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1.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0222284, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mitochondrial genome encodes for thirty-seven proteins, among them thirteen are essential for the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. Inherited variation in mitochondrial genes may influence cancer development through changes in mitochondrial proteins, altering the OXPHOS process and promoting the production of reactive oxidative species. METHODS: To investigate the association between mitochondrial genetic variation and breast cancer risk, we tested 314 mitochondrial SNPs (mtSNPs), capturing four complexes of the mitochondrial OXPHOS pathway and mtSNP groupings for rRNA and tRNA, in 2,723 breast cancer cases and 3,260 controls from the Multiethnic Cohort Study. RESULTS: We examined the collective set of 314 mtSNPs as well as subsets of mtSNPs grouped by mitochondrial OXPHOS pathway, complexes, and genes, using the sequence kernel association test and adjusting for age, sex, and principal components of global ancestry. We also tested haplogroup associations using unconditional logistic regression and adjusting for the same covariates. Stratified analyses were conducted by self-reported maternal race/ethnicity. No significant mitochondrial OXPHOS pathway, gene, and haplogroup associations were observed in African Americans, Asian Americans, Latinos, and Native Hawaiians. In European Americans, a global test of all genetic variants of the mitochondrial genome identified an association with breast cancer risk (P = 0.017, q = 0.102). In mtSNP-subset analysis, the gene MT-CO2 (P = 0.001, q = 0.09) in Complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) and MT-ND2 (P = 0.004, q = 0.19) in Complex I (NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone)) were significantly associated with breast cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our findings suggest that collective mitochondrial genetic variation and particularly in the MT-CO2 and MT-ND2 may play a role in breast cancer risk among European Americans. Further replication is warranted in larger populations and future studies should evaluate the contribution of mitochondrial proteins encoded by both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes to breast cancer risk.

2.
Nature ; 570(7762): 514-518, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217584

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have laid the foundation for investigations into the biology of complex traits, drug development and clinical guidelines. However, the majority of discovery efforts are based on data from populations of European ancestry1-3. In light of the differential genetic architecture that is known to exist between populations, bias in representation can exacerbate existing disease and healthcare disparities. Critical variants may be missed if they have a low frequency or are completely absent in European populations, especially as the field shifts its attention towards rare variants, which are more likely to be population-specific4-10. Additionally, effect sizes and their derived risk prediction scores derived in one population may not accurately extrapolate to other populations11,12. Here we demonstrate the value of diverse, multi-ethnic participants in large-scale genomic studies. The Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study conducted a GWAS of 26 clinical and behavioural phenotypes in 49,839 non-European individuals. Using strategies tailored for analysis of multi-ethnic and admixed populations, we describe a framework for analysing diverse populations, identify 27 novel loci and 38 secondary signals at known loci, as well as replicate 1,444 GWAS catalogue associations across these traits. Our data show evidence of effect-size heterogeneity across ancestries for published GWAS associations, substantial benefits for fine-mapping using diverse cohorts and insights into clinical implications. In the United States-where minority populations have a disproportionately higher burden of chronic conditions13-the lack of representation of diverse populations in genetic research will result in inequitable access to precision medicine for those with the highest burden of disease. We strongly advocate for continued, large genome-wide efforts in diverse populations to maximize genetic discovery and reduce health disparities.

3.
Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet ; 20: 181-200, 2019 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978304

RESUMO

The past decade has seen a technological revolution in human genetics that has empowered population-level investigations into genetic associations with phenotypes. Although these discoveries rely on genetic variation across individuals, association studies have overwhelmingly been performed in populations of European descent. In this review, we describe limitations faced by single-population studies and provide an overview of strategies to improve global representation in existing data sets and future human genomics research via diversity-focused, multiethnic studies. We highlight the successes of individual studies and meta-analysis consortia that have provided unique knowledge. Additionally, we outline the approach taken by the Population Architecture Using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study to develop best practices for performing genetic epidemiology in multiethnic contexts. Finally, we discuss how limiting investigations to single populations impairs findings in the clinical domain for both rare-variant identification and genetic risk prediction.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924138

RESUMO

Previous studies using different exposure methods to assess air pollution and breast cancer risk among primarily whites have been inconclusive. Air pollutant exposures of particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen were estimated by kriging (NOx , NO2 , PM10 , PM2.5 ), land use regression (LUR, NOx , NO2 ) and California Line Source Dispersion model (CALINE4, NOx , PM2.5 ) for 57,589 females from the Multiethnic Cohort, residing largely in Los Angeles County from recruitment (1993-1996) through 2010. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the associations between time-varying air pollution and breast cancer incidence adjusting for confounding factors. Stratified analyses were conducted by race/ethnicity and distance to major roads. Among all women, breast cancer risk was positively but not significantly associated with NOx (per 50 parts per billion [ppb]) and NO2 (per 20 ppb) determined by kriging and LUR and with PM2.5 and PM10 (per 10 µg/m3 ) determined by kriging. However, among women who lived within 500 m of major roads, significantly increased risks were observed with NOx (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.35, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.02-1.79), NO2 (HR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.04-1.99), PM10 (HR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.07-1.55) and PM2.5 (HR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.15-2.99) determined by kriging and NOx (HR = 1.21, 95% CI:1.01-1.45) and NO2 (HR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.00-1.59) determined by LUR. No overall associations were observed with exposures assessed by CALINE4. Subgroup analyses suggested stronger associations of NOx and NO2 among African Americans and Japanese Americans. Further studies of multiethnic populations to confirm the effects of air pollution, particularly near-roadway exposures, on the risk of breast cancer is warranted.

5.
Neuro Oncol ; 21(4): 498-507, 2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Meningioma is the most common intracranial tumor in the US and its etiology remains poorly understood. Meningioma has been predominantly studied among white populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of anthropometric, comorbidity, and hormonal factors with meningioma in an ethnically diverse population. METHODS: A nested case-control analysis was performed within the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC). Meningioma cases were identified via linkage with Medicare and the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development Hospital Discharge data and were matched to up to 10 controls. Anthropometric, comorbidities, physical activity level, and hormonal factors at baseline based on questionnaires were evaluated for association with meningioma. RESULTS: A total of 894 cases and 8918 matched controls were included in this study. Increasing body mass index (BMI) (P-trend = 0.041) and weight increases since age 21 (P-trend = 0.0052) were positively associated with meningioma. Hormonal factors including oral contraceptive use (odds ratio [OR]: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.01-1.51) and estrogen hormonal therapy use (per 5 years, OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01-1.15) were associated with meningioma risk. Hypertension was positively associated with meningioma (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.09-1.47), with individuals who reported a history of both hypertension and diabetes showing a stronger association (OR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.17-2.03). The tests for heterogeneity across race/ethnicity were not statistically significant (P heterogeneity ≥ 0.17); however, the association of BMI with meningioma was mainly observed in Japanese Americans (P-trend = 0.0036) and hypertension in Japanese Americans (OR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.17-2.27) and Native Hawaiians (OR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.02-3.40). CONCLUSION: Obesity, hormonal factors, and hypertension were associated with meningioma in an ethnically diverse population.

6.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 16(11): 1353-1360, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442735

RESUMO

Background: The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology recommend definitive therapy for all men with high-risk localized prostate cancer (PCa) who have a life expectancy >5 years or who are symptomatic. However, the application of these guidelines may vary among ethnic groups. We compared receipt of guideline-concordant treatment between Latino and non-Latino white men in California. Methods: California Cancer Registry data were used to identify 2,421 Latino and 8,636 non-Latino white men diagnosed with high-risk localized PCa from 2010 through 2014. The association of clinical and sociodemographic factors with definitive treatment was examined using logistic regression, overall and by ethnicity. Results: Latinos were less likely than non-Latino whites to receive definitive treatment before (odds ratio [OR], 0.79; 95% CI, 0.71-0.88) and after adjusting for age and tumor characteristics (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.75-0.95). Additional adjustment for sociodemographic factors eliminated the disparity. However, the association with treatment differed by ethnicity for several factors. Latino men with no health insurance were considerably less likely to receive definitive treatment relative to insured Latino men (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.23-0.49), an association that was more pronounced than among non-Latino whites (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.47-0.83). Intermediate-versus high-grade disease was associated with lower odds of definitive treatment in Latinos (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.59-0.97) but not non-Latino whites. Younger age and care at NCI-designated Cancer Centers were significantly associated with receipt of definitive treatment in non-Latino whites but not in Latinos. Conclusions: California Latino men diagnosed with localized high-risk PCa are at increased risk for undertreatment. The observed treatment disparity is largely explained by sociodemographic factors, suggesting it may be ameliorated through targeted outreach, such as that aimed at younger and underinsured Latino men.

7.
Gastroenterology ; 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: We compared fat storage in the abdominal region among individuals from 5 different ethnic/racial groups to determine whether fat storage is associated with disparities observed in the metabolic syndrome and other obesity-associated diseases. METHODS: We collected data from 1794 participants in the Multiethnic Cohort Study (60-77 years old; of African, European (white), Japanese, Latino, or Native Hawaiian ancestry) with body mass index values of 17.1-46.2 kg/m2. From May 2013 through April 2016, participants visited the study clinic to undergo body measurements, an interview, and a blood collection. Participants were evaluated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging. Among the ethnic groups, we compared adiposity of trunk, intra-abdominal visceral cavity, and liver, adjusting for total fat mass; we evaluated the association of adult weight change with abdominal adiposity; and we examined the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome mediated by abdominal adiposity. RESULTS: Relative amounts of trunk, visceral, and liver fat varied significantly with ethnicity-they were highest in Japanese Americans, lowest in African Americans, and intermediate in the other groups. Compared with African Americans, the mean visceral fat area was 45% and 73% greater in Japanese American men and women, respectively, and the mean measurements of liver fat were 61% and 122% greater in Japanese American men and women. The visceral and hepatic adiposity associated with weight gain since participants were 21 years old varied in a similar pattern among ethnic/racial groups. In the mediation analysis, visceral and liver fat jointly accounted for a statistically significant fraction of the difference in metabolic syndrome prevalence, in comparison to white persons, for African Americans, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiian women, independently of total fat mass. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of data from the participants in the Multiethnic Cohort Study, we found extensive differences among ethnic/racial groups in the propensity to store fat intra-abdominally. This observation should be considered by clinicians in the prevention and early detection of metabolic disorders.

8.
Cancer Control ; 25(1): 1073274818806900, 2018 Jan-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30375235

RESUMO

Despite guidelines recommending annual low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening for lung cancer, uptake remains low due to the perceived complexity of initiating and maintaining a clinical program-problems that likely magnify in underserved populations. We conducted a survey of community providers at Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) in Santa Clara County, California, to evaluate provider-related factors that affect adherence. We then compared these findings to academic providers' (APs) LDCT screening knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes at an academic referral center in the same county. The 4 FQHCs enrolled care for 80 000 patients largely of minority descent and insured by Medi-Cal. Of the 75 FQHC providers (FQHCPs), 36 (48%) completed the survey. Of the 36 providers, 8 (22%) knew screening criteria. Fifteen (42%) FQHCPs discussed LDCT screening with patients. Compared to 36 APs, FQHCPs were more concerned about harms, false positives, discussion time, patient apathy, insurance coverage, and a lack of expertise for screening and follow-up. Yet, more FQHCPs thought screening was effective (27 [75%] of 36) compared to APs ( P = .0003). In conclusion, provider knowledge gaps are greater and barriers are different for community clinics caring for underserved populations compared to their academic counterparts, but practical and scalable solutions exist to enhance adoption.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measurement reliability and biological stability need to be considered when developing sampling protocols for population-based fecal microbiome studies. METHODS: Stool samples were collected biannually over a two-year period and sequenced for the V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene in 50 participants from the Multiethnic Cohort Study. We evaluated the temporal stability of the fecal microbiome on a community level with permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA), as well as on taxa and diversity measures with intraclass correlation coefficients. RESULTS: Inter-individual differences were the predominant source of fecal microbiome variation, and variation within individual was driven more by changing abundances than the complete loss or introduction of taxa. Phyla and diversity measures were reliable over the two years. Most genera were stable over time, although those with low abundances tended to be more dynamic. Reliability was lower among participants who used antibiotics, with the greatest difference seen in samples taken within one month of reported use. CONCLUSIONS: The fecal microbiome as a whole is stable over a two-year period, although certain taxa may exhibit more temporal variability. IMPACT: When designing large epidemiologic studies, a single sample is sufficient to capture the majority of the variation in the fecal microbiome from 16S rRNA gene sequencing, while multiple samples may be needed for rare or less abundant taxa.

10.
Cancer Causes Control ; 29(10): 951-966, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30136012

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The reasons behind socio-economic disparities in prostate cancer incidence remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that individual-level factors act jointly with neighborhood-level social and built environment factors to influence prostate cancer risk and that specific social and built environment factors contribute to socio-econmic differences in risk. METHODS: We used multi-level data, combining individual-level data (including education and known prostate cancer risk factors) for prostate cancer cases (n = 775) and controls (n = 542) from the San Francisco Bay Area Prostate Cancer Study, a population-based case-control study, with contextual-level data on neighborhood socio-economic status (nSES) and specific social and built environment factors from the California Neighborhoods Data System. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to compute adjusted odds ratios separately for localized and advanced stage prostate cancer while controlling for neighborhood clustering. RESULTS: We found a more than twofold increased risk of both localized and advanced prostate cancer with increasing levels of nSES, and decreased risk of advanced prostate cancer with increasing levels of education. For localized disease, the nSES association was largely explained by known prostate cancer risk factors and specific neighborhood environment factors; population density, crowding, and residential mobility. For advanced disease, associations with education and nSES were not fully explained by any available individual- or neighborhood-level factors. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the importance of specific neighborhood social and built environment factors in understanding risk of localized prostate cancer. Further research is needed to understand the factors underpinning the associations between individual- and neighborhood-level SES and risk of advanced prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Características de Residência , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , São Francisco/epidemiologia , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
11.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 19(5): e745-e758, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30149883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study examined clinical stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment in the population-based California Cancer Registry. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The characteristics associated with first clinical stage I NSCLC treatment (surgery, radiation, no local therapy) from 2003 to 2014 were identified using logistic regression. Survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard analyses. RESULTS: Surgery was used in most patients who met the inclusion criteria (14,545 of 19,893; 73.1%), although relatively similar numbers had undergone radiation (n = 2848; 14.3%) or not received therapy (n = 2500; 12.6%). Surgery use ranged from 68.5% to 77.2% patients annually. The percentage of patients with no therapy decreased from 18.1% (315 of 1737) in 2003 to 10.3% (176 of 1703) in 2014, and radiation use increased from 10.7% (185 of 1737) in 2003 to 21.2% (361 of 1703) in 2014. Patients who did not receive therapy were more likely to be older, not white, male, and unmarried, to have no insurance or public insurance other than Medicare, to live in a lower socioeconomic status neighborhood, to have been seen at a non-National Cancer Institute cancer center hospital or hospital serving lower socioeconomic status patients, and to have larger tumors. The 5-year all-cause survival after no therapy (12.7%) was significantly worse than that after surgery (64.9%) or radiation (21.5%; P < .0001). CONCLUSION: In the present population-based analysis, surgery was the most common treatment for clinical stage I NSCLC but was not used for almost 27% of patients. Radiation use increased and the proportion of patients who did not receive any therapy decreased over time.

12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(9): 1011-1018, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30115679

RESUMO

Background: The incidence of colorectal cancer in the United States declined substantially over the past 20 years, but evidence suggests that among younger adults (under 50 years at diagnosis), incidence is increasing. However, data on age- and stage-specific incidence trends across racial/ethnic groups are limited.Methods: All incident cases of colorectal cancer diagnosed from 1990 through 2014 in adults aged 20 years and older were obtained from the California Cancer Registry. Incidence rates (per 100,000), incidence rate ratios, and triannual percent changes in incidence were estimated for each age group at diagnosis (20-49, 50-74, 75+ years), sex, stage, and race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and 7 Asian American groups).Results: Of 349,176 incident colorectal cancer cases diagnosed from 1990 through 2014, 9% were in adults younger than 50 years. Increases in incidence of early-onset colorectal cancer, especially in regional/distant stage disease, were observed in most racial/ethnic groups (statistically significant for non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics, ranging from 0.9% to 2.9% every 3 years). Incidence also increased in Vietnamese and other Southeast Asian groups of screening age (50-74 years). The incidence of colorectal cancer in non-Hispanic blacks aged 50+ declined over the 25-year period, but remained significantly higher than in non-Hispanic whites.Conclusions: Further research is needed to understand the causes of the increasing incidence of early-onset colorectal cancer. The rising incidence of colorectal cancer among Southeast Asians of screening age and the persistently high incidence in non-Hispanic blacks also warrant attention.Impact: Our findings may have implications for revisiting screening guidelines in the United States. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(9); 1011-8. ©2018 AACR.

13.
Cancer Causes Control ; 29(9): 875-881, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30056614

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated the role of neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES) and residence in ethnic enclaves on mortality following endometrial cancer (EC) diagnosis among Hispanics and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders (AAPI). METHODS: Using California Cancer Registry data, enhanced with census block group information on ethnic enclave and nSES, we examined 9,367 Hispanics and 5,878 AAPIs diagnosed with EC from 1988 to 2011. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate associations between all-cause and EC-specific mortality with nSES and ethnic enclaves, adjusting for subject sociodemographic and tumor characteristics. RESULTS: Hispanics in the lowest SES neighborhoods had a 39% and 36% increased risk of all-cause and EC-specific mortality, respectively, compared to Hispanics in the highest SES neighborhoods. AAPIs in the lowest SES neighborhoods had a 37% increased risk of all-cause mortality compared to AAPIs in the highest SES neighborhoods. Living in an ethnic enclave was associated with lower all-cause mortality risk for AAPIs. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality risk varied by nSES and ethnic enclave among Hispanics and AAPIs. Women living in lower SES communities experienced significantly higher risk, highlighting the need to identify the specific neighborhood factors underlying these associations so that community-based interventions may be properly targeted.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/etnologia , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Endométrio/etnologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/mortalidade , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Risco , Classe Social
14.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2018 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29917119

RESUMO

Background: Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 42 loci (P < 5 × 10-8) associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Expanded consortium efforts facilitating the discovery of additional susceptibility loci may capture unexplained familial risk. Methods: We conducted a GWAS in European descent CRC cases and control subjects using a discovery-replication design, followed by examination of novel findings in a multiethnic sample (cumulative n = 163 315). In the discovery stage (36 948 case subjects/30 864 control subjects), we identified genetic variants with a minor allele frequency of 1% or greater associated with risk of CRC using logistic regression followed by a fixed-effects inverse variance weighted meta-analysis. All novel independent variants reaching genome-wide statistical significance (two-sided P < 5 × 10-8) were tested for replication in separate European ancestry samples (12 952 case subjects/48 383 control subjects). Next, we examined the generalizability of discovered variants in East Asians, African Americans, and Hispanics (12 085 case subjects/22 083 control subjects). Finally, we examined the contributions of novel risk variants to familial relative risk and examined the prediction capabilities of a polygenic risk score. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: The discovery GWAS identified 11 variants associated with CRC at P < 5 × 10-8, of which nine (at 4q22.2/5p15.33/5p13.1/6p21.31/6p12.1/10q11.23/12q24.21/16q24.1/20q13.13) independently replicated at a P value of less than .05. Multiethnic follow-up supported the generalizability of discovery findings. These results demonstrated a 14.7% increase in familial relative risk explained by common risk alleles from 10.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.9% to 13.7%; known variants) to 11.9% (95% CI = 9.2% to 15.5%; known and novel variants). A polygenic risk score identified 4.3% of the population at an odds ratio for developing CRC of at least 2.0. Conclusions: This study provides insight into the architecture of common genetic variation contributing to CRC etiology and improves risk prediction for individualized screening.

15.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(16): 2940-2953, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29878111

RESUMO

C-reactive protein (CRP) is a circulating biomarker indicative of systemic inflammation. We aimed to evaluate genetic associations with CRP levels among non-European-ancestry populations through discovery, fine-mapping and conditional analyses. A total of 30 503 non-European-ancestry participants from 6 studies participating in the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology study had serum high-sensitivity CRP measurements and ∼200 000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped on the Metabochip. We evaluated the association between each SNP and log-transformed CRP levels using multivariate linear regression, with additive genetic models adjusted for age, sex, the first four principal components of genetic ancestry, and study-specific factors. Differential linkage disequilibrium patterns between race/ethnicity groups were used to fine-map regions associated with CRP levels. Conditional analyses evaluated for multiple independent signals within genetic regions. One hundred and sixty-three unique variants in 12 loci in overall or race/ethnicity-stratified Metabochip-wide scans reached a Bonferroni-corrected P-value <2.5E-7. Three loci have no (HACL1, OLFML2B) or only limited (PLA2G6) previous associations with CRP levels. Six loci had different top hits in race/ethnicity-specific versus overall analyses. Fine-mapping refined the signal in six loci, particularly in HNF1A. Conditional analyses provided evidence for secondary signals in LEPR, IL1RN and HNF1A, and for multiple independent signals in CRP and APOE. We identified novel variants and loci associated with CRP levels, generalized known CRP associations to a multiethnic study population, refined association signals at several loci and found evidence for multiple independent signals at several well-known loci. This study demonstrates the benefit of conducting inclusive genetic association studies in large multiethnic populations.

16.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0197146, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29791458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationships between neighborhood factors (i.e., neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES) and ethnic enclave) and histologic subtypes of lung cancer for racial/ethnic groups, particularly Hispanics and Asian American/Pacific Islanders (AAPIs), are poorly understood. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study of 75,631 Californians diagnosed with lung cancer from 2008 through2012. We report incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for lung cancer histologic cell-types by nSES among racial/ethnic groups (non-Hispanic (NH) Whites, NH Blacks, Hispanics and AAPIs) and according to Hispanic or Asian neighborhood ethnic enclave status among Hispanics and AAPIs, respectively. In addition, we examined incidence jointly by nSES and ethnic enclave. RESULTS: Patterns of lung cancer incidence by nSES and ethnic enclave differed across race/ethnicity, sex, and histologic cell-type. For adenocarcinoma, Hispanic males and females, residing in both low nSES and high nSES neighborhoods that were low enclave, had higher incidence rates compared to those residing in low nSES, high enclave neighborhoods; males (IRR, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.04-1.32] and IRR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.02-1.29], respectively) and females (IRR, 1.29 [95% CI, 1.15-1.44] and IRR, 1.51 [95% CI, 1.36-1.67], respectively). However, AAPI males residing in both low and high SES neighborhoods that were also low enclave had lower adenocarcinoma incidence. CONCLUSIONS: Neighborhood factors differentially influence the incidence of lung cancer histologic cell-types with heterogeneity in these associations by race/ethnicity and sex. For Hispanic males and females and AAPI males, neighborhood ethnic enclave status is strongly associated with lung adenocarcinoma incidence.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Classe Social
17.
Cancer Causes Control ; 29(1): 167-183, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29222610

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We characterized the neighborhood obesogenic environment in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) by examining the associations of obesity with attributes of the social and built environment, establishing a multi-level infrastructure for future cancer research. METHODS: For 102,906 African American, Japanese American, Latino, and white MEC participants residing predominately in Los Angeles County, baseline residential addresses (1993-1996) were linked to census and geospatial data, capturing neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES), population density, commuting, food outlets, amenities, walkability, and traffic density. We examined neighborhood attributes and obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) associations using multinomial logistic regression, adjusting for individual-level (e.g., demographics, physical activity, and diet) and neighborhood-level factors. RESULTS: NSES was associated with obesity among African Americans, Latinos, and whites (p-trend ≤ 0.02), with twofold higher odds (adjusted odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals) for living in the lowest versus highest quintile among African American women (2.07, 1.62-2.65), white men (2.11, 1.29-3.44), and white women (2.50, 1.73-3.61). Lower density of businesses among African American and white women and lower traffic density among white men were also associated with obesity (p-trends ≤ 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights differential impacts of neighborhood factors across racial/ethnic groups and establishes the foundation for multi-level studies of the neighborhood context and obesity-related cancers.

18.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(4): 405-417, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28637795

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of cancer have identified more than 700 risk loci, of which approximately 80% were first discovered in European ancestry populations, approximately 15% in East Asians, 3% in multiethnic scans, and less than 1% in African and Latin American populations. These percentages closely mirror the distribution of samples included in the discovery phase of cancer GWAS to date (84% European, 11% East Asian, 4% African, and 1% Latin American ancestry). GWAS in non-European ancestry populations have provided insight into ancestry-specific variation in cancer and have pointed to regions of susceptibility that are of particular importance in certain populations. Uncovering and characterizing cancer risk loci in diverse populations is critical for understanding underlying biological mechanisms and developing future genetic risk prediction models in non-European ancestry populations. New GWAS and continued collaborations will be required to eliminate population inequalities in the number of studies, sample sizes, and variant content on GWAS arrays, and to better align genetic research in cancer to the global distribution of race/ethnicity Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(4); 405-17. ©2018 AACRSee all articles in this CEBP Focus section, "Genome-Wide Association Studies in Cancer."

19.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 50(Pt A): 99-106, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28850934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Information on the role of the neighborhood environment and colorectal cancer risk is limited. We investigated the association between a comprehensive suite of possible obesogenic neighborhood attributes (socioeconomic status, population density, restaurant and retail food environments, numbers of recreational facilities and businesses, commute patterns, traffic density, and street connectivity) and colorectal cancer risk in the Multiethnic Cohort Study. METHODS: Among 81,197 eligible participants living in California (35,397 males and 45,800 females), 1973 incident cases (981 males and 992 females) of invasive colorectal cancer were identified between 1993 and 2010. Separately for males and females, multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for colorectal cancer risk overall and by racial/ethnic group (African American, Japanese American, Latino, white). RESULTS: In males, higher traffic density was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (HR=1.29, 95% CI: 1.03-1.61, p=0.03, for quintile 5 vs. quintile 1; p-trend=0.06). While this association may be due to chance, this pattern was seen (albeit non-statistically significant) in all racial/ethnic groups except whites. There were no other significant associations between other neighborhood obesogenic attributes and colorectal cancer risk. CONCLUSION: Findings from our large racial/ethnically diverse cohort suggest neighborhood obesogenic characteristics are not strongly associated with the risk of colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , California/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etnologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Classe Social
20.
J Clin Oncol ; 35(25): 2893-2899, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28644772

RESUMO

Purpose This study estimated the 10-year risk of developing second primary lung cancer (SPLC) among survivors of initial primary lung cancer (IPLC) and evaluated the clinical utility of the risk prediction model for selecting eligibility criteria for screening. Methods SEER data were used to identify a population-based cohort of 20,032 participants diagnosed with IPLC between 1988 and 2003 and who survived ≥ 5 years after the initial diagnosis. We used a proportional subdistribution hazards model to estimate the 10-year risk of developing SPLC among survivors of lung cancer LC in the presence of competing risks. Considered predictors included age, sex, race, treatment, histology, stage, and extent of disease. We examined the risk-stratification ability of the prediction model and performed decision curve analysis to evaluate the clinical utility of the model by calculating its net benefit in varied risk thresholds for screening. Results Although the median 10-year risk of SPLC among survivors of LC was 8.36%, the estimated risk varied substantially (range, 0.56% to 14.3%) when stratified by age, histology, and extent of IPLC in the final prediction model. The stratification by deciles of estimated risk showed that the observed incidence of SPLC was significantly higher in the tenth-decile group (12.5%) versus the first-decile group (2.9%; P < 10-10). The decision curve analysis yielded a range of risk thresholds (1% to 11.5%) at which the clinical net benefit of the risk model was larger than those in hypothetical all-screening or no-screening scenarios. Conclusion The risk stratification approach in SPLC can be potentially useful for identifying survivors of LC to be screened by computed tomography. More comprehensive environmental and genetic data may help enhance the predictability and stratification ability of the risk model for SPLC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Risco , Programa de SEER , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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