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1.
Pain Physician ; 24(2): E131-E152, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) has been increasingly used to manage acute and chronic pain. However, the level of clinical evidence to support its use is not clear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical evidence of PNS in the treatment of acute or chronic pain. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review of the efficacy and safety of PNS in managing acute or chronic pain. METHODS: Data sources were PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, CINAHL Plus, Google Scholar, and reference lists. The literature search was performed up to December 2019. Study selection included randomized trials, observational studies, and case reports of PNS in acute or chronic pain. Data extraction and methodological quality assessment were performed utilizing Cochrane review methodologic quality assessment and Interventional Pain Management Techniques-Quality Appraisal of Reliability and Risk of Bias Assessment (IPM-QRB) and Interventional Pain Management Techniques-Quality Appraisal of Reliability and Risk of Bias Assessment for Nonrandomized Studies (IPM-QRBNR). The evidence was summarized utilizing principles of best evidence synthesis on a scale of 1 to 5. Data syntheses: 227 studies met inclusion criteria and were included in qualitative synthesis. RESULTS: Evidence synthesis based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies showed Level I and II evidence of PNS in chronic migraine headache; Level II evidence in cluster headache, postamputation pain, chronic pelvic pain, chronic low back and lower extremity pain; and Level IV evidence in peripheral neuropathic pain, and postsurgical pain. Peripheral field stimulation has Level II evidence in chronic low back pain, and Level IV evidence in cranial pain. LIMITATIONS: Lack of high-quality RCTs. Meta-analysis was not possible due to wide variations in experimental design, research protocol, and heterogeneity of study population. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this systematic review suggest that PNS may be effective in managing chronic headaches, postamputation pain, chronic pelvic pain, and chronic low back and lower extremity pain, with variable levels of evidence in favor of this technique.

2.
Genes Genomics ; 43(1): 43-53, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The forest musk deer (FMD, Moschus berezovskii) is an threatened species in China. Bacterial pneumonia was found to seriously restrict the development of FMD captive breeding. Historical evidence has demonstrated the relationship between immune system and intestinal Lactobacillus in FMD. OBJECTIVE: We sought to elucidate the differences in the gut microbiota of healthy and bacterial pneumonia FMD. METHODS: The bacterial pneumonia FMD was demonstrated by bacterial and pathological diagnosis, and the gut microbiome of healthy and bacterial pneumonia FMD was sequenced and analysed. RESULTS: There are three pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus equinus and Trueperella pyogenes) isolated from the bacterial pneumonia FMD individuals. Compared with the healthy group, the abundance of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria in the pneumonia group was changed, and a high level of Proteobacteria was found in the pneumonia group. In addition, a higher abundance of Acinetobacter (p = 0.01) was observed in the population of the pneumonia group compared with the healthy group. Several potentially harmful bacteria and disease-related KEGG subsystems were only found in the gut of the bacterial pneumonia group. Analysis of KEGG revealed that many genes related to type IV secretion system, type IV pilus, lipopolysaccharide export system, HTH-type transcriptional regulator/antitoxin MqsA, and ArsR family transcriptional regulator were significantly enriched in the metagenome of the bacterial pneumonia FMD. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that the gut microbiome was significantly altered in the bacterial pneumonia group. Overall, our research improves the understanding of the potential role of the gut microbiota in the FMD bacterial pneumonia.

4.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 29(4): 839-845, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Deficiency of vitamin D has been associated with various health conditions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between the serum 25OHD concentration and lipid profiles in Chinese individuals. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Serum 25OHD and lipid profiles were obtained for a cross sectional sample of 10100 individuals aged 40-75 years from Lanzhou city, which is located in western China. Linear-by-linear association, partial correlation analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to evaluate associations between serum 25OHD concentration and lipid profiles. RESULTS: 10038 subjects aged 40- 75 years were included in the study. The 25OHD deficient and insufficient groups had higher TC, LDL-C and TG when compared to the optimal group. The dyslipidemia rates of vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency, and sufficiency groups were 45.4%, 41.6%, 38.8%, respectively. The prevalence rates of dyslipidemia, high cholesterol, high LDL-C, hypertriglyceridemia and mixed type hyperlipidemia exhibited decline trend in vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency and sufficiency groups. The correlation coefficients in between TC and 25OHD, LDL-C and 25OHD, TG and 25OHD were -0.033, -0.022, -0.044, respectively. Low 25OHD levels were associated with the risk of onset of dyslipidemia [OR 1.225 (95% CI 1.075-1.397), p=0.002] in the logistical regression analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Deficient serum 25OHD is associated with higher TC, LDL-C, and TG in middle-aged and elderly Chinese individuals. These findings suggest that low 25OHD levels observationally is simply a marker for elevated atherogenic lipoproteins and question a role for vitamin D supplementation in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

6.
A A Pract ; 14(6): e01194, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224698

RESUMO

Despite conservative and surgical treatments, patients with neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome can develop debilitating chronic pain of the shoulder and arm. Here we report a case of a patient who failed medical treatment, surgical resection of the first rib, and subsequent resection of rib regrowth with partial excision of a hypertrophied middle scalene muscle. Ultimately, this patient was successfully treated with spinal cord stimulation with dramatic pain relief and remarkable functional improvement for more than 3 years. This first report provides hope for those who suffer from this debilitating syndrome.


Assuntos
Estimulação da Medula Espinal/métodos , Síndrome do Desfiladeiro Torácico/terapia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Manejo da Dor , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Clin Invest ; 130(5): 2164-2176, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250346

RESUMO

Regenerative pain medicine, which seeks to harness the body's own reparative capacity, is rapidly emerging as a field within pain medicine and orthopedics. It is increasingly appreciated that common analgesic mechanisms for these treatments depend on neuroimmune modulation. In this Review, we discuss recent progress in mechanistic understanding of nociceptive sensitization in chronic pain with a focus on neuroimmune modulation. We also examine the spectrum of regenerative outcomes, including preclinical and clinical outcomes. We further distinguish the analgesic mechanisms of regenerative therapies from those of cellular replacement, creating a conceptual and mechanistic framework to evaluate future research on regenerative medicine.

8.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 21(2): 137-154, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115911

RESUMO

LysR-type transcriptional regulators are involved in the regulation of numerous cellular metabolic processes in Klebsiella pneumoniae, leading to severe infection. Earlier, we found a novel LysR family gene, named kp05372, in a strain of K. pneumoniae (designated GPKP) isolated from forest musk deer. To study the function of this gene in relation to the biological characteristics of GPKP, we used the suicide plasmid and conjugative transfer methods to construct deletion mutant strain GPKP-Δkp05372; moreover, we also constructed the GPKP-Δkp05372+ complemented strain. The role of this gene was determined by comparing the following characteristics of three strains: growth curves, biofilm formation, drug resistance, stress resistance, median lethal dose (LD50), organ colonization ability, and the histopathology of GPKP. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to test the expression level of seven genes upstream of kp05372. There was no significant difference in the growth rates when comparing the three bacterial strains, and no significant difference was recorded at different osmotic pressures, temperatures, salt contents, or hydrogen peroxide concentrations. The GPKP-Δkp05372 mutant formed a weak biofilm, and the other two strains formed medium biofilm. The drug resistance of the GPKP-Δkp05372 mutant toward cephalothin, cotrimoxazole, and polymyxin B was changed. The acid tolerance of the deletion strain was stronger than that of the other two strains. The LD50 values of the wild-type and complemented strains were 174-fold and 77-fold higher than that of the GPKP-Δkp05372 mutant, respectively. The colonization ability of the GPKP-Δkp05372 mutant in the heart, liver, spleen, kidney, and intestine was the weakest. The three strains caused different histopathological changes in the liver and lungs. In the GPKP-Δkp05372 mutant, the relative expression levels of kp05374 and kp05379 were increased to 1.32-fold and 1.42-fold, respectively, while the level of kp05378 was decreased by 42%. Overall, the deletion of kp05372 gene leads to changes in the following: drug resistance and acid tolerance; decreases in virulence, biofilm formation, and colonization ability of GPKP; and regulation of the upstream region of adjacent genes.

9.
J Wildl Dis ; 56(3): 684-686, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053412

RESUMO

Forest musk deer (FMD; Moschus berezovskii) immunoglobulin G efficiently bound to streptococcal G protein (SPG) and weakly bound to staphylococcal A protein. The results suggested that horseradish peroxidase-conjugated SPG could be chosen as an enzyme-labeled antibody substitute and laid a foundation for immunologic research in FMD disease.

10.
Inorg Chem ; 59(4): 2450-2457, 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003215

RESUMO

Three new pairs of 2-fold interpenetrated and self-entangled three-dimensional isostructural porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), [Zn(L1)(x)0.5]·0.5H2O (x = bipy for 1, bpa for 2, and bpe for 3) and [Zn(L2)(x)0.5]·0.5H2O (x = bipy for 4, bpa for 5, and bpe for 6) [bipy = 4,4'-bipyridine, bpa = 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene, and bpe = 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene], have been created and fine-tuned via similar skeleton ligands 2-(imidazol-1-yl)terephthalic acid (H2L1) and 2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)terephthalic acid (H2L2) and N-auxiliary coligands with different linking groups. Interestingly, the porosities of the MOFs can be effectively increased via the insertion of -CH2CH2- or -CH═CH- spacers into the N-auxiliary bipy ligand. As a result, complexes 5 and 6 displayed highly enhanced CO2 uptake capacities. Furthermore, complex 5 also had a higher C2/C1 selectivity as well as great CO2 cycloaddition efficiency.

11.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(2)2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033449

RESUMO

We investigated the genetic diversity of the population of captive forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii) in Barkam Musk Deer Breeding Centre using twelve microsatellite markers, and then analyzed the change in genetic structure of successive generation groups from the population. The data provide a new understanding for the evaluation and usage of the breeding management system. Microsatellite marker analysis detected 141 alleles with an average of 11.75 alleles for each marker. The average expected heterozygosity (HE) was 0.731. Performing an F-statistical analysis on the data showed that the genetic diversity of population decreased, and the inbreeding coefficient significant increased with the increase of generation, and FIS of the 1st generation is significantly lower than that of the second to fifth generation (p < 0.01). The result suggested that the captive population was facing the pressure of inbreeding (FIS = 0.115) and the subsequent loss of genetic diversity. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the breeding management system of the captive population by preventing close relatives from mating or inducing new individuals from the exotic population.

12.
J Vet Med Sci ; 82(2): 172-176, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902837

RESUMO

Streptococcus spp. cause a wide range of diseases in animals and humans. A Streptococcus strain (FMD1) was isolated from forest musk deer lung. To identify the bacterium at the species level and investigate its pathogenicity, whole genome sequencing and experimental infections of mice were performed. The genome had 97.63% average nucleotide identity with the S. equinus strain. Through virulence gene analysis, a beta-hemolysin/cytolysin genome island was found in the FMD1 genome, which contained 12 beta-hemolysin/cytolysin-related genes. Hemolytic reaction and histopathological analysis established the strain's pathogenicity in mice. This is the first report of a beta-hemolytic S. equinus strain in forest musk deer identified based on phenotypic and genotypic analyzes; this strategy could be useful for analyzing pathogens affecting rare animals.


Assuntos
Cervos/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus bovis/classificação , Streptococcus bovis/patogenicidade , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Pneumopatias/microbiologia , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/patologia , Streptococcus bovis/genética , Streptococcus bovis/isolamento & purificação , Virulência
14.
Pain Med ; 21(1): 198-200, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755913
15.
Pain Med ; 21(1): 21-31, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Growth hormone (GH) and GH-related signaling molecules play an important role in nociception and development of chronic pain. This review aims to examine the potential molecular mechanisms through which GH-related signaling modulates sensory hypersensitivity in rodents, the clinical pharmacology of GH, and the clinical evidence of GH treatment for several common pain syndromes. METHODS: A search was conducted using the PUBMED/MEDLINE database, Scopus, and the Cochrane library for all reports published in English on GH in pain management from inception through May 2018. A critical review was performed on the mechanisms of GH-related signaling and the pharmacology of GH. The levels of clinical evidence and implications for recommendations of all of the included studies were graded. RESULTS: The search yielded 379 articles, of which 201 articles were deemed irrelevant by reading the titles. There were 53 reports deemed relevant after reading abstracts. All of these 53 articles were retrieved for the analysis and discussion. CONCLUSIONS: Dysfunction of the GH/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)/ghrelin axis was linked to hyperalgesia and several common clinical pain syndromes. Low levels of GH and IGF-1 were linked to pain hypersensitivity, whereas ghrelin appeared to provide analgesic effects. Pretreatment of GH reversed mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in an animal model of inflammatory pain. Clinical trials support GH treatment in a subgroup of patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (level of evidence: 1B+) or chronic lower back pain syndrome (level of evidence: 2C+).

17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19146, 2019 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844127

RESUMO

Probiotics are intended to provide health benefits when consumed, generally by improving or restoring the gut flora. The health problems of forest musk deer (FMD, Moschus berezovskii), a threatened species currently under conservation, restrict the development of captive musk deer. This study was conducted with the aim of analyzing the effects of forest musk deer compound probiotics (FMDPs) on weight, immunity performance and fecal microbiota in FMD by measuring average daily weight gain (ADG) and immune-related factors and by using high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing to investigate differences in the fecal microbiota among the control group (4 samples), treatment group A (4 samples) and treatment group B (4 samples). The results showed that the ADG of treatment groups A and B was significantly higher than that of the control group (p = 0.032, p = 0.018). The increase in IgA and IgG levels in treatment group B was significantly higher than that in the control group (p = 0.02, p = 0.011). At the phylum and genus levels, the difference in bacterial community structure was significant between treatment group B and the control group. Both the alpha diversity and beta diversity results showed significant differences in the microbiota of FMD before and after FMDP feeding. In summary, the results indicated that FMDPs could promote the growth of growing FMD, improve immunity and balance the role of intestinal microbes.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cervos/imunologia , Cervos/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Florestas , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Animais , Biodiversidade , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados , Comportamento Alimentar , Lactobacillales/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia , Análise de Componente Principal , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
19.
Anesthesiology ; 131(4): 883-893, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sympathetic dysfunction may be present in complex regional pain syndrome, and sympathetic blocks are routinely performed in practice. To investigate the therapeutic and predictive values of sympathetic blocks, the authors test the hypotheses that sympathetic blocks provide analgesic effects that may be associated with the temperature differences between the two extremities before and after the blocks and that the effects of sympathetic blocks may predict the success (defined as achieving more than 50% pain reduction) of spinal cord stimulation trials. METHODS: The authors performed a retrospective study of 318 patients who underwent sympathetic blocks in a major academic center (2009 to 2016) to assess the association between pain reduction and preprocedure temperature difference between the involved and contralateral limbs. The primary outcome was pain improvement by more than 50%, and the secondary outcome was duration of more than 50% pain reduction per patient report. The authors assessed the association between pain reduction and the success rate of spinal cord stimulation trials. RESULTS: Among the 318 patients, 255 were diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome and others with various sympathetically related disorders. Successful pain reduction (more than 50%) was observed in 155 patients with complex regional pain syndrome (155 of 255, 61%). The majority of patients (132 of 155, 85%) experienced more than 50% pain relief for 1 to 4 weeks or longer. The degree and duration of pain relief were not associated with preprocedure temperature parameters with estimated odds ratio of 1.03 (97.5% CI, 0.95-1.11) or 1.01 (97.5% CI, 0.96-1.06) for one degree decrease (P = 0.459 or 0.809). There was no difference in the success rate of spinal cord stimulation trials between patients with or without more than 50% pain relief after sympathetic blocks (35 of 40, 88% vs. 26 of 29, 90%, P > 0.990). CONCLUSIONS: The authors conclude that sympathetic blocks may be therapeutic in patients with complex regional pain syndrome regardless of preprocedure limb temperatures. The effects of sympathetic blocks do not predict the success of spinal cord stimulation.


Assuntos
Bloqueio Nervoso Autônomo/métodos , Síndromes da Dor Regional Complexa/terapia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Chemosphere ; 236: 124342, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326752

RESUMO

The growth of algae in water and the taste and odour compounds produced by algal metabolism present a threat to water quality, public health and aquatic ecosystems and cannot be effectively removed by conventional water treatment processes. In this paper, a hydroxyl radical (OH)-based drinking water treatment system (DWTS) with a capacity of 480 m3 per day was built in the Xinglin water plant, Xiamen, China. With pretreatment at 0.88 mg L-1, sand filtration, and disinfection at 0.31 mg L-1 during the conveyance of algae-laden water within only 9.8 s, OH removed all five kinds of algae, with a total content of 35,180 cells mL-1, while ClO2 treatment left live and dead algae at 7150 cells mL-1, which would be transported into the pipe networks for the drinking water supply. Meanwhile, OH degraded 2-Methylisoborneol (2-MIB) from 175 to 4.4 ng L-1, which was below the Chinese standard of 10 ng L-1, while ClO2 degraded 2-MIB only to 155 ng L-1. Based on analyses of the mass spectra database, OH could mineralize 2-MIB by opening the ring structures of 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-cyclopentanedione and 2-methyl-cyclohexenecarboxaldehyde to produce small-molecule compounds. After OH pretreatment and OH disinfection, all water quality and disinfection by-product indexes met the Chinese Sanitary Standards for Drinking Water. Therefore, OH advanced oxidation produced using strong ionization discharge could be practically applied for the degradation of 2-MIB during the treatment of algae-laden water in the OH DWTS.


Assuntos
Canfanos/química , Compostos Clorados/química , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Radical Hidroxila/análise , Óxidos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , China , Diaminas/química , Desinfecção/métodos , Água Potável/química , Ecossistema , Filtração/métodos , Odorantes/análise , Oxirredução , Propano/análogos & derivados , Propano/química , Paladar , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água
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