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1.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; : 104742, 2020 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is one of the most effective therapies available for patients with known-onset stroke (KOS). Whether rt-PA treatment would improve functional outcomes in patients with stroke with unknown time of onset (UTOS) is undetermined, we aimed to systematically assess the efficacy and safety of thrombolysis for UTOS patients in this meta-analysis. METHODS: A systematic literature search of Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library was conducted. We considered the relevant data comparing thrombolyzed UTOS patients versus nonthrombolyzed UTOS patients or thrombolyzed UTOS patients versus thrombolyzed KOS patients. Treatment efficacy and safety were measured according to modified Rankin Scale scores of 0-2 (mRS 0-2), and the presence of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) or mortality at 90 days respectively. RESULTS: A total of 11 studies with 2581 patients meeting the inclusion criteria were included in the meta-analysis. All the patients had an ischemic lesion that was assessed by imaging including computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Among these studies, 6 compared the thrombolytic efficacy in thrombolyzed UTOS patients with that in nonthrombolyzed UTOS patients (mRS 0-2: odds ratio [OR] =1.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-2.81, P = .02), and 8 studies compared thrombolyzed UTOS patients with thrombolyzed KOS patients (mRS 0-2: OR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.66-1.15, P = .33). The incidence of SICH and mortality at 90 days had no difference between thrombolyzed UTOS patients versus nonthrombolyzed UTOS patients and thrombolyzed UTOS patients versus thrombolyzed KOS patients (all P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: Data from observational studies suggest that thrombolysis for UTOS patients had significantly favorable outcomes at 90 days compared with nonthrombolyzed patients.

2.
Bioorg Chem ; 98: 103720, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171982

RESUMO

Selective JAK3 inhibitors have been shown to have a potential benefit in the treatment of autoimmune disorders. Here we report the identification of a series of pyrazolopyrimidine derivatives as potent JAK3 inhibitors that exploit a unique cysteine (Cys909) residue in JAK3. Most of these compounds (13k, 13n and 13 t), displayed stronger anti-JAK3 kinase activity and selectivity than tofacitinib. Furthermore, the most active inhibitor 13t (IC50 = 0.1 nM), also exhibited favourable selectivity for JAK3 in a panel of 9 kinases which contain the same cysteine. In a series of cytokinestimulated cellular analysis, compound 13 t, could potently block the JAK3-STAT signaling pathway. Further biological studies, including cellular antiproliferative activity assays and a rat adjuvant-induced arthritis model for in vivo evaluation, also indicated its efficacy and low toxicity in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The results of these experimental explorations suggested that 13t is a promising lead compound for the development of selective JAK3 inhibitor with therapeutic potential in rheumatoid arthritis.

3.
Autophagy ; : 1-24, 2020 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019420

RESUMO

The precise mechanism through which macroautophagy/autophagy affects psoriasis is poorly understood. Here, we found that keratinocyte (KC) autophagy, which was positively correlated with psoriatic severity in patients and mouse models and could be inhibited by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family inactivation. The impairment of autophagic flux alleviated psoriasisform inflammation. We also found that an autophagy-based unconventional secretory pathway (autosecretion) dependent on ATG5 (autophagy related 5) and GORASP2 (golgi reassembly stacking protein 2) promoted psoriasiform KC inflammation. Moreover, the alarmin HMGB1 (high mobility group box 1) was more effective than other autosecretory proteins in regulating psoriasiform cutaneous inflammation. HMGB1 neutralization in autophagy-efficient KCs eliminated the differences in psoriasiform inflammation between Krt14+/+-Atg5f/f KCs and Krt14Cre/+-atg5f/f KCs, and conversely, recombinant HMGB1 almost completely restored psoriasiform inflammation in Krt14Cre/+-atg5f/f KCs in vivo. These results suggest that HMGB1-associated autosecretion plays a pivotal role in cutaneous inflammation. Finally, we demonstrated that Krt14Cre/+-hmgb1f/f mice displayed attenuated psoriatic inflammation due to the essential crosstalk between KC-specific HMGB1-associated autosecretion and γδT cells. Thus, this study uncovered a novel autophagy mechanism in psoriasis pathogenesis, and the findings imply the clinical significance of investigating and treating psoriasis.Abbreviations: 3-MA: 3-methyladenine; ACTB: actin beta; AGER: advanced glycosylation end-product specific receptor; Anti-HMGB1: anti-HMGB1 neutralizing antibody; Anti-IL18: anti-IL18 neutralizing antibody; Anti-IL1B: anti-IL1B neutralizing antibody; ATG5: autophagy related 5; BAF: bafilomycin A1; BECN1: beclin 1; CASP1: caspase 1; CCL: C-C motif chemokine ligand; CsA: cyclosporine A; ctrl shRNA: lentivirus harboring shRNA against control; CXCL: C-X-C motif chemokine ligand; DCs: dendritic cells; DMEM: dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium; ELISA: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; EM: electron microscopy; FBS: fetal bovine serum; GORASP2 shRNA: lentivirus harboring shRNA against GORASP2; GORASP2/GRASP55: golgi reassembly stacking protein 2; GR1: a composite epitope between LY6 (lymphocyte antigen 6 complex) locus C1 and LY6 locus G6D antigens; H&E: hematoxylin and eosin; HMGB1: high mobility group box 1; HMGB1 shRNA: lentivirus harboring shRNA against HMGB1; IFNG/IFN-γ: interferon gamma; IL17A: interleukin 17A; IL18: interleukin 18; IL1A/IL-1α: interleukin 1 alpha; IL1B/IL-1ß: interleukin 1 beta; IL22/IL-22: interleukin 22; IL23A: interleukin 23 subunit alpha; IL23R: interleukin 23 receptor; IMQ: imiquimod; ITGAM/CD11B: integrin subunit alpha M; ITGAX/CD11C: integrin subunit alpha X; IVL: involucrin; KC: keratinocyte; KD: knockdown; KO: knockout; Krt14+/+-Atg5f/f mice: mice bearing an Atg5 flox allele, in which exon 3 of the Atg5 gene is flanked by two loxP sites; Krt14+/+-Hmgb1f/f: mice bearing an Hmgb1 flox allele, in which exon 2 to 4 of the Hmgb1 gene is flanked by two loxP sites; Krt14Cre/+-atg5f/f mice: keratinocyte-specific atg5 knockout mice generated by mating Atg5-floxed mice with mice expressing Cre recombinase under the control of the promoter of Krt4; Krt14Cre/+-hmgb1f/f mice: keratinocyte-specific hmgb1 knockout mice generated by mating Hmgb1-floxed mice with mice expressing Cre recombinase under the control of the promoter of Krt14; Krt14-Vegfa mice: mice expressing 164-amino acid Vegfa splice variant recombinase under the control of promoter of Krt14; LAMP1: lysosomal associated membrane protein 1; LDH: lactate dehydrogenase; LORICRIN: loricrin cornified envelope precursor protein; M5: TNF, IL1A, IL17A, IL22 and OSM in combination; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MAPK: mitogen-activated protein kinase; MKI67: marker of proliferation Ki-67; MTT: thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide; NFKB/NF-κB: nuclear factor kappa B; NHEKs: primary normal human epidermal keratinocytes; NS: not significant; OSM: oncostatin M; PASI: psoriasis area and severity index; PtdIns3K: class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; qRT-PCR: quantitative RT-PCR; RELA/p65: RELA proto-oncogene, NF-kB subunit; rHMGB1: recombinant HMGB1; rIL18: recombinant interleukin 18; rIL1B: recombinant interleukin 1 beta; S100A: S100 calcium binding protein A; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; T17: IL17A-producing T; TCR: T-cell receptor; tcrd KO mice: tcrd (T cell receptor delta chain) knockout mice, which show deficient receptor expression in all adult lymphoid and epithelial organs; TLR: toll-like receptor; TNF/TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor; WOR: wortmannin; WT: wild-type; γδT17 cells: IL17A-producing γδ T cells.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previously, we have found that IL-22 could be not only secreted outside of cells, but also highly expressed on the T cells membrane in HIV-1 negative patients with tuberculosis (TB). However, the study on membrane-bound IL-22+ cells of HIV-1 infected patients is rare. Therefore, we investigated antigen-specific membrane-bound IL-22+ T cell subsets in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) coinfection of HIV-1 infected individuals. METHODS: A case-control study that enrolled 74 HIV-1 infected participants was carried out, including HIV-1 monoinfection (HIV+TB-, n = 43), HIV-1 infected patients with latent TB (HIV+LTB, n = 18) and HIV-1 coinfected patients with active TB (HIV+TB+, n = 13). We made use of an IFN-γ release assay (IGRA) to screen LTB individuals. Purified protein derivative (PPD) and phosphoantigen (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP) were used as specific-stimulators to detect the levels of peripheral blood membrane-bound IL-22+ T cell subsets via cell surface staining and flow cytometry among three groups. RESULTS: An approximate rate of 24.3% (n = 18 out of 74) of latent M.tb infection among HIV-1 positive population in Eastern China. Interestingly, HMBPP-specific CD3+Vγ2+ T cells were impaired in HIV+TB+patients compared with HIV+LTB patients (P < 0.05). Furthermore, increases of PPD-specific and HMBPP-specific membrane-bound IL-22+ T cell subsets including CD3+, CD3+CD4+ and CD3+Vγ2+ T cells were observed in HIV+TB+group rather than HIV+LTB groups (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Antigen-specific membrane-bound IL-22+ T cells were highly expressed in M.tb coinfection of HIV-1 infected individuals, and may play an important role in anti-TB immune response during coinfection with HIV-1.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32021144

RESUMO

Background and objective: The association between N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentrations and in-hospital and 1-year mortality in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) patients is largely unknown. Our objective was to explore the usefulness of NT-proBNP concentrations in AECOPD patients as a prognostic marker for in-hospital and 1-year mortality. Methods: NT-proBNP levels were measured in patients upon admission and laboratory and clinical data were also recorded. The cut-point for the NT-proBNP concentration level for in-hospital death was obtained using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression and Cox regression were used in the analyses of factors of in-hospital and 1-year mortality. Results: A total of 429 patients were enrolled. Twenty-nine patients died during hospitalization and 59 patients died during the 1-year follow-up. Patients who died in-hospital compared with those in-hospital survivors were older (80.14±6.56 vs 75.93±9.45 years, p=0.003), had a higher percentage of congestive heart failure (65.52% vs 33.75%, p<0.001), had higher NT-proBNP levels (5767.00 (1372.50-12,887.00) vs 236.25 (80.03-1074.75) ng/L, p<0.001), higher neutrophil counts (10.52±5.82 vs 7.70±4.31, p=0.016), higher D-dimer levels (1231.62±1921.29 vs 490.11±830.19, p=0.048), higher blood urea nitrogen levels (9.91±6.33 vs 6.51±4.01 mmol/L, p=0.001), a lower body mass index (19.49±3.57 vs 22.19±4.76, p=0.003), and higher hemoglobin levels (122.34±25.36 vs 130.57±19.63, p=0.034). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for NT-proBNP concentration was 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84-0.93). NT-proBNP concentrations ≥551.35 ng/L were an independent prognostic factor for both in-hospital and 1-year mortality after adjustment for relative risk (RR) (RR=29.54, 95% CI 3.04-286.63, p=0.004 for the multivariate logistic regression analysis) and hazard ratio (HR) (HR=4.47, 95% CI, 2.38-8.41, p <0.001 for the multivariate cox regression analysis). Conclusion: NT-proBNP was a strong and independent predictor of in-hospital and 1-year mortality in AECOPD patients.

7.
Epilepsy Behav ; 102: 106589, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726317

RESUMO

Brainstem raphe (BR) hypoechogenicity in transcranial sonography (TCS) has been depicted in patients with depression. But, up to date, the association of BR alterations in TCS with depression in patients with epilepsy has never been reported. This study was to investigate the possible role of BR examination via TCS in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy with tonic-clonic seizures (IGE-TCS) and depression. Forty-six patients with IGE-TCS and 45 healthy controls were recruited. Echogenicity of the caudate nuclei (CN), lentiform nuclei (LN), substantia nigra (SN), and BR and widths of the lateral ventricle (LV) frontal horns and the third ventricle (TV) were assessed via TCS. The determination of depression was based on the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-IV), and depression severity measured by Chinese version Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy (C-NDDI-E) and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). The width of TV in patients with epilepsy was found significantly larger than that in healthy controls (p = 0.001), but there was no significant difference in TV width between patients with IGE-TCS with and without depression. There were no significant differences between patients with IGE-TCS and healthy controls in LV frontal horn width, as well as in SN, CN, LN, and BR echogenicity. Here, it seems that patients with IGE-TCS were detected with smaller SN echogenic area compared with controls though they had no statistical significance. Patients with IGE-TCS with hypoechogenic BR had significantly higher C-NDDI-E and BDI-II scores than those with normal BR signal, and most patients with IGE-TCS with depression exhibited hypoechogenic BR, but few patients with IGE-TCS without depression exhibited hypoechogenic BR. In conclusion, BR echogenic signal alterations in TCS can be a biomarker for depression in epilepsy, but it might not be associated with epilepsy itself. The alterations of SN echogenic area and TV width in TCS may reflect a potential role of SN and diencephalon structure in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, which needs to be further elucidated.

8.
Biomaterials ; 230: 119605, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740099

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Vascular inflammation is closely related to the pathogenesis of a diverse group of CVDs. Currently, it remains a great challenge to achieve site-specific delivery and controlled release of therapeutics at vascular inflammatory sites. Herein we hypothesize that active targeting nanoparticles (NPs) simultaneously responsive to low pH and high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can serve as an effective nanoplatform for precision delivery of therapeutic cargoes to the sites of vascular inflammation, in view of acidosis and oxidative stress at inflamed sites. The pH/ROS dual-responsive NPs were constructed by combination of a pH-sensitive material (ACD) and an oxidation-responsive material (OCD) that can be facilely synthesized by chemical functionalization of ß-cyclodextrin, a cyclic oligosaccharide. Simply by regulating the weight ratio of ACD and OCD, the pH/ROS responsive capacity can be easily modulated, affording NPs with varied hydrolysis profiles under inflammatory microenvironment. Using rapamycin (RAP) as a candidate drug, we first demonstrated in vitro therapeutic advantages of RAP-containing NPs with optimal dual-responsive capability, i.e. RAP/AOCD NP, and a non-responsive nanotherapy (RAP/PLGA NP) and two single-responsive nanotherapies (RAP/ACD NP and RAP/OCD NP) were used as controls. In an animal model of vascular inflammation in rats subjected to balloon injury in carotid arteries, AOCD NP could accumulate at the diseased site after intravenous (i.v.) injection. Consistently, i. v. treatment with RAP/AOCD NP more effectively inhibited neointimal hyperplasia in rats with induced arterial injuries, compared to RAP/PLGA NP, RAP/ACD NP, and RAP/OCD NP. By surface decoration of AOCD NP with a peptide (KLWVLPKGGGC) targeting type IV collagen (Col-IV), the obtained Col-IV targeting, dual-responsive nanocarrier TAOCD NP showed dramatically increased accumulation at injured carotid arteries. Furthermore, RAP/TAOCD NP exhibited significantly potentiated in vivo efficacy in comparison to the passive targeting nanotherapy RAP/AOCD NP. Importantly, in vitro cell culture experiments and in vivo animal studies in both mice and rats revealed good safety for AOCD NP and RAP/AOCD NP, even after long-term treatment via i. v. injection. Consequently, our results demonstrated that the newly developed Col-IV targeting, pH/ROS dual-responsive NPs may serve as an effective and safe nanovehicle for precision therapy of arterial restenosis and other vascular inflammatory diseases.

9.
Comput Biol Med ; 116: 103535, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760272

RESUMO

Remote photoplethysmography (rPPG), a non-contact technique to estimate heart rates (HR) from video recordings, has attracted much attention from researchers in recent years. It is well-known that rPPG signals can be extracted from low-resolution videos. However, the measurement quality may degrade due to camera quantization noise if only a small number of pixels are within the skin region of interest. The purpose of this paper is to comprehensively investigate the benefit of using a super-high resolution for the rPPG-based HR estimation under various shooting distances. A new semi-blind source separation (semi-BSS) rPPG method, which is proposed to combine the advantages of BSS and model-based methods, is fully tested on both the public UBFC-RPPG and self-collected video datasets. The experimental results demonstrate that the new semi-BSS method outperforms several existing techniques. A consistent and remarkable improvement on the rPPG signal quality has been observed with the super-high resolution when the shooting distance is no less than 1.0 m. This indicates that selecting an appropriate resolution based on a given shooting distance also plays a crucial role to improve the quality of rPPG measurements.

10.
Environ Pollut ; 257: 113509, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767236

RESUMO

Evidence is available about the associations of phthalates or their metabolites with blood lipids, however, the mixture effects of multiple phthalate metabolites on blood lipid traits remain largely unknown. In this pilot study, 106 individuals at three age groups of <18, 18- and ≥60 years were recruited from the residents (n = 1240) who were randomly selected from two communities in Wuhan city, China. The participants completed the questionnaire survey and physical examination as well as provided urine samples in the winter of 2014 and the summer of 2015. We measured urinary levels of nine phthalate metabolites using a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We estimated the associations of individual phthalate metabolite with blood lipid traits by linear mixed effect (LME) models, and assessed the overall association of the mixture of nine phthalate metabolites with blood lipid traits using Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) models. LME models revealed the negative association of urinary mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) with total cholesterol (TC) as well as of urinary mono-benzyl phthalate or urinary MEHP with low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). BKMR models revealed the negative overall association of the mixture of nine phthalate metabolites with TC or LDL-C, and DEHP metabolites (especially MEHP) had a greater contribution to TC or LDL-C levels than non-DEHP metabolites. The findings indicated the negative overall association of the mixture of nine phthalate metabolites with TC or LDL-C. Among nine phthalate metabolites, MEHP was the most important component for the changes of TC or LDL-C levels, implying that phthalates exposure may disrupt lipid metabolism in the body.

11.
Neuromolecular Med ; 22(1): 45-55, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414383

RESUMO

The soluble amyloid protein procurer α (sAPPα) and ß (sAPPß) have been postulated as promising new cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and multiple other neurodegenerative diseases, but have failed to meet expectations with their often discordant and even contradictory findings to date. The aim of the study was to systematically explore this issue. Cochrane Library, PubMed, and CNKI were systematically searched without language or date restrictions. This network meta-analysis followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and also adhered to the Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. Twenty studies, comprising ten groups, were eligible and included. Overall, 19 eligible studies with 1634 patients contributed to the analysis of CSF sAPPα levels and 16 eligible studies with 1684 patients contributed to the analysis of CSF sAPPß levels. CSF sAPPß levels are significantly higher in AD than in corticobasal syndrome (CBS) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP); higher in Control than in Depression, CBS and PSP; higher in Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) than in CBS and PSP; higher in mild cognitive impairment progressed to AD dementia during the follow-up period (pMCI) than in Depression and PSP; higher in stable mild cognitive impairment (sMCI) than in Depression. With regard to CSF sAPPα levels, there were no significant difference among groups. However, surprisingly, the resultant rankings graphically showed that pMCI populations have the highest levels of CSF sAPPα and sAPPß. Furthermore, it seemed there was a positive correlation between CSF sAPPα and sAPPß levels. The measurement of CSF sAPPα and sAPPß levels may provide an alternative method for the diagnosis of early-stage AD, pMCI, which is conducive to preventive therapy.

12.
J Hazard Mater ; 386: 121663, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784133

RESUMO

Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phthalates are linked to lung function decline and altered relative telomere length (RTL) accompanying with oxidative stress and inflammatory events in human body. However, limited data are available about impacts of co-exposure of PAHs and phthalates on lung function and RTL. We conducted a pilot study with repeated measures during the winter of 2014 and summer of 2015 in Wuhan city, China. Participants took part in the measures of lung function, RTL, urinary monohydroxylated-PAHs (OH-PAHs) and phthalate metabolites over three consecutive days in each season. Linear mixed-effect (LME) models and Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) were used to analyze the relations of OH-PAHs or phthalate metabolites with lung function or RTL. LME models showed the negative associations of 3-day average of hydroxyphenanthrene (2 + 3-, 4-OHPhe) or 1-hydroxypyrene with FEV1, 3-day average of 2 + 3-OHPhe with FVC. BKMR models revealed the negative relation of eight OH-PAHs with FEV1, FVC or RTL; nine phthalate metabolites may counteract an overall effect of eight OH-PAHs on FEV1, FVC or RTL. The findings indicated that urinary phthalate metabolites may counteract the negative association of urinary OH-PAHs on FEV1 or FVC, which may be partially linked to shorter RTL regarding biological aging.

13.
Anal Chem ; 92(1): 1409-1415, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829003

RESUMO

Interrogating metabolite crosstalk in live cells is important to understand the interplay between metabolic and signal transduction pathways but is challenging due to the lack of efficient analytical techniques. Here we report a sequentially activated probe design strategy resulting in probe HF-6 being capable of imaging the crosstalk between H2O2 and formaldehyde in live cells. Fluorescence of HF-6 can only be triggered by first H2O2 activation followed by binding with formaldehyde. Facilitated by this sequentially activated mechanism, HF-6 imaging revealed H2O2-induced upregulation of formaldehyde in live SH-SY5Y cells, while little change of intracellular H2O2 level was observed when cells were stimulated with formaldehyde for limited time. These results establish a link for the crosstalk between H2O2 and formaldehyde in redox signaling and provide a starting point to study broader metabolite interactions.

14.
Sci Total Environ ; 702: 135056, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731128

RESUMO

Limited researches are available on seasonal variation of inhalation exposure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and its cancer risk assessment in China. We recruited 20 fresh postgraduates and measured outdoor and indoor (dormitories, offices and laboratories) daily PM2.5 concentrations in four seasons (seven consecutive days in every season) during 2014 -2015, calculated daily potential doses of personal exposure to total Benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration (BaPeq) in the microenvironments based on the total BaPeq and the time-activity patterns, and estimated incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) using Monte Carlo method. Daily average concentrations of PM2.5-bound ∑PAHs on the campus ranked from high to low were winter, autumn, spring, summer in the dormitories and offices. Daily average concentration of PM2.5-bound ∑PAHs were higher in indoor environments than outdoor in the same season, except for that of PM2.5-bound ∑PAHs in laboratories in the winter. Median values of ILCR in both sexes from high to low were winter (men vs. women: 5.35e-9 vs. 4.96e-9), spring (3.71e-9 vs. 4.00e-9), autumn (2.92e-9 vs. 3.02e-9), summer (1.71e-9 vs. 1.87e-9). Indoor and outdoor PM2.5-bound PAHs concentrations showed seasonal and spatial variations. The ILCR value for PM2.5-bound PAHs was higher in women than in men.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano
15.
World J Clin Cases ; 7(22): 3872-3880, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary peritoneal cancer (PPC) patients with BRCA mutations have a good prognosis; however, for patients with BRCA mutations who are diagnosed with PPC after prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy (PSO), the prognosis is poor, and survival information is scarce. CASE SUMMARY: We treated a 56-year-old woman with PPC after bilateral mastectomy, hysterectomy, and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. This patient had primary drug resistance and died 12 mo after the diagnosis of PPC. The genetic test performed on this patient indicated the presence of a germline BRCA1 mutation. We searched the PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane databases and extracted studies of patients with BRCA mutations who developed PPC after PSO. After a detailed literature search, we found 30 cases, 7 of which had a history of breast cancer, 14 of which had no history of breast cancer, and 9 of which had an unknown history. The average age of PSO patients was 48.86 years old (range, 31-64 years). The average time interval between the diagnosis of PPC and preventive surgery was 61.03 mo (range, 12-292 mo). The 2-year survival rate for this patient population was 78.26% (18/23), the 3-year survival rate was 50.00% (9/18), and the 5-year survival rate was 6.25% (1/16). CONCLUSION: Patients with BRCA mutations who are diagnosed with PPC after preventative surgery have a poor prognosis. Prevention measures and treatments for these patients need more attention.

16.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2019: 5450373, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885682

RESUMO

In the field of cell and molecular biology, green fluorescent protein (GFP) images provide functional information embodying the molecular distribution of biological cells while phase-contrast images maintain structural information with high resolution. Fusion of GFP and phase-contrast images is of high significance to the study of subcellular localization, protein functional analysis, and genetic expression. This paper proposes a novel algorithm to fuse these two types of biological images via generative adversarial networks (GANs) by carefully taking their own characteristics into account. The fusion problem is modelled as an adversarial game between a generator and a discriminator. The generator aims to create a fused image that well extracts the functional information from the GFP image and the structural information from the phase-contrast image at the same time. The target of the discriminator is to further improve the overall similarity between the fused image and the phase-contrast image. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can outperform several representative and state-of-the-art image fusion methods in terms of both visual quality and objective evaluation.

17.
Int Immunopharmacol ; : 106026, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759863

RESUMO

Diet is one of the factors contributing to symptom of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a diet-related microbial metabolite, is associated with inflammatory and metabolic diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of TMAO intake on inflammation and gut microbiota composition in H. pylori-infected mice via 16S rRNA sequencing and biochemical analyses. The in vitro experiments showed that TMAO not only increased the expression of growth- and metabolism-associated genes and the urease activity of H. pylori, but increased the production of virulence factors. Moreover, TMAO intake increased the production of inflammatory markers and reduced the richness and diversity of the gut microbiota in H. pylori-infected mice. Further analysis showed that TMAO increased the relative abundance of Escherichia_Shigella in H. pylori-infected mice, which had positive correlation with the levels of LPS, CRP, and CXCL1. Collectively, our results suggest that TMAO may aggravate H. pylori-induced inflammation by increasing the viability and virulence of H. pylori and may aggravate inflammation in association with the gut microbiota in H. pylori-infected mice. This study may provide a novel insight into the mechanism for the effect of diet-derived metabolites such as TMAO on H. pylori-induced disease development.

18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(43): 39410-39423, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578854

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is becoming a promising therapeutic regimen but is limited by the hypoxic microenvironment in solid tumors and the undesirable post-treatment phototoxicity side effects on normal tissues. To overcome these restrictions and enhance the antitumor therapeutic effect, near-infrared (NIR) light-activated, cancer cell-specific, hypoxia prodrug-loaded chlorin e6 liposomes were developed for tumor selective combination therapy guided by multimodal imaging. The photothermal agent indocyanine green (ICG) and hypoxia-activated prodrug tirapazamine (TPZ) were coencapsulated into the liposomes, followed by modification with cRGD and conjugation with GdIII to form ICG/TPZ@Ce6-GdIII theranostic liposomes (ITC-GdIII TLs). In the ITC-GdIII TLs, both the fluorescence and photodynamic effect of Ce6 were quenched by ICG via fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The ITC-GdIII TLs can effectively reach the tumor site through the enhanced permeability and retention effect as well as the cRGD-mediated active targeting ability. The fluorescence and photodynamic effect of Ce6 can be activated by the photothermal effect of ICG under NIR light. Upon subsequent irradiation with a 660 nm laser, the released Ce6 could kill cancer cells by generating cytotoxic singlet oxygen. Furthermore, the PDT process would induce hypoxia, which in turn activated the antitumor activity of the codelivered hypoxia-activated prodrug TPZ for a combination antitumor effect. The TLs could be utilized for multimodal imaging (fluorescence/photoacoustic/magnetic resonance imaging)-guided cascade-activated tumor inhibition with optimized therapeutic efficiency and minimized side effects, holding great potential for constructing intelligent nanotheranostics.

19.
Arch Toxicol ; 93(11): 3169-3181, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501917

RESUMO

N,N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) is a widespread contaminant of leather factories and their surrounding environment. There is a lack of direct in vivo evidence supporting CYP2E1 as a primary enzyme responsible for DMF metabolism and hepatotoxicity. In this study, a novel Cyp2e1 knockout (KO) mouse model was generated and used to assess whether DMF metabolism and hepatotoxicity is CYP2E1 dependent using an acute toxicity protocol with a single dose of 1500 mg DMF/kg. An epidemiological study in 698 DMF-exposed workers and 188 non-DMF-exposed controls was conducted to investigate the associations between functional polymorphisms of CYP2E1 (rs6413432/rs2031920) and DMF metabolite (N-methylcarbmoylated-hemoglobin [NMHb]). We successfully established Cyp2e1 KO mice with evidence from DNA sequence analysis, which showed 1-bp insertion at 65 bp (C) site of Cyp2e1 Exon 1. In addition, western blot and in vivo pharmacokinetic study also showed a complete absence of CYP2E1 protein and a 92% and 88% reduction in CYP2E1 activity among males and females, respectively. DMF metabolism as evidenced by increased blood NMHb, and hepatotoxicity as evidenced by elevated liver/body weight ratio, activity of liver enzymes and massive liver necrosis were detected in wild-type (WT) mice but were completely abrogated in KO mice, strongly supporting a CYP2E1-dependent pattern of DMF metabolism and hepatotoxicity. Moreover, variant allele of CYP2E1-rs6413432 was also significantly associated with higher NMHb levels in DMF-exposed workers (P = 0.045). The increase of glucose-regulated protein 94 detected in WT mice but not in KO mice suggested CYP2E1-dependent endoplasmic reticulum stress may be a key mechanism underlying DMF-induced hepatotoxicity.

20.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 39(9): 945-9, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544382

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To verify the efficacy of eye acupuncture combined with conventional acupuncture in the treatment of dry eye syndrome with yin deficiency of liver and kidney. METHODS: A total of 90 patients with dry eye syndrome with yin deficiency of liver and kidney were randomly divided into an eye acupuncture combination with conventional acupuncture group (eye acupuncture combination group), a conventional acupuncture group and a western medication group, 30 cases in each group. In the western medication group, sodium hyaluronate eye drops were used 3 times a day, each time 1-2 drops, 10 days as one course for 3 courses; conventional acupuncture was applied at Jingming (BL 1), Cuanzhu (BL 2), Chengqi (ST 1), Fengchi (GB 20), Hegu (LI 4), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Zusanli (ST 36), Guangming (GB 37) in the conventional acupuncture group; on the basis of the treatment in the conventional acupuncture, eye acupuncture was added at Shangjiao, Gan (liver), Shen (kidney), Pi (spleen) in the eye acupuncture combination group. The treatment in the eye acupuncture combination group and the conventional acupuncture group were given once a day, 10 days as one course, and a total of 3 courses were needed. Subjective symptom score was performed before treatment and every 10 days during treatment. Ocular surface analyzer was used before and after treatment. RESULTS: The subjective symptom scores in the three groups were lower than those before treatment (P<0.05). Compared with the conventional acupuncture group and the western medication group, the subjective symptom score after 30 d of treatment in the eye acupuncture combination group was decreased (P<0.05). After treatment, the tear film break up time (BUT) was prolonged and the tear meniscus height increased in the eye acupuncture combination group and the conventional acupuncture group (P<0.05). Compared with the conventional acupuncture group and the western medication group, the tear film break up time was prolonged and the tear meniscus height increased in the eye acupuncture combination group (P<0.05). Corneal staining were better in all three groups than that before treatment (P<0.05). The total effective rate was 93.3% (28/30) in the eye acupuncture combination group, was better than 86.7% (26/30) in the conventional acupuncture group and 73.3% (21/30) in the western medication group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Eye acupuncture combined with conventional acupuncture can significantly improve the clinical symptoms of dry eye syndrome with yin deficiency of liver and kidney, increase the secretion of tears, prolong the break up time of tear film, and restore the integrity of corneal epithelium.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Síndromes do Olho Seco , Deficiência da Energia Yin , Pontos de Acupuntura , Síndromes do Olho Seco/terapia , Humanos , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Deficiência da Energia Yin/terapia
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