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1.
Sci Adv ; 6(46)2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177091

RESUMO

Underactive bladder or detrusor underactivity (DUA), that is, not being able to micturate, has received less attention with little research and remains unknown or limited on pathological causes and treatments as opposed to overactive bladder, although the syndrome may pose a risk of urinary infections or life-threatening kidney damage. Here, we present an integrated expandable electronic and optoelectronic complex that behaves as a single body with the elastic, time-dynamic urinary bladder with substantial volume changes up to ~300%. The system configuration of the electronics validated by the theoretical model allows conformal, seamless integration onto the urinary bladder without a glue or suture, enabling precise monitoring with various electrical components for real-time status and efficient optogenetic manipulation for urination at the desired time. In vivo experiments using diabetic DUA models demonstrate the possibility for practical uses of high-fidelity electronics in clinical trials associated with the bladder and other elastic organs.

2.
Trends Analyt Chem ; 1332020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244191

RESUMO

The recent advent of stretchable gas sensors demonstrates their capabilities to detect not only gaseous biomarkers from the human body but also toxic gas species from the exposed environment. To ensure accurate gas detection without device breakdown from the mechanical deformations, the stretchable gas sensors often rely on the direct integration of gas-sensitive nanomaterials on the stretchable substrate or fibrous network, as well as being configured into stretchable structures. The nanomaterials in the forms of nanoparticles, nanowires, or thin-films with nanometer thickness are explored for a variety of sensing materials. The commonly used stretchable structures in the stretchable gas sensors include wrinkled structures from a pre-strain strategy, island-bridge layouts or serpentine interconnects, strain isolation approaches, and their combinations. This review aims to summarize the recent advancement in novel nanomaterials, sensor design innovations, and new fabrication approaches of stretchable gas sensors.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(40): 45504-45515, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911929

RESUMO

A soft body area sensor network presents a promising direction in wearable devices to integrate on-body sensors for physiological signal monitoring and flexible printed circuit boards (FPCBs) for signal conditioning/readout and wireless transmission. However, its realization currently relies on various sophisticated fabrication approaches such as lithography or direct printing on a carrier substrate before attaching to the body. Here, we report a universal fabrication scheme to enable printing and room-temperature sintering of the metal nanoparticle on paper/fabric for FPCBs and directly on the human skin for on-body sensors with a novel sintering aid layer. Consisting of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) paste and nanoadditives in the water, the sintering aid layer reduces the sintering temperature. Together with the significantly decreased surface roughness, it allows for the integration of a submicron-thick conductive pattern with enhanced electromechanical performance. Various on-body sensors integrated with an FPCB to detect health conditions illustrate a system-level example.

4.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 168: 112569, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905930

RESUMO

Wearable and implantable bio-integrated electronics have started to gain momentum because of their essential role in improving the quality of life for various patients and healthy individuals. However, their continuous operation is often limited by traditional battery technologies with a limited lifespan, creating a significant challenge for their development. Thus, it is highly desirable to harvest biomechanical energies from human motion for self-powered bio-integrated functional devices. Piezoelectric energy harvesters are ideal candidates to achieve this goal by converting biomechanical energy to electric energy. Because of their applications on soft and highly deformable tissues of the human body, these devices also need to be mechanically flexible and stretchable, thus posing a significant challenge. Effective methods to address the challenge include the exploration of new stretchable piezoelectric materials (e.g., hybrid composite material) and stretchable structures (e.g., buckled shapes, serpentine mesh layouts, kirigami designs, among others). This review presents an overview of the recent developments in new intrinsically stretchable piezoelectric materials and rigid inorganic piezoelectric materials with novel stretchable structures for flexible and stretchable piezoelectric sensors and energy harvesters. Following the discussion of theoretical modeling of the piezoelectric materials to convert mechanical deformations into electrical signals, the representative applications of stretchable piezoelectric materials and structures in wearable and implantable devices are briefly summarized. The present limitations and future research directions of flexible and stretchable piezoelectric devices are then discussed.

5.
Lab Chip ; 20(15): 2635-2645, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555915

RESUMO

Soft, skin-interfaced microfluidic platforms are capable of capturing, storing, and assessing sweat chemistry and total sweat loss, which provides essential insight into human physiological health. However, sweat loss from the outlet of the microfluidic devices often leads to deviation of the measured concentration of the biomarker or electrolyte from the actual value. Here, we introduce hydrophobic valves at the junction of the chamber and the microfluidic channel as a new chamber design to reduce sweat evaporation. Because the advancing front of the liquid in the hydrophilic microchannel is blocked by the hydrophobic valve, the fluid flows into the chambers, forms the initial meniscus, and completely fills the chambers along the initial meniscus. Fluid dynamic modeling and numerical simulations provide critical insights into the sweat sampling mechanism into the chambers. With significantly reduced evaporation and contamination, the sweat sample can be easily stored for a long time for later analysis when in situ analysis is limited. Additionally, the design with multiple chambers can allow sequential generation of sweat collection at different times for long-term analysis. The in situ real-time measurements of the sweat loss and pH value analysis from the human subject demonstrate the practical utility of the devices in collecting, storing, and analyzing the sweat generated from sweat glands on the skin.

6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(19): 21424-21432, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319751

RESUMO

Personal accessories such as glasses and watches that we usually carry in our daily life can yield useful information from the human body, yet most of them are limited to exercise-related parameters or simple heart rates. Since these restricted characteristics might arise from interfaces between the body and items as one of the main reasons, an interface design considering such a factor can provide us with biologically meaningful data. Here, we describe three-dimensional-printed, personalized, multifunctional electronic eyeglasses (E-glasses), not only to monitor various biological phenomena but also to propose a strategy to coordinate the recorded data for active commands and game operations for human-machine interaction (HMI) applications. Soft, highly conductive composite electrodes embedded in the E-glasses enable us to achieve reliable, continuous recordings of physiological activities. UV-responsive, color-tunable lenses using an electrochromic ionic gel offer the functionality of both eyeglass and sunglass modes, and accelerometers provide the capability of tracking precise human postures and behaviors. Detailed studies of electrophysiological signals including electroencephalogram and electrooculogram demonstrate the feasibility of smart electronic glasses for practical use as a platform for future HMI systems.

7.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 11(3)2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111023

RESUMO

The skyrocketing popularity of health monitoring has spurred increasing interest in wearable electrochemical biosensors. Compared with the traditionally rigid and bulky electrochemical biosensors, flexible and stretchable devices render a unique capability to conform to the complex, hierarchically textured surfaces of the human body. With a recognition element (e.g., enzymes, antibodies, nucleic acids, ions) to selectively react with the target analyte, wearable electrochemical biosensors can convert the types and concentrations of chemical changes in the body into electrical signals for easy readout. Initial exploration of wearable electrochemical biosensors integrates electrodes on textile and flexible thin-film substrate materials. A stretchable property is needed for the thin-film device to form an intimate contact with the textured skin surface and to deform with various natural skin motions. Thus, stretchable materials and structures have been exploited to ensure the effective function of a wearable electrochemical biosensor. In this mini-review, we summarize the recent development of flexible and stretchable electrochemical biosensors, including their principles, representative application scenarios (e.g., saliva, tear, sweat, and interstitial fluid), and materials and structures. While great strides have been made in the wearable electrochemical biosensors, challenges still exist, which represents a small fraction of opportunities for the future development of this burgeoning field.

8.
ACS Omega ; 4(5): 9522-9530, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460042

RESUMO

Communication with plants to understand their growth mechanisms and interaction with the surrounding environment may improve production yield in agriculture and facilitate prevention of plant diseases and negative influence of environmental stress. Typical sensing technologies in plant biology and precision agriculture largely rely on techniques with low spatial and temporal resolutions, and fail to continuously and precisely determine localized variation in leaf physiology and microenvironments. Here, techniques to develop a multifunctional stretchable leaf-mounted sensor have been developed to offer optimized adaptability to plant growth and monitor leaf physiological and environmental conditions in continuous and highly sensitive manners. The multifunctional leaf sensor contains multiple heterogeneous sensing elements made of metal, carbon nanotube matrix, and silicon, leading to temperature, hydration, light illuminance, and strain sensing capabilities on a leaf. Evaluation under a controlled environment indicates excellent precision and accuracy of the sensor compared to conventional devices. Furthermore, indoor and outdoor experiments have demonstrated the multifunctional monitoring ability of the sensor in real situations. The multifunctional stretchable sensor holds the promise to advance monitoring techniques in plant biology and precision agriculture, resulting in improved capability to record slow and subtle physiological changes in plants and plant/environment interaction.

9.
Science ; 364(6445): 1057-1062, 2019 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197007

RESUMO

Nanoporous two-dimensional materials are attractive for ionic and molecular nanofiltration but limited by insufficient mechanical strength over large areas. We report a large-area graphene-nanomesh/single-walled carbon nanotube (GNM/SWNT) hybrid membrane with excellent mechanical strength while fully capturing the merit of atomically thin membranes. The monolayer GNM features high-density, subnanometer pores for efficient transport of water molecules while blocking solute ions or molecules to enable size-selective separation. The SWNT network physically separates the GNM into microsized islands and acts as the microscopic framework to support the GNM, thus ensuring the structural integrity of the atomically thin GNM. The resulting GNM/SWNT membranes show high water permeance and a high rejection ratio for salt ions or organic molecules, and they retain stable separation performance in tubular modules.

10.
Acta Biomater ; 95: 91-111, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004844

RESUMO

Biological systems continuously interact with the surrounding environment because they are dynamically evolving. The interaction is achieved through mechanical, electrical, chemical, biological, thermal, optical, or a synergistic combination of these cues. To provide a fundamental understanding of the interaction, recent efforts that integrate biological systems with the electronic-mechanical assemblies create unique opportunities for simultaneous monitoring and eliciting the responses to the biological system. Recent innovations in materials, fabrication processes, and device integration approaches have created the enablers to yield bio-integrated devices to interface with the biological system, ranging from cells and tissues to organs and living individual. In this short review, we will provide a brief overview of the recent development on the integration of the biological systems with electronic-mechanical assemblies across multiple scales, with applications ranging from healthcare monitoring to therapeutic options such as drug delivery and rehabilitation therapies. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: An overview of the recent progress on the integration of the biological system with both electronic and mechanical assemblies is discussed. The integration creates the unique opportunity to simultaneously monitor and elicit the responses to the biological system, which provides a fundamental understanding of the interaction between the biological system and the electronic-mechanical assemblies. Recent innovations in materials, fabrication processes, and device integration approaches have created the enablers to yield bio-integrated devices to interface with the biological system, ranging from cells and tissues to organs and living individual.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Mecânicos , Animais , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Eletrônica , Humanos , Microfluídica , Organoides/fisiologia , Tecidos Suporte/química
11.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 9(2)2019 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30781651

RESUMO

Flexible electronic systems have received increasing attention in the past few decades because of their wide-ranging applications that include the flexible display, eyelike digital camera, skin electronics, and intelligent surgical gloves, among many other health monitoring devices. As one of the most widely used technologies to integrate rigid functional devices with elastomeric substrates for the manufacturing of flexible electronic devices, transfer printing technology has been extensively studied. Though primarily relying on reversible interfacial adhesion, a variety of advanced transfer printing methods have been proposed and demonstrated. In this review, we first summarize the characteristics of a few representative methods of transfer printing. Next, we will introduce successful demonstrations of each method in flexible electronic devices. Moreover, the potential challenges and future development opportunities for transfer printing will then be briefly discussed.

12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(9): 8867-8877, 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758181

RESUMO

Wireless technology plays a critical role in the development of flexible and stretchable electronics due to the increasing demand for compactness, portability, and level of comfort. As an important candidate in wireless technology, microstrip antennas have recently been explored for flexible and stretchable electronics. However, the stretchable characteristics of the microstrip antenna typically come at the cost of reduced electrical conductivity and radiation efficiency. By utilizing a soft silicone substrate and the structural design of the conventional metallic materials for both patch and ground plane in the microstrip antennas, we have demonstrated two designs of stretchable microstrip antennas: "meshed microstrip antenna" and "arched microstrip antenna". The former exploits initially wavy structures from patterning, and the latter also uses the deformed wavy structures created from the prestrain strategy. In comparison to their solid microstrip antenna counterpart, the radiation properties of the resulting stretchable microstrip antennas do not change much. Meanwhile, the resonance frequency decreases with the externally applied tensile strain along the feeding direction in the design of the meshed microstrip antenna but increases with the increasing strain in the design of the arched microstrip antenna. The change in the resonance frequency with the externally applied tensile strain in the latter design has a high sensitivity, manifesting a 3.35- and a 1.49-fold increase of sensitivity when compared to those in previous reports that used silver nanowire- or liquid-metal-based stretchable microstrip antennas. Considering the high sensitivity and compliant characteristic of the stretchable microstrip antenna, we have demonstrated an arched microstrip antenna-based strain sensor that is capable of detecting the motion of human wrists with high sensitivity, little hysteresis, and possible wireless communication.

13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 18(12)2018 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30544705

RESUMO

Wireless technology plays an important role in data communication and power transmission, which has greatly boosted the development of flexible and stretchable electronics for biomedical applications and beyond. As a key component in wireless technology, flexible and stretchable antennas need to be flexible and stretchable, enabled by the efforts with new materials or novel integration approaches with structural designs. Besides replacing the conventional rigid substrates with textile or elastomeric ones, flexible and stretchable conductive materials also need to be used for the radiation parts, including conductive textiles, liquid metals, elastomeric composites embedding conductive fillers, and stretchable structures from conventional metals. As the microwave performance of the antenna (e.g., resonance frequency, radiation pattern, and radiation efficiency) strongly depend on the mechanical deformations, the new materials and novel structures need to be carefully designed. Despite the rapid progress in the burgeoning field of flexible and stretchable antennas, plenty of challenges, as well as opportunities, still exist to achieve miniaturized antennas with a stable or tunable performance at a low cost for bio-integrated electronics.

14.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 9(10)2018 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30424462

RESUMO

With the rapid development of bio-integrated devices and tissue adhesives, tunable adhesion to soft biological tissues started gaining momentum. Strong adhesion is desirable when used to efficiently transfer vital signals or as wound dressing and tissue repair, whereas weak adhesion is needed for easy removal, and it is also the essential step for enabling repeatable use. Both the physical and chemical properties (e.g., moisture level, surface roughness, compliance, and surface chemistry) vary drastically from the skin to internal organ surfaces. Therefore, it is important to strategically design the adhesive for specific applications. Inspired largely by the remarkable adhesion properties found in several animal species, effective strategies such as structural design and novel material synthesis were explored to yield adhesives to match or even outperform their natural counterparts. In this mini-review, we provide a brief overview of the recent development of tunable adhesives, with a focus on their applications toward bio-integrated devices and tissue adhesives.

15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(43): 36664-36674, 2018 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30261722

RESUMO

Green electronics on biodegradable substrates from natural sources have gained broad interest because of the advantages of being biodegradable, recyclable, sustainable, and cost-efficient. This study presents a low-cost, yet simple extraction and purification method that explores aqueous extraction and precipitation with ethanol for the synthesis of galactomannan films. In salient contrast to the other materials of natural origin, the process to obtain galactomannan films is energy efficient and environmentally friendly. As an alternative biodegradable material, galactomannan has direct relevance to the recent emerging biodegradable or transient electronics. The galactomannan substrate with temperature sensors and electrodes fabricated from zinc, a biodegradable material noted for its essential biological function, demonstrates a high-precision measurement of temperature and high-fidelity monitoring of electrophysiological signals (electromyogram or electrocardiogram). The resulting disposable sensors disappear without a trace in water and produce environmentally benign end products that could even be used for alkaline soil amendments. The set of materials explored in this study is also stable in organic solutions, enabling solvent-based fabrication that may be combined with recent advances in additive manufacturing techniques for a novel manufacturing method.


Assuntos
Eletrônica , Endosperma/química , Mananas/química , Água/química , Desenho de Equipamento , Fabaceae/química , Galactose/química , Coração/fisiologia , Humanos , Manose/química , Pós , Solubilidade , Temperatura
16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(25): 21184-21190, 2018 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29869498

RESUMO

We introduce optimized elastomeric conductive electrodes using a mixture of silver nanowires (AgNWs) with carbon nanotubes/polydimethylsiloxane (CNTs/PDMS), to build a portable earphone type of wearable system that is designed to enable recording electrophysiological activities as well as listening to music at the same time. A custom-built, plastic frame integrated with soft, deformable fabric-based memory foam of earmuffs facilitates essential electronic components, such as conductive elastomers, metal strips, signal transducers and a speaker. Such platform incorporates with accessory cables to attain wireless, real-time monitoring of electrical potentials whose information can be displayed on a cell phone during outdoor activities and music appreciation. Careful evaluations on experimental results reveal that the performance of fabricated dry electrodes are comparable to that of commercial wet electrodes, and position-dependent signal behaviors provide a route toward accomplishing maximized signal quality. This research offers a facile approach for a wearable healthcare monitor via integration of soft electronic constituents with personal belongings.


Assuntos
Tecnologia sem Fio , Eletrodos , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Nanotubos de Carbono , Nanofios , Prata , Têxteis
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 18(1)2017 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29267256

RESUMO

The growing demand for real time analysis of bioanalytes has spurred development in the field of wearable technology to offer non-invasive data collection at a low cost. The manufacturing processes for creating these sensing systems vary significantly by the material used, the type of sensors needed and the subject of study as well. The methods predominantly involve stretchable electronic sensors to monitor targets and transmit data mainly through flexible wires or short-range wireless communication devices. Capable of conformal contact, the application of wearable technology goes beyond the healthcare to fields of food, zoology and botany. With a brief review of wearable technology and its applications to various fields, we believe this mini review would be of interest to the reader in broad fields of materials, sensor development and areas where wearable sensors can provide data that are not available elsewhere.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Botânica , Monitorização Fisiológica , Tecnologia sem Fio , Zoologia
18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(19): 16553-16560, 2017 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28452460

RESUMO

Extensive efforts have been devoted to the development of surfactant-free electronic ink (E-ink) with excellent display resolution for high-definition resolution display. Herein, we report the use of polydopamine-based synthetic melanin, a class of functional nanoparticles with similar chemical compositions and physical properties to those of naturally occurring melanin, as a new E-ink material. It was found that such E-ink displays could achieve ultrahigh resolution (>10 000 ppi) and low power consumption (operation voltage of only 1 V) in aqueous solutions. Interestingly, simple oxidation of synthetic melanin nanoparticles enables the generation of intrinsic fluorescence, allowing further development of fluorescent E-ink displays with nanoscale resolution. We describe these bioinspired materials in an initial proof-of-concept study and propose that synthetic melanin nanoparticles will be suitable for electronic nanoinks with a potential wide range of applications in molecular patterning and fluorescence bioimaging.


Assuntos
Melaninas/química , Corantes , Tinta , Nanopartículas , Água
19.
J Mech Phys Solids ; 90: 179-202, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27087704

RESUMO

Development of advanced synthetic materials that can mimic the mechanical properties of non-mineralized soft biological materials has important implications in a wide range of technologies. Hierarchical lattice materials constructed with horseshoe microstructures belong to this class of bio-inspired synthetic materials, where the mechanical responses can be tailored to match the nonlinear J-shaped stress-strain curves of human skins. The underlying relations between the J-shaped stress-strain curves and their microstructure geometry are essential in designing such systems for targeted applications. Here, a theoretical model of this type of hierarchical lattice material is developed by combining a finite deformation constitutive relation of the building block (i.e., horseshoe microstructure), with the analyses of equilibrium and deformation compatibility in the periodical lattices. The nonlinear J-shaped stress-strain curves and Poisson ratios predicted by this model agree very well with results of finite element analyses (FEA) and experiment. Based on this model, analytic solutions were obtained for some key mechanical quantities, e.g., elastic modulus, Poisson ratio, peak modulus, and critical strain around which the tangent modulus increases rapidly. A negative Poisson effect is revealed in the hierarchical lattice with triangular topology, as opposed to a positive Poisson effect in hierarchical lattices with Kagome and honeycomb topologies. The lattice topology is also found to have a strong influence on the stress-strain curve. For the three isotropic lattice topologies (triangular, Kagome and honeycomb), the hierarchical triangular lattice material renders the sharpest transition in the stress-strain curve and relative high stretchability, given the same porosity and arc angle of horseshoe microstructure. Furthermore, a demonstrative example illustrates the utility of the developed model in the rapid optimization of hierarchical lattice materials for reproducing the desired stress-strain curves of human skins. This study provides theoretical guidelines for future designs of soft bio-mimetic materials with hierarchical lattice constructions.

20.
Nat Mater ; 15(7): 782-791, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27088236

RESUMO

Bioresorbable silicon electronics technology offers unprecedented opportunities to deploy advanced implantable monitoring systems that eliminate risks, cost and discomfort associated with surgical extraction. Applications include postoperative monitoring and transient physiologic recording after percutaneous or minimally invasive placement of vascular, cardiac, orthopaedic, neural or other devices. We present an embodiment of these materials in both passive and actively addressed arrays of bioresorbable silicon electrodes with multiplexing capabilities, which record in vivo electrophysiological signals from the cortical surface and the subgaleal space. The devices detect normal physiologic and epileptiform activity, both in acute and chronic recordings. Comparative studies show sensor performance comparable to standard clinical systems and reduced tissue reactivity relative to conventional clinical electrocorticography (ECoG) electrodes. This technology offers general applicability in neural interfaces, with additional potential utility in treatment of disorders where transient monitoring and modulation of physiologic function, implant integrity and tissue recovery or regeneration are required.


Assuntos
Implantes Absorvíveis , Mapeamento Encefálico , Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Eletrodos Implantados , Silício , Animais , Mapeamento Encefálico/instrumentação , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Ratos , Silício/química , Silício/farmacologia
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