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1.
Pediatrics ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower weight has historically been equated with more severe illness in anorexia nervosa (AN). Reliance on admission weight to guide clinical concern is challenged by the rise in patients with atypical anorexia nervosa (AAN) requiring hospitalization at normal weight. METHODS: We examined weight history and illness severity in 12- to 24-year-olds with AN (n = 66) and AAN (n = 50) in a randomized clinical trial, the Study of Refeeding to Optimize Inpatient Gains (www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT02488109). Amount of weight loss was the difference between the highest historical percentage median BMI and admission; rate was the amount divided by duration (months). Unpaired t tests compared AAN and AN; multiple variable regressions examined associations between weight history variables and markers of illness severity at admission. Stepwise regression examined the explanatory value of weight and menstrual history on selected markers. RESULTS: Participants were 16.5 ± 2.6 years old, and 91% were of female sex. Groups did not differ by weight history or admission heart rate (HR). Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire global scores were higher in AAN (mean 3.80 [SD 1.66] vs mean 3.00 [SD 1.66]; P = .02). Independent of admission weight, lower HR (ß = -0.492 [confidence interval (CI) -0.883 to -0.100]; P = .01) was associated with faster loss; lower serum phosphorus was associated with a greater amount (ß = -0.005 [CI -0.010 to 0.000]; P = .04) and longer duration (ß = -0.011 [CI -0.017 to 0.005]; P = .001). Weight and menstrual history explained 28% of the variance in HR and 36% of the variance in serum phosphorus. CONCLUSIONS: Weight history was independently associated with markers of malnutrition in inpatients with restrictive eating disorders across a range of body weights and should be considered when assessing illness severity on hospital admission.

2.
Br J Pharmacol ; 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] treatment may attenuate abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) via inhibiting vascular inflammation, extracellular matrix degradation and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) apoptosis, an animal model of AAA was established by angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion to apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-/- ) mice. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: All mice and cultured SMCs or macrophages were divided into control, Ang II-treated, Ang II + Ang-(1-7)-treated, Ang II + Ang-(1-7) + A779-treated and Ang II + Ang-(1-7) + PD123319-treated groups, respectively. KEY RESULTS: In the in vivo experiment, Ang-(1-7) treatment reduced the incidence and severity of AAA induced by Ang II infusion, and the mechanisms involved inhibited macrophage infiltration, attenuated expression of interleukin 6(IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1(MCP-1) and matrix metalloprotease 2(MMP2), as well as abated SMCs apoptosis in the abdominal aortic tissues. However, the addition of A779 or PD123319 treatment in these mice reversed Ang-(1-7)-mediated beneficial effects on AAA. In the in vitro experiment, Ang-(1-7) treatment mitigated the mRNA expression of IL-6, TNF-α and MCP-1 induced by Ang II stimulation in macrophages. In addition, Ang-(1-7) treatment significantly suppressed apoptosis and MMP2 expression and activity in Ang II-treated SMCs. The molecular mechanism may involve inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathways via Ang-(1-7) stimulation of Mas and angiotensin II type 2 receptors. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Ang-(1-7) treatment attenuated Ang II-induced AAA via inhibiting vascular inflammation, extracellular matrix degradation and SMCs apoptosis. Ang-(1-7) may provide a novel and promising approach to the prevention and treatment of AAA.

3.
Platelets ; : 1-6, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621450

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of thrombocytopenia can be divided into increased destruction (ID) of platelets in the peripheral blood and decreased production (DP) of platelets in the bone marrow. This study aimed to analyze the efficacy of immature platelet fraction (IPF) related parameters, including the IPF count (IPF#), IPF percentage (IPF%) and highly fluorescence IPF percentage (H-IPF%), measured by XN-9000, in the differential diagnosis of thrombocytopenia. One hundred and twenty healthy volunteers were enrolled in the healthy control (HC) group, and 180 thrombocytopenia patients were grouped into either the increased destruction (ID) group or the decreased production (DP) group according to their final diagnosis. IPF# was significantly lower in the DP group than in the ID and HC groups (P < .01). Among the three groups, the ID group had the highest IPF% and H-IPF%, and the HC group had the lowest IPF% and H-IPF%. The differences between the three groups were all statistically significant (P < .01). In differentiating the ID patients from the DP patients, the areas under the operating characteristics curve of IPF#, IPF% and H-IPF% were 0.859, 0.944 and 0.930, respectively. False positive rates were below 0.04 when IPF#, IPF% and H-IPF% were above 2.65, 7.55 and 2.35, respectively. IPF related parameters showed high efficacy in the differential diagnosis of thrombocytopenia. However, due to the small numerical values of the IPF related parameters in some thrombocytopenia patients, the fluctuations of IPF% and H-IPF% should also be taken into consideration. Though H-IPF% is a new parameter, its effectiveness in the differential diagnosis of thrombocytopenia is not better than IPF%'s.

4.
Oncol Rep ; 42(6): 2213-2227, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638169

RESUMO

B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling is important for the development and maturation of normal B-cells and plays a key role in B-cell malignancies. Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a crucial terminal kinase enzyme in BCR signaling, has emerged as an attractive target and has been successfully applied in the treatment of hematological malignancies. Ibrutinib, a BTK inhibitor, has demonstrated marked efficacy and tolerability in treatment-naïve, relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Ibrutinib has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of CLL/SLL, MCL, marginal zone lymphoma and Waldenström macroglobulinemia and by the China FDA for the treatment of CLL/SLL and MCL. Clinical trials of ibrutinib, as a single agent or combined with chemoimmunotherapy and other promising novel agents in the treatment of B-cell malignancy therapy, such as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, multiple myeloma, primary and secondary CNS lymphoma and acute lymphoblastic leukemia, T-cell lymphoma and myelodysplastic syndrome, are ongoing (https://clinicaltrials.gov/). The aim of the present review was mainly to cover the clinical developments regarding the use of ibrutinib in the treatment of CLL/SLL, as well as its safety and toxicity profile.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 803-812, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564438

RESUMO

Concurrent hearing and genetic screening of newborns is expected to play important roles not only in early detection and diagnosis of congenital deafness, which triggers intervention, but also in predicting late-onset and progressive hearing loss and identifying individuals who are at risk of drug-induced HL. Concurrent hearing and genetic screening in the whole newborn population in Beijing was launched in January 2012. This study included 180,469 infants born in Beijing between April 2013 and March 2014, with last follow-up on February 24, 2018. Hearing screening was performed using transiently evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) and automated auditory brainstem response (AABR). For genetic testing, dried blood spots were collected and nine variants in four genes, GJB2, SLC26A4, mtDNA 12S rRNA, and GJB3, were screened using a DNA microarray platform. Of the 180,469 infants, 1,915 (1.061%) were referred bilaterally or unilaterally for hearing screening; 8,136 (4.508%) were positive for genetic screening (heterozygote, homozygote, or compound heterozygote and mtDNA homoplasmy or heteroplasmy), among whom 7,896 (4.375%) passed hearing screening. Forty (0.022%) infants carried two variants in GJB2 or SLC26A4 (homozygote or compound heterozygote) and 10 of those infants passed newborn hearing screening. In total, 409 (0.227%) infants carried the mtDNA 12S rRNA variant (m.1555A>G or m.1494C>T), and 405 of them passed newborn hearing screening. In this cohort study, 25% of infants with pathogenic combinations of GJB2 or SLC26A4 variants and 99% of infants with an m.1555A>G or m.1494C>T variant passed routine newborn hearing screening, indicating that concurrent screening provides a more comprehensive approach for management of congenital deafness and prevention of ototoxicity.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657493

RESUMO

Grandparents caring for grandchildren has become a common experience in China. However, the health implications of grandparenting, especially for health self-management, remain unclear. A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the effects of grandparenting on health self-management in older adults in China. Information on socioeconomic characteristics, grandparenting, and health self-management was collected through interviewer-administered questionnaires. Age less than 50, male gender, higher education level, being a local resident, having a chronic illness, and supporting themselves financially were all factors that were significantly positively associated with health self-management (P < .05) in grandparents. Grandparenting characteristics, including caring for grandchildren at night, a caregiving burden of more than 50%, poorly behaved grandchildren, caring for grandchildren more than 6 hours per day, and caring for grandchildren less than 1 year in age were significantly negatively associated with health self-management in grandparents (P < .05). Multiple regression analyses indicated that grandparent age, receiving financial support from children, being a local resident, education level, grandchild behavior and age, and being an urban resident were all statistically significant factors associated with health self-management in grandparents involved in grandparenting. Taken together, these results suggested that financial condition and caregiving burden might be the major factors affecting health self-management in grandparents involved in grandparenting.

8.
J Struct Biol ; 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562921

RESUMO

The throughput of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) can be improved by employing a procedure that collects beam-image shift data. However, this procedure inadvertently induces a beam tilt, thus decreasing the resolution of the reconstruction. Here, we report an automatic calibration procedure for correcting the beam tilt and a large unexpected astigmatism in the beam-image shift data collection. In this procedure, the changes of the beam tilt and the astigmatism against the beam shift are measured and calibrated. The beam tilt and the astigmatism are corrected by changing the setting of the microscope using predicted values from the calibration. Using our corrected beam-image shift data collection, we found that the resolution remained identical as long as the distance of the beam shift was below 10 µm. The image throughput increases by ∼80%, with image quality improving by reducing the residual stage drift, thus benefiting the high resolution cryo-EM structure determination. Such a calibration procedure takes about 3 h and can be applied to different microscopes.

9.
J Cell Mol Med ; 23(11): 7449-7461, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512366

RESUMO

The role of Non-POU-domain-containing octamer-binding protein (NONO) in the formation and development of angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-/- ) mice is still unknown. In Part I, the protein level of NONO was suggestively greater in the AAA tissues compare to that in the normal abdominal aortas. In Part II, 20 ApoE-/- male mice were used to examine the transfection efficiency of lentivirus by detecting GFP fluorescence. In Part III, mice were arbitrarily separated into two groups: one was the control group without Ang II infusion, and another was the Ang II group. Mice treated with Ang II were further randomly divided into three groups to receive the same volume of physiological saline (NT group), sh-negative control lentivirus (sh-NC group) and si-NONO lentivirus (sh-NONO group). NONO silencing suggestively reduced the occurrence of AAA and abdominal aortic diameter. Compare to the NT group, NONO silencing markedly augmented the content of collagen and vascular smooth muscle cells but reduced macrophage infiltration in AAA. In addition, knockdown of NONO also increased the expression of prolyl-4-hydroxylase α1, whereas also decreased the levels of collagen degradation and pro-inflammatory cytokines in AAA. We detected the interface of NONO and NF-κB p65, and found that NONO silencing inhibited both the nuclear translocation and the phosphorylation levels of NF-κB p65. Silencing of NONO prevented Ang II-influenced AAA in ApoE-/- mice through increasing collagen deposition and inhibiting inflammation. The mechanism may be that silencing of NONO decreases the nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of NF-κB.

10.
Gynecol Obstet Invest ; : 1-12, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487736

RESUMO

AIMS: Recent studies indicate that in addition to the construction of nuclear pore complex, nucleoporin (NUP)107 is actively involved in the pathogenesis of numerous cancer types, but the role of NUP107 in cervical carcinoma cells remains unknown. METHODS: We examined the expression of NUP107 in 30 cases of cervical carcinoma using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblots. NUP107 stably overexpressing cell line was established to examine the function of NUP107 in cell viability, TUNEL assay, wound healing assay, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation, and oxidative stress. RESULTS: NUP107 expression was significantly increased in the cervical carcinoma tissues, compared with their corresponding adjacent normal tissues. Overexpression of NUP107 conferred the cervical cancer cells with significant resistance to oxidative insult, but it had no effects on the migration and proliferation. This pro-survival function of NUP107 was associated with the elevated expression of Bcl-2, the activation of Akt signaling, and increased expression of nucleocytoplasmic transport factors. Silencing of NUP107 increased the sensitivity of cervical cancer cells to oxidative challenge, thereby inducing the apoptosis of cervical cancer cells. CONCLUSION: NUP107 is significantly increased in cervical tissues and confers the cervical cancer cells with resistance to oxidative damage. These results provide an important role for specific NUP in mediating cervical cancer.

11.
J Food Biochem ; : e13052, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515822

RESUMO

Apple phlorizin has many biological activities, such as antioxidant and liver protection. The present study aimed to evaluate the roles of apple phlorizin against hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )-induced oxidative damage in HepG2 cells. In this study, treatment with apple phlorizin (100 and 150 µg/ml) decreased the production of reactive oxygen species and alleviated apoptosis as well as DNA damage in H2 O2 -induced HepG2 cells. These effects were associated with the increased activity of antioxidant enzymes, enhanced the ARE-driven phase II antioxidant gene expression and its upstream Nrf2 protein expression, and decreased apoptosis-related gene expression. However, the phase II antioxidant gene expression and Nrf2 protein expression upregulated by phlorizin were reversed by Nrf2 shRNA transfection. These results showed that phlorizin relieves oxidative stress, DNA damage, and apoptosis in H2 O2 -induced HepG2 cells, at least partially, by regulating the expression of Nrf2 protein and apoptosis-related genes. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Apple phlorizin is a polyphenol compound extracted from apple or apple juice. This report highlighted a protective effect of phlorizin on antioxidant stress, DNA damage, and apoptosis in H2 O2 -induced HepG2 cells. These results suggested that phlorizin may be developed for functional foods.

12.
Nanotechnology ; 31(1): 015601, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530767

RESUMO

The poor intrinsic flexibility of semiconducting ceramic materials hinders their applications in wearable electronics. Here, we present a highly efficient photosensor with extreme levels of bending and repeatable resilience based on cable-like structure. The ZnO@TiO2 cable-like photosensor demonstrates an ultra-high external quantum efficiency (2.82 × 106%) and photosensitivity (1.27 × 105) upon UV light illumination at 254 nm, and a stability of 85% at the small curvature radius of 0.5 mm. Moreover, the ZnO@TiO2 photodetector demonstrates extremely stable flexibility over 1000 bending cycles. This specific nanoscale architecture has future potential applications for soft integrated electronics.

13.
Phytomedicine ; 64: 153072, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is one of the most lethal cancers in women when it reaches the metastatic stage. The plant Carpesium cernuum has been used as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and detoxifying agent in Chinese folk medicine. However, the inhibitory activity and molecular mechanisms of Carpesium cernuum in breast cancer cells have not been investigated. METHODS: RNA sequencing experiments were performed to elucidate the cellular pathways affected by Carpesium cernuum extract (CCE). Cell viability and EdU incorporation assays were conducted to determine the effect of CCE on cell proliferation. The inhibitory effects of CCE on the expression levels of target genes were confirmed by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Cell migration and invasion were analysed with transwell chamber assays. RESULTS: Proliferation assays indicated that CCE inhibited cell proliferation in multiple cancer cell lines and the IC50 value of CCE was the smallest in MDA-MB-231 cells. Transcriptome analysis showed that CCE significantly affected the cell adhesion pathway. Further experiments revealed that CCE suppressed cell migration and invasion. The inhibitory effect on migration was likely mediated by targeting TIMP1, MMP9, CD44 and COL4A2. The main active components of CCE were isolated, and CCE-derived sesquiterpene lactone substances could reproduce the inhibitory effect of CCE on cell migration and invasion. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, both molecular and phenotypic assays showed that CCE has potential in the treatment of breast cancer, especially for the treatment of breast cancer metastasis. CCE-derived sesquiterpene lactone substances are the foundation for the tumor inhibitory effect of CCE.

14.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e030986, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434785

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To document the factors, and their pathways, that influence healthcare and antibiotics use following reported gastrointestinal illnesses in Anhui province, China. STUDY DESIGN: This study uses cross-sectional design, descriptive statistical analysis, pathway mapping and multivariate logistic regression modelling. SETTING: Households in 12 villages in Anhui province, China. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 3659 residents who: (1) held a registered rural residence and were actually living in the sampled villages when this study was conducted; (2) were aged 18 years and older and (3) were willing to participate and able to answer the survey questions. OUTCOME MEASURES: Planned and measured variables included the occurrence of gastrointestinal illness, professional care seeking and antibiotic use due to the illness and factors influencing these measures. RESULTS: Of the 3659 informants, 29.0% reported gastrointestinal illness episodes in the past year. Of these episodes, 50.2% led to professional care seeking and 65.4% of antibiotic use. Multivariate logistic modelling identifies that: (1) reported gastrointestinal illnesses were more frequent in north compared with middle (OR 0.569, 95% CI 0.472 to 0.686) and south (OR 0.588, 95% CI 0.492 to 0.702) Anhui, and were positively associated with age (B=0.123, p<0.05), knowledge concerning (B=0.248, p<0.05) and practice of (B=0.184, p<0.05) prevention; (2) seeking professional care and antibiotic use following the illness was linked to the severity of symptoms and geographical locations, rather than to specific pathogenic features. CONCLUSIONS: Reported gastrointestinal illnesses are quite prevalent in the sample population and a large proportion of these have resulted in professional care and antibiotics use. The factors associated with the reported illnesses and pathways of healthcare and antibiotic use, as identified in this study, should inform future research and intervention efforts.

15.
Oncogene ; 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420608

RESUMO

Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), a thrombin-responsive G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), is implicated in promoting metastasis in multiple tumor types, including both sarcomas and carcinomas, but the molecular mechanisms responsible remain largely unknown. We previously discovered that PAR1 stimulation in endothelial cells leads to activation of NF-κB, mediated by a protein complex comprised of CARMA3, Bcl10, and the MALT1 effector protein (CBM complex). Given the strong association between NF-κB and metastasis, we hypothesized that this CBM complex could play a critical role in the PAR1-driven metastatic progression of specific solid tumors. In support of our hypothesis, we demonstrate that PAR1 stimulation results in NF-κB activation in both osteosarcoma and breast cancer, which is suppressed by siRNA-mediated MALT1 knockdown, suggesting that an intact CBM complex is required for the response in both tumor cell types. We identify several metastasis-associated genes that are upregulated in a MALT1-dependent manner after PAR1 stimulation in cancer cells, including those encoding the matrix remodeling protein, MMP9, and the cytokines, IL-1ß and IL-8. Further, exogenous expression of PAR1 in MCF7 breast cancer cells confers highly invasive and metastatic behavior which can be blocked by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated MALT1 knockout. Importantly, we find that PAR1 stimulation induces MALT1 protease activity in both osteosarcoma and breast cancer cells, an activity that is mechanistically linked to NF-κB activation and potentially other responses associated with aggressive phenotype. Several small molecule MALT1 protease inhibitors have recently been described that could therefore represent promising new therapeutics for the prevention and/or treatment of PAR1-driven tumor metastasis.

16.
Stat Med ; 38(20): 3960, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379022
17.
Surg Endosc ; 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a safe and effective approach for achalasia. However, the safety, feasibility, perioperative and long-term efficacy in treating geriatric patients has not been well evaluated. METHODS: Data of 2367 patients diagnosed with achalasia and treated with POEM in the Endoscopy Center, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University from August 2010 to December 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Last follow-up was in December 2018. Propensity score matching based on baseline characteristics was used to adjust for confounding. With a caliper of 0.01 in propensity scoring, 139 patients aged ≥ 65 years were matched at a 1:2 ratio with 275 patients aged < 65 years. Perioperative complications and long-term outcomes were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: After propensity score matching, the two groups had similar baseline clinical characteristics and distribution of propensity scores. The mean age was 70.22 years in geriatric patients and 42.02 in younger patients. Technical failure occurred in one geriatric and one non-geriatric patients (p = 0.485). The procedural time in geriatric patients was similar to younger patients [50 (interquartile range (IQR) 36-76) vs. 50 (IQR 36-70) min, p = 0.398]. There were also no significant differences in major perioperative adverse events (2.88% vs. 2.18%, p = 0.663) and hospitalization length (median 3 vs. 3 days, p = 0.488). During a median follow-up period of 41 months (IQR 26-60), mean decrease in Eckardt score and pressure of the LES were 6.63 and 11.9 mmHg in geriatric patients, which were similar to the change in non-geriatric patients (6.49 and 11.6 mmHg, p = 0.652 and 0.872, respectively). Clinical reflux occurred in 23.53% geriatric patients and 21.59% non-geriatric patients (p = 0.724). 5-year success rate of 92.94% was achieved in geriatric patients and 92.61% in younger patients (log-rank p = 0.737). CONCLUSIONS: POEM is a safe and reliable treatment in geriatric achalasia patients with confirmed short-term and long-term efficacy compared with those in non-geriatric patients.

18.
Clin Anat ; 2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444881

RESUMO

It is generally accepted that primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) is found mostly in tall, thin young males. However, the precise etiology of PSP is unclear. We compared some thoracic structural angles of PSPs and controls in young males to determine the predominant factor. CT data of 43 male PSPs (age 21.88 ± 5.30) and 30 controls (age 21.47 ± 5.47) were collected. The angle of thoracic vertebrae slope (∠α), sternal slope angle (∠ß), and tracheal-sternal stem angle (∠γ) were measured in the sagittal position. Carina angle (∠δ) was measured in the coronal position. After a propensity score match (PSM) of age and smoking history, the angles were comparatively evaluated. There were significant differences in all four angles between two unmatched groups, while only in three (∠ß, ∠γ, and ∠δ) after PSM was performed. The correlation between âˆ ß and PSP was most significant, and R2 was 0.456. The prediction accuracy of âˆ ß was 81.3%, OR was 1.386, 95% confidence interval was (1.095-1.754). The sternal slope angles in PSPs are greater than controls indicate the sternal slope angle is associates with the development of PSP and it could be a thoracic structural index to predict the risk of PSP occurrence. Clin. Anat., 2019. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

19.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 5886-5891, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND To determine if histograms of ADC can be used to differentiate ventricular ependymomas, choroid plexus papillomas (CPPs), and central neurocytomas (CNCs). MATERIAL AND METHODS We retrospectively reviewed records from 185 patients from 1 January 2014 to 1 November 2018. We finally included a total of 60 patients: 36 (60.00%) had histologically confirmed ependymomas, 10 (16.67%) had CPPs, and 14 (23.33%) had CNCs, as determined by routine MRI scanning at 3.0T. The ADC histogram features were derived and then compared by Kruskal-Wallis test (they were not normally distributed). Bonferroni test was used to compare the 2 groups and then we determined the ROC. RESULTS Ependymomas had significantly higher mean, perc.01%, perc.10%, perc.50%, perc.90%, and perc.99% than CNCs. Ependymomas had significantly lower skewness than CNCs. Histogram metrics derived from mean, perc.01%, perc.10%, perc.50%, and perc.90% were significantly lower in the CNCs group than in the CPPs group. CPPs showed significantly lower skewness than CNCs. A threshold value of 86.50 for perc.50% to predict ependymomas from CNCs was estimated (AUC=0.97, sensitivity=97.20%, specificity=85.70%). Optimal diagnostic performance to predict CPPs from CNCs (AUC=0.96, sensitivity=100.00%, specificity=85.70%) was obtained when setting Perc.50%=84.00 as the threshold value. CONCLUSIONS The ADC histogram analysis may help to discriminate ependymomas, CPPs, and CNCs.

20.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e027819, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401593

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aims to investigate patterns of antibiotic treatment-seeking, describe current levels of and drivers for antibiotic use for common infections (respiratory tract and urinary tract infections) and test the feasibility of determining the prevalence and epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in rural areas of Anhui province, in order to identify potential interventions to promote antibiotic stewardship and reduce the burden of AMR in China. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct direct observations, structured and semistructured interviews in retail pharmacies, village clinics and township health centres to investigate treatment-seeking and antibiotic use. Clinical isolates from 1550 sputum, throat swab and urine samples taken from consenting patients at village and township health centres will be analysed to identify bacterial pathogens and ascertain antibiotic susceptibilities. Healthcare records will be surveyed for a subsample of those recruited to the study to assess their completeness and accuracy. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The full research protocol has been reviewed and approved by the Biomedical Ethics Committee of Anhui Medical University (reference number: 20170271). Participation of patients and doctors is voluntary and written informed consent is sought from all participants. Findings from the study will be disseminated through academic routes including peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations, via tailored research summaries for health professionals, health service managers and policymakers and through an end of project impact workshop with local and regional stakeholders to identify key messages and priorities for action.

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