our previous study showed that browning of adipocytes was more evident in fat grafts with necrosis in humans. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to estimate whether fat-transfer-induced browning biogenesis was associated with necrosis and its potential inflammation mechanisms in murine models. METHODS: Human subcutaneous adipose from thigh or abdomen of 5 patients via liposuction were injected in 100µl or 500µl (n=20 per group) into the dorsal flank of 6-8-week female nude mice fed with normal chow diet, and harvested after 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Control groups did not receive any grafting procedures (sham operation), where lipoaspirates were analyzed immediately after harvest. Histology and electronic microscopy, immunological analyses of browning markers, necrosis marker, and type I/II macrophages markers in mice were performed. RESULTS: Histology and electronic microscopy showed browning adipocytes in in fat grafts with higher level of necrosis (0.435±0.017pg/ml for cleaved caspase-3, **p<0.01), IL-6(749.0±134.1pg/ml,***p<0.001) and infiltration of type 2 macrophage profiles in mice(2-fold increase, *p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Browning of adipocytes induced by fat transfer in mice is in parallel with post-grafting necrotic levels, associated with elevated IL-6 and activated M2 macrophages profiles which promote browning development.

12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(6): 1393-1400, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787137

RESUMO

L~*, a~* and b~* values of prepared slices of Curcumae Rhizoma were measured by spectrophotometer. SPSS 21.0 was used for discriminant analysis to establish the color range and mathematical prediction model of prepared slices of Curcumae Rhizoma. The values of L~*, a~* and b~* of kwangsiensis ranged from 58.09-62.40, 4.53-5.66 and 23.61-24.29, while the values of L~*, a~* and b~* of phaeocaulis were between 64.02-70.71,-0.89-4.13 and 44.59-54.52, respectively. The values of L~*, a~* and b~* of wenyujin were 68.55-70.99,-0.11-1.47 and 28.26-32.19, respectively. The mathematical prediction model was proved to be able to realize 100% identification of Curcumae Rhizome of different origins through original and cross validation and external samples validation. A dual wavelength HPLC was established; the contents of 9 sesquiterpenoids and 3 Curcumae Rhizomes were determined simultaneously; and the contents of Curcumae Rhizome of different origins were determined. The results showed that kwangsiensis had higher contents of neocurdione, ß-elemene and isocurcumaenol, phaeocaulis curcumin, furadienone, demethoxycurcumin and curcumin; and wenyujin mainly contained curdione, furadienes and guimarone. Pearson correlation analysis on L~*, a~*, b~* value and content of 12 components showed that curcumin, furadienone, demethoxycurcumin and curcumin had a significant positive correlation with b~* value(P<0.01). There was a significant negative correlation between neocurdione, ß-elemene and isocurcumaenol and L~* value(P<0.01). Curdione, furadienes and guimarone were significantly correlated with L~* value(P<0.01),indicating that the appearance co-lor of Curcumae Rhizoma could reflect the change of the content of the internal components. This study provided reference for the rapid recognition of Curcumae Rhizoma and the establishment of quality evaluation system.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Rizoma , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cor , Curcuma
13.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(4): 1679-1687, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742803

RESUMO

Few of the current methods of improving air quality, including end-pipe treatment, industrial, energy and transportation structure adjustments, are from the viewpoint of the spatial pattern optimization of pollutant emissions. Therefore, based on factors such as natural environment, human health, pollutant transmission capability, and meteorological diffusion conditions, our research group used the threshold approach, natural breaks, spatial erasure, and other methods to define the layout area suitable for atmospheric pollution sources. Based on these results, the emissions pattern was optimized to achieve air quality improvement. Taking Guangdong Province as an example, we examined the application of the emissions pattern optimization of air quality improvement and atmospheric environment zoning. The results indicate that the first class area of environmental air quality accounts for 9% of total province area, the densely populated area accounts for 3%, the sensitive area of the national air quality monitor stations accounts for 15%, the pollutant accumulation area accounts for 22%, and the layout area suitable for atmospheric pollution sources primarily distributed in the west part of the province accounts for 60%. By shifting the non-thermal power industrial sources into those area, the concentration level of PM2.5 will decrease by 4% at the provincial scale and 10% at the city scale. Emissions pattern optimization has become an innovative aided support technology for the continuous improvement of air quality. In practical applications, it can be combined with energy and industrial structure adjustments, pollution control technology enhancements, and cross-regional prevention and control to formulate the most feasible air quality improvement plan.

14.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 20: 15330338211004942, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759637

RESUMO

Recently, immunotherapy has become the fourth pillar of cancer treatment in addition to surgery therapy, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. The inhibitors of programed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1 are the new stars in immunotherapy, as they can overcome tumor immunosuppression. However, the efficacy of PD-1 inhibitors still needs to be further developed for clinical treatment. Therefore, research into treatment with anti-PD-1 drugs has emerged as a new development field. This review provides novel insights into the role and mechanism of PD-1 combination anti-tumor therapy, thereby promoting its clinical application in anti-tumor immunotherapy.

15.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729243

RESUMO

Stabilizing lithium deposition and reducing excess lithium are the key factors to realize the practicability of lithium-metal batteries. Here, we construct an anode-free full battery, in which Ag coated three-dimensional Cu foam (Ag@3D-Cu) is applied as a lithiophilic current collector to regulate the lithium deposition while the Li2S-based electrode is used as a cathode to avoid excess lithium.

16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(5)2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668822

RESUMO

Continuous hemodynamic monitoring is important for long-term cardiovascular healthcare, especially in hypertension. The impedance plethysmography (IPG) based carotid pulse sensing is a non-invasive diagnosis technique for measuring pulse signals and further evaluating the arterial conditions of the patient such as continuous blood pressure (BP) monitoring. To reach the high-resolution IPG-based carotid pulse detection for cardiovascular applications, this study provides an optimized measurement parameter in response to obvious pulsation from the carotid artery. The influence of the frequency of excitation current, electrode cross-sectional area, electrode arrangements, and physiological site of carotid arteries on IPG measurement resolution was thoroughly investigated for optimized parameters. In this study, the IPG system was implemented and installed on the subject's neck above the carotid artery to evaluate the measurement parameters. The measurement results within 6 subjects obtained the arterial impedance variation of 2137 mΩ using the optimized measurement conditions, including excitation frequency of 50 kHz, a smaller area of 2 cm2, electrode spacing of 4 cm and 1.7 cm for excitation and sensing functions, and location on the left side of the neck. The significance of this study demonstrates an optimized measurement methodology of IPG-based carotid pulse sensing that greatly improves the measurement quality in cardiovascular monitoring.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Pressão Sanguínea , Impedância Elétrica , Humanos , Pletismografia de Impedância , Pulso Arterial
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33738923

RESUMO

Hypertension is an insidious disease which predisposes to cardiovascular complications and if not treated properly can lead to various serious complications. Economic limitations, having additional benefits with few or almost no side effects have made non-pharmacological management of hypertension an attractive approach for dealing with hypertension, in developed and developing countries alike. A MEDLINE search was done for relevant references with emphasis on original studies, randomized controlled trials, and meta-analyses for this review paper. Lifestyle modifications including changes in the dietary pattern, adopting special diets with low sodium, saturated fat and high calcium, magnesium and potassium and trying the new methods like time restricted meal intake which work in tandem with the circadian rhythm are opening new vistas in the field of non-pharmacological management of hypertension. Lifestyle modifications that effectively lower blood pressure are increased physical activity, weight loss, limited alcohol consumption, relaxation techniques of Yoga, Acupuncture, Tai chi, mindfulness-based stress-reduction program, and Transcendental Meditation. Air pollution of the surrounding air is linked with poor health outcomes and is a major contributor to the global burden of disease. Fine particulate matter <2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) is strongly associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Short-term PM exposure (hours to weeks) increases the likelihood of adverse cardiovascular events including myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure, and longer-term exposure multiplies that risk. Non-pharmacological methods should be initiated early phase of disease and should be continued with medication.

18.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 12(3)2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670939

RESUMO

A simple, easy, inexpensive, and quick nonsilicon-based micromachining method was developed to manufacture a microlens array. The spherical surface of the microlens was machined using a microshaper mounted on a three-axis vertical computer numerical control (CNC) machine with cutter-path-planning. The results show the machined profiles of microlens agree well with designed profiles. The focus ability of the machined microlens array was verified. The designed and measured focal lengths have average 1.5% error. The results revealed that the focal lengths of micro lens agreed with the designed values. A moderate roughness of microlens surface is obtained by simply polishing. The roughness of the lens surface is 43 nm in feed direction (x-direction) and 56 nm in path interval direction (y-direction). It shows the simple, scalable, and reproducible method to manufacture microlenses by microshaper with cutter-path-planning is feasible.

19.
New Phytol ; 2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713445

RESUMO

• Plant cellulose is synthesised by a large plasma membrane-localized cellulose synthase (CesA) complex. However, an overall functional determination of secondary cell wall (SCW) CesAs is still lacking in trees, especially one based on gene knockouts. • Here, the Cas9/gRNA-induced knockouts of PtrCesA4, 7A, 7B, 8A, and 8B genes were produced in Populus trichocarpa. Based on anatomic, immunohistochemical and wood composition evidence, we gained a comprehensive understanding of five SCW PtrCesAs at the genetic level. • Complete loss of PtrCesA4, 7A/B or 8A/B led to similar morphological abnormalities, indicating similar and non-redundant genetic functions. The absence of the gelatinous (G) layer, one-layer-walled fibres and a 90% decrease in cellulose in these mutant woods revealed that the three classes of SCW PtrCesAs are essential for multi-layered SCW structure and wood G-fibre. In addition, the mutant primary and secondary phloem fibres lost the n(G+L)- and G-layers and retained the thicker S-layers. Together with polysaccharide immunolocalization data, these findings suggest differences in the role of SCW PtrCesAs-synthesised cellulose in wood and phloem fibre wall structures. • Overall, this functional understanding of the SCW PtrCesAs provides more insights into the impact of lacking cellulose biosynthesis on growth, SCW, wood G-fibre, and phloem fibre wall structures in the tree.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719535

RESUMO

Background: 2',3'-cGAMP (2',3'-cyclic AMP-GMP) has been reported as an agonist of the STING (stimulator of interferon genes) signaling pathway. However, cGAMP has poor membrane permeability and can be hydrolyzed by ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase (ENPP1), limiting its ability to activate the STING-IRF3 pathway. This study aimed to investigate that the folate-targeted liposomal cGAMP could overcome the defects of free cGAMP to enhance the antitumor effect. Materials and Methods: cGAMP was encapsulated in PEGylated folic acid-targeted liposomes to construct a carrier-delivered formulation. The particle size and morphology were detected by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The sustained-release ability was measured by drug release and pharmacokinetics. Animal models were applied to evaluate the tumor inhibition efficiency in vivo. Flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to detect the expression of immune cells, secreted cytokines, and target genes. The activation of the STING-IRF3 pathway was evaluated by immunofluorescence. Results: Physical characters of liposomes revealed that the prepared liposomes were stable in neutral humoral environments and released more internal drugs in acidic tumor tissues. Systemic therapy with liposomes on Colorectal 26 tumor-bearing mice in vivo effectively inhibited tumor growth via stimulating the expression of CD8+ T cells and reversed the immunosuppressed tumor microenvironment (TME). Conclusions: The study suggests that the folic acid-targeted cGAMP-loaded liposomes deliver drugs to the TME to enhance the STING agonist activity, improving the efficiency of tumor therapy via the cGAMP-STING-IRF3 pathway.

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