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1.
Talanta ; 236: 122882, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635262

RESUMO

Oxygen is necessary for cellular respiration in aerobic organisms. In animals, such as human, inhaled oxygen moves from the alveoli to the blood through alveolar epithelium into pulmonary capillaries. Up to now, different studies have been reported to examine experimental oxygen diffusivity for simple membrane or single-celled organisms; however, devices capable of precisely characterizing oxygen transportation through cell layers with dimensions similar to their physiological ones have not been developed. In this study, we establish an integrated approach exploiting a multi-layer microfluidic device and relative fluorescence lifetime detection apparatus to reliably measure oxygen diffusivity through a cell layer. In the experiments, different types of cells, including A549 and 3T3 cell lines, lung stem/progenitor cells, and the differentiated type I pneumocyte-like cells, are used to form cell layers within the devices for their oxygen diffusivity evaluation. A distinct facilitated oxygen transportation behavior of the differentiated type I pneumocyte-like cells that has never been discussed before is identified using the approach. The study offered a new in vitro approach to evaluate the oxygen diffusivity across cell layers in a microfluidic device and open a door to construct more physiologically meaningful in vitro model system to study respiratory systems.


Assuntos
Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Células Epiteliais Alveolares , Animais , Humanos , Oxigênio
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149897, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464798

RESUMO

We conducted 35 experiments for spatial measurement of marijuana aerosols in a current smoker's residential spaces. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations were measured every second at 1, 2, and 3 m horizontal distances from the smoker who performed prescribed 5-min smoking and vaping activities. In each experiment, five SidePak monitors measured PM2.5 concentrations at five different angles facing the front of the smoker, representing the worst-case exposures. We studied the effect of distance from the smoker for two marijuana sources - smoking a marijuana cigarette, or joint, and vaping a liquid-cartridge vaping pen. Experiments were conducted in the family room indoors and in the backyard outdoors where the smoker normally consumes marijuana. Indoor marijuana vaping had higher average exposures (5-min PM2.5) at 1 m distance than indoor marijuana smoking, but the levels from indoor vaping decreased more rapidly with distance (e.g., 77% reduction for vaping versus 33% for smoking from 1 to 2 m). Smoking and vaping in the outdoor environment reduce the average exposures down to <5% of the indoor levels at each distance. Cumulative frequency distributions of the 1-s PM2.5 concentrations revealed the frequencies of exceeding any selected transient peak exposure limit at a given distance. The frequency of exceedance decreased more quickly with distance for vaping than for smoking. Smoking and vaping outdoors made the transient peak exposures close to the source much less frequent than smoking and vaping indoors (e.g., <1% exceeded 1000 µg/m3 outdoors versus >20% indoors at 1 m). Plotting the frequency of exceedance versus distance could offer additional guidance for a recommended minimum distance from a marijuana source.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Fumar Maconha , Vaping , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise
3.
World J Gastrointest Surg ; 13(10): 1110-1121, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34754381

RESUMO

Long-term survival is the most important outcome measurement of a curative oncological treatment. For hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the long-term disease-free and overall survival of laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) is shown to be non-inferior to the current standard of open liver resection (OLR). Some studies have reported a superior long-term oncological outcome in LLR when compared to OLR. It has been argued that improvement of visualization and instrumentation and reduced operative blood loss and perioperative blood transfusion may contribute to reduced risk of postoperative tumor recurrence. On the other hand, since most of the comparative studies of the oncological outcomes of LLR and OLR for HCC are non-randomized, it remained inconclusive as to whether LLR confers additional survival benefit compared to OLR. Despite the paucity of level 1 evidence, the practice of LLR for HCC has gained wide-spread acceptance due to the reproducible improvements in the perioperative outcomes and non-inferior oncological outcomes demonstrated by large-scaled, matched comparative studies. Meta-analyses of the outcomes of these studies by multiple systematic reviews have also returned noncontradictory conclusions. On the basis of a theoretical advantage of LLR over OLR in preventing tumor recurrence, the current review aims to dissect from the current meta-analyses and comparative studies any evidence of such superiority.

4.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(16): 3839-3850, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790060

RESUMO

Background: Although associations between low protein diet (LPD) and changes of gut microbiota have been reported; however, systematic discernment of the effects of LPD on diet-microbiome-host interaction in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is lacking. Methods: We searched PUBMED and EMBASE for articles published on changes of gut microbiota associated with implementation of LPD in CKD patients until July 2021. Independent researchers extracted data and assessed risks of bias. We conducted meta-analyses of combine p-value, mean differences and random effects for gut microbiota and related metabolites. Study heterogeneity was measured by Tau2 and I2 statistic. This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Results: Five articles met inclusion criteria. The meta-analyses of gut microbiota exhibited enrichments of Lactobacillaceae (meta-p= 0.010), Bacteroidaceae (meta-p= 0.048) and Streptococcus anginosus (meta-p< 0.001), but revealed depletion of Bacteroides eggerthii (p=0.017) and Roseburia faecis (meta-p=0.019) in LPD patients compared to patients undergoing normal protein diet. The serum IS levels (mean difference: 0.68 ug/mL, 95% CI: -8.38-9.68, p= 0.89) and pCS levels (mean difference: -3.85 ug/mL, 95% CI: -15.49-7.78, p < 0.52) did not change between groups. We did not find significant differences on renal function associated with change of microbiota between groups (eGFR, mean difference: -7.21 mL/min/1.73 m2, 95% CI: -33.2-18.79, p= 0.59; blood urea nitrogen, mean difference: -6.8 mg/dL, 95% CI: -46.42-32.82, p= 0.74). Other clinical (sodium, potassium, phosphate, albumin, fasting sugar, uric acid, total cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein and hemoglobin) and anthropometric estimates (body mass index, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure) did not differ between the two groups. Conclusions: This systematic review and meta-analysis suggested that the effects of LPD on the microbiota were observed predominantly at the families and species levels but minimal on microbial diversity or richness. In the absence of global compositional microbiota shifts, the species-level changes appear insufficient to alter metabolic or clinical outputs.

5.
Cells ; 10(11)2021 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34831176

RESUMO

Human coronavirus (HCoV) similar to other viruses rely on host cell machinery for both replication and to spread. The p97/VCP ATPase is associated with diverse pathways that may favor HCoV replication. In this study, we assessed the role of p97 and associated host responses in human lung cell line H1299 after HCoV-229E or HCoV-OC43 infection. Inhibition of p97 function by small molecule inhibitors shows antiviral activity, particularly at early stages of the virus life cycle, during virus uncoating and viral RNA replication. Importantly, p97 activity inhibition protects human cells against HCoV-induced cytopathic effects. The p97 knockdown also inhibits viral production in infected cells. Unbiased quantitative proteomics analyses reveal that HCoV-OC43 infection resulted in proteome changes enriched in cellular senescence and DNA repair during virus replication. Further analysis of protein changes between infected cells with control and p97 shRNA identifies cell cycle pathways for both HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43 infection. Together, our data indicate a role for the essential host protein p97 in supporting HCoV replication, suggesting that p97 is a therapeutic target to treat HCoV infection.

6.
Acta Cardiol Sin ; 37(6): 625-631, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812236

RESUMO

Background: High electromechanical activation time (EMAT) is associated with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and heart failure. Little is known about the association between EMAT and metabolic syndrome (MetS), a precursor of cardiovascular disease. Objectives: To explore the association between EMAT and MetS. Methods: A total of 429 male volunteers were divided into MetS (n = 135, age 60.3 ± 3.7 years) and non-MetS (n = 294, age 58.1 ± 26.6 years) groups in this cross-sectional study. A complete medical history, fasting blood analysis and phonoelectrocardiographic parameters were recorded. EMAT was defined as the time from the onset of Q- wave to the peak first heart sound (Q-S1 interval), and this interval divided by the R-R interval for heart rate correction was calculated as normalized EMAT (nEMAT). Results: The subjects with MetS had a significantly higher rate of positive nEMAT (nEMAT ≥ 15%: 6.7% vs. 2%, p = 0.015), higher heart rate (HR, 71.9 ± 12.0 vs. 69.2 ± 11.1 bpm, p = 0.022) but shorter left ventricular ejection time (LVST = 312.4 ± 33.5 vs. 319.8 ± 31.8 msec, p = 0.029). However, the normalized LVST (nLVST) was not significantly different after adjusting for HR. In multivariate analysis, nEMAT was significantly associated with MetS (odds ratio = 3.43, 95% confidence interval = 1.195-9.837, p = 0.022). Conclusions: Positive nEMAT, a prolonged early phase of contraction, was significantly associated with MetS in males. High nEMAT may be an earlier sign of cardiac function abnormality in MetS.

7.
Nat Methods ; 18(11): 1304-1316, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725484

RESUMO

Glycoproteomics is a powerful yet analytically challenging research tool. Software packages aiding the interpretation of complex glycopeptide tandem mass spectra have appeared, but their relative performance remains untested. Conducted through the HUPO Human Glycoproteomics Initiative, this community study, comprising both developers and users of glycoproteomics software, evaluates solutions for system-wide glycopeptide analysis. The same mass spectrometrybased glycoproteomics datasets from human serum were shared with participants and the relative team performance for N- and O-glycopeptide data analysis was comprehensively established by orthogonal performance tests. Although the results were variable, several high-performance glycoproteomics informatics strategies were identified. Deep analysis of the data revealed key performance-associated search parameters and led to recommendations for improved 'high-coverage' and 'high-accuracy' glycoproteomics search solutions. This study concludes that diverse software packages for comprehensive glycopeptide data analysis exist, points to several high-performance search strategies and specifies key variables that will guide future software developments and assist informatics decision-making in glycoproteomics.

10.
Heart Lung ; 51: 9-13, 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731700

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Studies concerning do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders in mainland China are rather scarce. We explored the prevalence and related factors of DNR orders among in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) patients at a general tertiary hospital in mainland China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified all IHCA patients hospital-wide between July 2019 and September 2020. Data regarding DNR status were collected from medical records. We investigated the frequency of DNR orders and explored the determinant factors of DNR establishment using logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 1154 IHCA patients were included, 535 (46.4%) of whom established DNR orders. The following variables were independently associated with a higher DNR rate: female (OR 1.491; 95% CI 1.130-1.965), older age (OR 1.016; 95% CI 1.008-1.024), being a local resident (OR 1.790; 95% CI 1.344-2.383), pulmonary infection (OR 1.398; 95% CI 1052-1.859), respiratory insufficiency (OR 1.356; 95% CI 1.009-1.823), shock (OR 1.735; 95% CI 1.301-2.313), acute stroke (OR 1.821; 95% CI 1.235-2.686),neurological dysfunction (OR 1.527; 95% CI 1.149-2.028) and cancer (OR 3.316; 95% CI 2.461-4.468). Counterintuitively, patients with new-onset coronary artery disease (OR 0.592; 95% CI 0.419-0.837) were less likely to create DNR orders. CONCLUSION: In mainland China, the DNR order signing rate is low, and the establishment of a DNR order is associated with demographics and comorbidity characteristics.

11.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1184: 339016, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625243

RESUMO

Sulfur-containing metabolites are related to several physiologic disorders and metabolic diseases. In this study, a simultaneous identification and quantification strategy in one batch for determination of sulfhydryl-containing metabolites was developed using stable isotope labeling combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SIL-LC-MS). In the proposed method, a pair of isotope labeling reagents, D0/D5-N-ethylmaleimide (D0/D5-NEM), was used to derivatize sulfhydryl-containing metabolites in blood and plasma of normal- and high-fat-diet (NFD and HFD) hamsters for reduced (-SH) and total (-SH, -S-S-, S-glutathionylated proteins) analysis. Quality control (QC) samples and test samples were prepared for LC-MS analysis. First, both QC samples and stable isotope labeled internal standards were used to monitor the status of the instrument and ensure the reliability of the analysis. Subsequently, an inhouse database containing 45 sulfhydryl-containing metabolites was established by MS1 based on QC samples. Then, qualitatively differential sulfhydryl-containing metabolites were found by MS2 between the NFD and HFD hamsters of the test samples, including 3 in reduced and 8 in total analysis of blood samples, and 2 in reduced and 2 in total analysis of plasma samples. Next, in quantitative analysis, satisfied linearities for 6 sulfhydryl-containing metabolites were obtained with the correlation coefficient (R2) > 0.99 and absolute quantification was carried out. The results showed that glutathione and cysteine have different concentrations in blood and plasma of hamsters. Finally, the correlation of sulfhydryl-containing metabolites with blood lipid and oxidative stress levels was determined, which provided insight into the hyperlipidemia-related oxidative stress. Taken together, the developed method of simultaneous identification with the inhouse database and MS2 and quantification with standards in one batch provides a promising strategy for the analysis of sulfhydryl-containing metabolites in biological samples, which may promote the in-depth investigation on sulfhydryl-containing metabolites and related diseases.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida , Cricetinae , Marcação por Isótopo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 704618, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646282

RESUMO

Phototropins, namely, phototropin 1 (phot1) and phototropin 2 (phot2), mediate chloroplast movement to maximize photosynthetic efficiency and prevent photodamage in plants. Phot1 primarily functions in chloroplast accumulation process, whereas phot2 mediates both chloroplast avoidance and accumulation responses. The avoidance response of phot2-mediated chloroplasts under high-intensity blue light (HBL) limited the understanding of the function of phot1 in the chloroplast accumulation process at the HBL condition. In this study, we showed that the phot2 mutant exhibits a chloroplast accumulation response under HBL, which is defective when the root phototropism 2 (RPT2) gene is mutated in the phot2 background, mimicking the phenotype of the phot1 phot2 double mutant. A further analysis revealed that the expression of RPT2 was induced by HBL and the overexpression of RPT2 could partially enhance the chloroplast accumulation response under HBL. These results confirmed that RPT2 also participates in regulating the phot1-mediated chloroplast accumulation response under HBL. In contrast, RPT2 functions redundantly with neural retina leucine zipper (NRL) protein for chloroplast movement 1 (NCH1) under low-light irradiation. In addition, no chloroplast accumulation response was detected in the phot2 jac1 double mutant under HBL, which has been previously observed in phot2 rpt2 and phot1 phot2 double mutants. Taken together, our results indicated that phot1 mediates the HBL-induced chloroplast accumulation response in an RPT2-dependent manner and is also regulated by j-domain protein required for chloroplast accumulation response 1 (JAC1).

13.
Cancer Biol Med ; 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652890

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is still the principal treatment option for prostate cancer (PCa). In addition to reactivation of androgen receptor signaling, the resistance of PCa to apoptosis during ADT also contributes to castration resistant PCa (CRPC). A previous study reported that gene transfer of IL-13Rα2 into PCa cells sensitized the cells to the IL-13R-targeted cytotoxin IL13Rα1, leading to apoptosis. Compared with IL-13Rα2, IL13Rα1 is more constitutively expressed in PCa cells, but its function in PCa remains to be established. METHODS: We determined the role and expression of IL13Rα1 in PCa cancer cells using western blotting, flow cytometry, and cell proliferation assays. Co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry were used to identify the proteins that interacted with IL13Rα1, to elucidate its function. RESULTS: In this study, we showed that IL13Rα1 was selectively suppressed in androgen-deprived PCa cells and that its suppression tended to be associated with poor prognoses of PCa patients. IL13Rα1 overexpression promoted apoptosis and inhibited tumor growth under androgen-deprived or castrated conditions (P < 0.01). Mechanistically, IL13Rα1 recruited and facilitated ubiquitin protein ligase E3C-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of hexokinase 2 (HK2), resulting in glycolytic inhibition and eventually leading to PCa cell apoptosis. Furthermore, our data revealed that mutated ataxia-telangiectasia kinase phosphorylated and facilitated the selective ubiquitin proteasome-mediated degradation of HK2. Notably, IL13Rα1-overexpressing PCa cells were more susceptible to apoptosis and exhibited reduced tumor growth after exposure to the HK2 inhibitor, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Our data identified a tumor suppressor role for IL13Rα1 in preventing the resistance of PCa cells to apoptosis during androgen deprivation by inhibiting glycolysis. IL13Rα1-mediated signaling involving HK2 may therefore provide a novel treatment target and strategy for CRPC.

14.
Bone Joint Res ; 10(10): 693-703, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666502

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the effect of ultrasound-targeted simvastatin-loaded microbubble destruction (UTMD SV ) for alleviation of the progression of osteoarthritis (OA) in rabbits through modulation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ). METHODS: In vitro, OA chondrocytes were treated with ultrasound (US), US-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD), simvastatin (SV), and UTMD SV on alternate days for four weeks. Chondrocytes were also treated with PPARγ inhibitor, PPARγ inhibitor+ UTMD SV , and UTMD SV . The cholesterol efflux rate and triglyceride levels were measured using an assay kit and oil red O staining, respectively. In vivo, the OA rabbits were treated with a single intra-articular injection of UTMD, SV, and UTMD SV every seven days for four weeks. Cartilage histopathology was assessed by safranin-O staining and the Mankin score. Total cholesterol (TC) and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) in rabbit knee synovial fluid were detected by enzyme-marker assay. Aggrecan, collagen II, and PPARγ expression levels were analyzed by Western blotting (WB). RESULTS: In vitro, UTMD SV significantly increased the cholesterol efflux rate and aggrecan, collagen II, and PPARγ levels in OA chondrocytes; these effects were blocked by the PPARγ inhibitor. In vivo, UTMD SV significantly increased aggrecan, collagen II, PPARγ, and HDL-C levels, while TC levels and Mankin scores were decreased compared with the UTMD, SV, OA, and control groups. CONCLUSION: UTMD SV promotes cartilage extracellular matrix synthesis by modulating the PPARγ-mediated cholesterol efflux pathway in OA rabbits. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2021;10(10):693-703.

15.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 118(12): 4829-4839, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596239

RESUMO

The generation of degradation products (DPs) like ions and organo-metallic particles from corroding metallic implants is an important healthcare concern. These DPs generate local and systemic toxicity. The impact on local toxicity is well documented, however, little is known about systemic toxicity. This is mainly due to the limited scope of the current microtiter plate-based (static) toxicity assay techniques. These methods do not mimic the systemic (dynamic) conditions. In this study, it is hypothesized that DPs incubated with cells in static conditions might provide improper systemic toxicity results, as there is no movement mimicking the blood circulation around cells. This study reports the development of a three-chambered prototype microfluidic system connected to the operational hip implant simulator to test the cellular response induced by the DPs. This setup is called a dynamic microfluidic bioreactor-hip simulator system. We hypothesize that a dynamic microfluidic system will provide a realistic toxicology response induced by DPs than a static cell culture plate. To prove the hypothesis, Neuro2a (N2a) cells were used as representative cells to study systemic neurotoxicity by the implant DPs. The microfluidic bioreactor system was validated by comparing the cell toxicity against the traditional static system and using COMSOL modeling for media flow with DPs. The hip implant simulator used in this study was a state-of-the-art sliding hip simulator developed in our lab. The results suggested that static toxicity was significantly more compared to dynamic microfluidic-based toxicity. The newly developed DMBH system tested for in situ systemic toxicity on N2a cells and demonstrated very minimum toxicity level (5.23%) compared to static systems (31.16%). Thus, the new DMBH system is an efficient tool for in situ implant metal systemic toxicity testing.

16.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 60(5): 920-923, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We report a case of diffuse large B-cell urethral lymphoma initial presenting with non-healing urethra ulcer. CASE REPORT: A 68-year-old woman presented with a non-healing urethral ulcer accompanied with vulvar pruritus, which failed to medical treatment. Her medical history was unremarkable, lacking fever, weight loss or unexplained fatigue. There were no enlarged lymph nodes or palpable liver or spleen upon physical examination. Pelvic examination revealed an ulcerative lesion arising from the posterior wall of the urethral meatus. Cystourethroscopy showed no bladder involvement. Surgical excision of the urethral ulcer was done and immunohistochemical report showed a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Bone marrow needle biopsy and computed tomography were done and the diagnosis of primary diffuse large B-cell urethral lymphoma stage IEA was made. She underwent six cycles of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone and rituximab and was free of disease for 51 months. CONCLUSION: This report of urethral lymphoma was presented as a non-healing ulcer initially, which was totally different previous reports, presenting with bleeding, either vaginal or urinary, urinary frequency, dysuria, urine retention and self-perceived mass, suggesting that unhealed ulcer on the perineal area should be promptly evaluated and avoidance of unnecessary delayed therapy for possible curable disease.

17.
J Proteomics ; 249: 104369, 2021 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481999

RESUMO

Pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC) is a distinct type of inflammatory bowel disease with severe disease activity and rapid progression, which can lead to detrimental life-long consequences. The pathogenesis of pediatric UC remains unclear, although dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been considered an important factor. In this study, we collected intestinal mucosal-luminal interface microbiota samples from a cohort of treatment-naïve pediatric UC or control patients and used two different mass spectrometry-based glycomic approaches to examine the N-glycans that were associated with the microbiota. We observed abundant small N-glycans that were associated with the microbiota and found that the pediatric UC microbiota samples contained significantly higher levels of these atypical N-glycans compared to those of controls. Four paucimannosidic or other truncated N-glycans were identified to successfully segregate UC from control patients with an area under the ROC curve of ≥0.9. This study indicates that the aberrant metabolism of glycans in the intestinal by gut microbiota may be involved in the pathogenesis of UC and intestinal N-glycans, including small glycans, can act as novel biomarker candidates for pediatric UC. SIGNIFICANCE: There is no cure for pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC) due to its unclear pathogenesis and the diagnosis of UC in children still largely depends on invasive colonoscopic examination. Recent evidence suggests that the dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota is associated with the onset and development of UC, however how the microbiota interact with the host remains unclear. This study used two different mass spectrometry-based glycomic approaches to quantitatively examine N-glycans that are associated with colonic mucosal-luminal interface microbiota of pediatric UC or control patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive glycomic study of intestinal microbiota samples in UC, which demonstrated that intestinal microbiota was associated with abundant atypical small N-glycans with elevated levels in UC than controls. This study also identified four intestinal paucimannosidic or other truncated N-glycans as promising biomarker candidates for pediatric UC. These findings shed light on the mechanism study of host-microbiome interactions in UC and indicate that atypical glycans present in the gut can be a source for UC biomarker discovery.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Microbiota , Criança , Colite Ulcerativa/diagnóstico , Disbiose , Humanos , Polissacarídeos
18.
Theranostics ; 11(18): 8813-8835, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522213

RESUMO

In recent decades, chemotherapies targeting apoptosis have emerged and demonstrated remarkable achievements. However, emerging evidence has shown that chemoresistance is mediated by impairing or bypassing apoptotic cell death. Several novel types of programmed cell death, such as ferroptosis, necroptosis, and pyroptosis, have recently been reported to play significant roles in the modulation of cancer progression and are considered a promising strategy for cancer treatment. Thus, the switch between apoptosis and pyroptosis is also discussed. Cancer immunotherapy has gained increasing attention due to breakthroughs in immune checkpoint inhibitors; moreover, ferroptosis, necroptosis, and pyroptosis are highly correlated with the modulation of immunity in the tumor microenvironment. Compared with necroptosis and ferroptosis, pyroptosis is the primary mechanism for host defense and is crucial for bridging innate and adaptive immunity. Furthermore, recent evidence has demonstrated that pyroptosis exerts benefits on cancer immunotherapies, including immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy (CAR-T). Hence, in this review, we elucidate the role of pyroptosis in cancer progression and the modulation of immunity. We also summarize the potential small molecules and nanomaterials that target pyroptotic cell death mechanisms and their therapeutic effects on cancer.

19.
J Org Chem ; 86(21): 15761-15767, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590860

RESUMO

A Cu(I)-promoted oxidative dimerization of BODIPY dyes was developed to give a series of α,α- ethylene-bridged BODIPY dimers and trimers for the first time. This methodology does not need harsh conditions but relies on the singlet-electron-transfer process between alkylated BODIPYs and Cu(I) salt to generate BODIPY-based radical species, which undergo a selective radical homocoupling reaction. Moreover, these resultant dimers and trimers showed high attenuation coefficients, small line widths of the absorption and emission, and intense fluorescence.

20.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(9)2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dialyzed patients are vulnerable to coronavirus infection disease 2019 (COVID-19). The incidence and outcome of COVID-19 in hemodialysis (HD) patients in Taiwan remain unclear. A series of preventive measures were executed to combat COVID-19 transmission among HD patients. METHODS: We carried out a series of forward-looking and practical preventive strategies of COVID-19 control in our HD center. Incidences of COVID-19 of our HD unit were compared with those of national and local estimates from a community outbreak from 15 May to 30 June 2021. Prognostic factors associated with mortality were analyzed. RESULTS: The national incidence of COVID-19 was 0.062%; being highest in Taipei City (0.173%), followed by New Taipei City (0.161%) and Keelung (0.083%). The overall incidence in Keelung HD patients was 0.666%. One patient of our HD center contracted COVID-19 from the household; however, we have contained secondary transmission in our HD center by implementing strict preventive measures. The mortality rate of HD patients in Keelung was 66.6%. The median Ct value of HD patients was 17.53 (11.75-27.90) upon diagnosis. The deceased patients had a higher cardiac/thoracic ratio than alive (0.61 vs. 0.55, p = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: Taking aggressive and proactive infection preventive measures impedes the secondary transmission of COVID-19 in HD facilities. COVID-19-associated mortality was high in HD patients, being the high cardiac-thoracic ratio, an important prognostic factor for clinical outcome of infected HD patients.

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