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1.
Bioresour Technol ; 296: 122323, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698224

RESUMO

Effects of solid-state fermentation on rapid drying and spoilage prevention of potato pulp were evaluated. Pectin hydrolyzing and antibacterial ability of pectinase-secreting Aspergillus aculeatus and Bacillus subtilis were compared. A. aculeatus grew better in potato pulp, with highest pectinase yield of 342.71 ±â€¯5.09 U/mL and rapid pH reduction to 3.76 ±â€¯0.01. Next generation sequencing showed that the abundance of genera Candida and Enterobacter, which probably caused undesirable fermentation and spoilage, were significantly reduced after inoculation with A. aculeatus. In addition, fermentation with A. aculeatus significantly reduced water holding capacity from 16.63 ±â€¯0.36 g/g to 7.78 ±â€¯0.12 g/g, which resulted in lower viscosity and water binding capacity, and concomitantly significantly decreased moisture content from 76.05 ±â€¯0.24% to 12.95 ±â€¯0.19% after filtration and airflow drying. These results suggested that solid-state fermentation might be a promising technology for efficient processing and utilization of potato pulp.

2.
Med Image Anal ; 59: 101561, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671320

RESUMO

Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is the most common cause of avoidable vision loss, predominantly affecting the working-age population across the globe. Screening for DR, coupled with timely consultation and treatment, is a globally trusted policy to avoid vision loss. However, implementation of DR screening programs is challenging due to the scarcity of medical professionals able to screen a growing global diabetic population at risk for DR. Computer-aided disease diagnosis in retinal image analysis could provide a sustainable approach for such large-scale screening effort. The recent scientific advances in computing capacity and machine learning approaches provide an avenue for biomedical scientists to reach this goal. Aiming to advance the state-of-the-art in automatic DR diagnosis, a grand challenge on "Diabetic Retinopathy - Segmentation and Grading" was organized in conjunction with the IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI - 2018). In this paper, we report the set-up and results of this challenge that is primarily based on Indian Diabetic Retinopathy Image Dataset (IDRiD). There were three principal sub-challenges: lesion segmentation, disease severity grading, and localization of retinal landmarks and segmentation. These multiple tasks in this challenge allow to test the generalizability of algorithms, and this is what makes it different from existing ones. It received a positive response from the scientific community with 148 submissions from 495 registrations effectively entered in this challenge. This paper outlines the challenge, its organization, the dataset used, evaluation methods and results of top-performing participating solutions. The top-performing approaches utilized a blend of clinical information, data augmentation, and an ensemble of models. These findings have the potential to enable new developments in retinal image analysis and image-based DR screening in particular.

3.
Food Chem ; 305: 125441, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494499

RESUMO

Samples of granular corn starch were treated with 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme (GBE) for 20 h using three different methods. These GBE modification methods all increased glycosidic linkage ratio, cyclic glucan content, and proportion of short chains while reducing weight mean molecular weight. The in vitro digestion rates of the modified starches were suppressed. Among these methods, a novel two-stage modification method comprising a 10-h GBE treatment, gelatinization, and a second 10-h GBE treatment, produced samples with the lowest in vitro digestibility. The rapidly digestible starch content was 34.2% lower than that of the control and 18.0% lower than that of the product of one-stage modification with the same duration. Fine structure characterization showed that more cluster structures were proved during the two-stage modification. This two-stage method suppressed the digestibility of corn starch and increased the substrate concentration, showing great potential for the industrial processing of slowly-digestible starchy foods.

4.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(3): 2429-2440, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489964

RESUMO

Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) serve as a reservoir of newborn oligodendrocytes (OLs) in pathological and homeostatic conditions. After spinal cord injury (SCI), OPCs are activated to generate myelinating OLs, contributing to remyelination and functional recovery; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, microRNA-26b (miR-26b) expression in the spinal cord tissues of SCI rats was examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. The influences of miR-26b on locomotor recovery following SCI were assessed utilizing Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scores. The effects of miR-26b on OPC differentiation were explored using immunofluorescence and western blot analyses in vitro and in vivo. The potential targets that are modulated by miR-26b were identified by bioinformatics, luciferase reporter assays, and western blot analyses. The effects of adrenomedullin (ADM) on OPC differentiation were explored in vitro using immunofluorescence and western blot analyses. We demonstrated that miR-26b was significantly downregulated after SCI. BBB scores showed that miR-26b exacerbated the locomotor function deficits induced by SCI. In vitro, miR-26b inhibited the differentiation of primary rat OPCs. In vivo, miR-26b suppressed OPC differentiation in SCI rats. Bioinformatics analyses and experimental detection revealed that miR-26b directly targeted ADM in OPCs. In addition, knockdown of ADM suppressed the differentiation of primary rat OPCs. Our study provides evidence that ADM may mediate miR-26b-inhibited OPC differentiation in SCI.

5.
Phytochemistry ; 169: 112177, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707275

RESUMO

Two undescribed prenylated quinolinone alkaloids, aspoquinolones E and F, and three undescribed prenylated isoindolinone alkaloids aspernidines F-H, were isolated from the fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Their structures and configurations were elucidated based on spectroscopic analyses and ECD spectra. Aspoquinolones E and F possess a C10 moiety with an unusual 2,2,4-trimethyl-3oxa-bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane unit, and aspernidines F-H own a C15 side chain. These compounds were evaluated for cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines, compounds 1 and 5 exhibited strong inhibitory activities against A-549 and SW-480 cells with IC50 values of 3.50 and 4.77 µM, respectively.

6.
Cell Signal ; 65: 109460, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although gankyrin has been identified as a vital regulator of tumorigenesis, its role and regulatory mechanism in osteosarcoma (OS) remain unclear. METHODS: QRT-PCR, western blot and IHC staining were conducted to detect the expression of gankyrin in OS. Pearson's χ² test was adopted to examine the associations between gankyrin expression and clinicopathologic characteristics. Kaplan-Meier method was used to investigate the relationship between gankyrin expression and overall survival of patients with OS. Next, a series of in vitro and in vivo assays were performed to determine the positive feedback loop between gankyrin and YAP in OS. RESULTS: We first reported that gankyrin is upregulated in human OS specimens and cell lines and predicts OS progression and poor prognosis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that gankyrin protects miR-200a-mediated yes-associated protein (YAP) downregulation through p53 and establishes a positive feedback loop to regulate YAP signaling in U2OS and MG63 cells. Intriguingly, gankyrin interacts with YAP to promote OS cell growth in vitro. In addition, our results showed that gankyrin promotes OS tumor growth and regulates YAP levels in vivo. Notably, we also observed a positive correlation between gankyrin and YAP expression in human OS tissues, and co-upregulation of gankyrin and YAP indicated a poor prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results identify that gankyrin acts as an oncogene in OS by forming a positive feedback loop with YAP, and disrupting the gankyrin-YAP regulation may be beneficial for controlling OS tumorigenesis.

7.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(3): 1697-1703, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492332

RESUMO

TiO2 doped layered zirconium phosphates were prepared by the hydrofluoric acid (HF) method and its photocatalytic performance was investigated in this study. Through the introduction of octylamine which acts as the intercalation and exfoliation reagent in the process, TiO2 could be uniformly generated and dispersed on the zirconium phosphate matrix through tetrabutyl titanate hydrolysis and calcination. The nano-scale TiO2 was obtained by applying the appropriate ratio of tetrabutyl titanate and layered zirconium phosphate in reaction. XRD, N2-sorption, FT-IR, UV-vis, SEM and TEM were used to characterize the structure and phtocatalytic properties of the samples. The photocatalytic performance of synthesized nano-scale TiO2 doped zirconium phosphates was studied by degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB). It is found that the scavenging rate of RhB could be up to 65% within 90 min under the visible light irradiation due to the relatively large active surface area and compact size of TiO2. This study highlights the potential application of TiO2 doped layered zirconium phosphate as a novel photocatalyst in photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants.

8.
Small ; : e1905509, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808616

RESUMO

A robust and transparent silica-like coating that imparts superhydrophobicity to a surface through its hierarchical multilevel self-assembled structure is demonstrated. This approach involves iterative steps of spin-coating, annealing, and etching of polystyrene-block-polydimethylsiloxane block copolymer thin films to form a tailored multilayer nanoscale topographic pattern with a water contact angle up to 155°. A model based on the hierarchical topography is developed to calculate the wetting angle and optimize the superhydrophobicity, in agreement with the experimental trends, and explaining superhydrophobicity arising through the combination of roughness at different lengthscales. Additionally, the mechanical robustness and optically passive properties of the resulting hydrophobic surfaces are demonstrated.

9.
Sci Prog ; : 36850419892194, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791201

RESUMO

Rolling element bearings are used in all rotating machinery, and the degradation performance of rolling element bearings directly affects the performance of the machine. Therefore, high reliability prediction of the performance degradation trend of rolling element bearings has become an urgent research problem. However, the degradation characteristics of the rolling element bearings vibration time series are difficult to extract, and the mechanism of performance degradation is very complicated. The accurate physical model is difficult to establish. In view of the above reasons, based on the vibration performance data of rolling element bearings, a model of bearing performance degradation trend parameter based on wavelet denoising and Weibull distribution is established. Then, the phase space reconstruction of the series of bearing performance degradation trend parameter is carried out, and the prognosis is obtained by the improved adding weighted first-order local prediction method. The experimental results show that the bearing vibration performance degradation parameter can accurately depict the degradation trend of the bearing, and the reliability level is 91.55%; and the prediction of bearing performance degradation trend parameter is satisfactory: the mean relative error is only 0.0053% and the maximum relative error is less than 0.03%.

10.
Biotechnol Lett ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792661

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Analyze the thermostability, mode of action, and product specificity of a maltooligosaccharide-forming amylase from Bacillus stearothermophilus STB04 (Bst-MFA) from the biochemical and structural point of view. RESULTS: Using three-dimensional co-crystal structure of Bst-MFA with acarbose as a guide, experiments were performed to analyze the thermostability, mode of action and product specificity of Bst-MFA. The results showed that the Ca2+-Ca2+-Ca2+ metal triad of Bst-MFA is responsible for its high thermostability. Multiple substrate binding modes, rather than one productive binding mode determined by non-reducing end recognition, are in accordance with an endo-type mode of action. Significant interactions between subsites - 5 and - 6 and glucosyl residues at the non-reducing end explain the maltopentaose (G5) and maltohexaose (G6) specificity of Bst-MFA. CONCLUSIONS: Bst-MFA is a thermostable enzyme that preferentially produces G5 and G6, with an endo-type mode. The understanding of structure-function relationships provides the foundation for future efforts to the modification of Bst-MFA.

11.
Ren Fail ; 41(1): 1045-1053, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809666

RESUMO

A 43-year-old Chinese man with a silicosis history was admitted to our hospital due to bilateral lower extremity edema for 1 year, exacerbating with hematuria for 2 months. He started working as a coal miner 30 years ago, and was diagnosed as silicosis 3 months ago. Lab tests revealed hematuria 3+, proteinuria 3+, and a serum creatinine value 2.47 mg/dl on routine check. He was diagnosed with focal proliferative IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis by renal biopsy. He was treated with corticosteroids and got a remission 4 months later. Immunohistochemical staining showed the deposition of macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), nod-like receptor pyrin domain-containing-3 (NLRP3), Caspase-1, apoptosis-associated speck (ASC), interleukin (IL)-1ß, and IL-18 in both glomerular and tubulo-interstitial areas. We proposed that the silicon exposure could be related to his kidney disease in the patient and NLRP3 mediated inflammation might be involved in its pathogenesis which needs further explorations.

12.
Comput Biol Med ; 116: 103565, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790963

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Pedicle location and recognition play important roles in spinal morphology analysis and orthodontic screw implantation, which can help doctors avoid injuring the pedicle during screw implantation. However, because of the complex spatial structures of vertebrae and the close connection between the pedicle and other parts of the vertebrae, it is challenging to locate and recognize the pedicle of the vertebral arch in 2D or 3D vertebral images. METHODS: In this paper, based on deep learning technology, we propose a method for automatically recognizing the vertebral pedicle in individual vertebral models and drawing pedicle contours. The goal is to provide references so doctors can simulate the pedicle screw implantation operation to prevent screw deviation and further enhance the automation of our team's scoliosis-correction assistive system. First, we preprocess the individual vertebral models to obtain their point clouds. Then, we use a modified PointNet model to segment the pedicle areas from the individual vertebral point clouds. We use the segmentation results to automatically fit the cross-sections of pedicles and finally generate the pedicle contours as surgical references. RESULTS: The experiments show that the method can generate contours quickly and accurately with a small amount of manual adjustment and can provide good references for simulating screw placement. CONCLUSIONS: The efficiency of generating pedicle contours during the process of simulated screw placement is greatly improved, and the difficulty of using our simulation system has also been greatly reduced, both of which play essential roles in pedicle screw implantation and the formulation of surgical plans.

13.
Clin Cardiol ; 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the incidence of new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) among subjects with pneumoconiosis using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. HYPOTHESIS: Pneumoconiosis patients are at an increased risk of AF. METHODS: A total of 12 209 pneumoconiosis patients were in the exposure cohort. Patients without pneumoconiosis were included as the comparison cohort. Both cohorts were matched by gender, age, comorbidity, and index year in a 1:1 manner. Multivariable cox proportional hazard model was used to calculate the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) after adjustment for age, sex, and all comorbidities. RESULTS: The risk of AF in pneumoconiosis patients was 1.30-fold higher than that of controls (95% CI = 1.17-1.44) was the key finding. CONCLUSIONS: Pneumoconiosis is associated with increased risk of incident AF.

14.
Brain Behav ; : e01453, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709780

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is closely associated with many neurological disorders including neurodegenerative disease, stroke, and brain tumors. However, the toxic effects of PM2.5 on neurodevelopment remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine the neurotoxic effects of early postnatal exposure to PM2.5 in immature and mature rats. METHODS: We exposed neonatal rats to PM2.5 (2 or 10 mg/kg body weight) through intranasal instillation from postnatal day (PND) 3-15, once a day. Emotional and cognitive development were evaluated using the elevated plus maze, forced swimming, and Morris water maze tests. Hippocampal tissue was collected and subjected to transmission electron microscopy observation and western blot analysis. RESULTS: Rats had lower body weight after exposure to high dose of PM2.5. The behavioral test results indicated that high-dose PM2.5 exposure led to increased anxiety-like symptoms in immature and mature rats, apparent depressive-like behaviors in mature rats, and impaired spatial learning and memory abilities in immature rats, and low-dose PM2.5 exposure increased anxiety-like behaviors in immature rats. Further, high-dose PM2.5 exposure contributed to fewer synapses, thinner postsynaptic density, and shorter active zone in immature and mature rats, and also decreased expressions of synaptophysin (SYP), growth associated protein-43 (GAP43), and postsynaptic density-95 (PSD95) in immature rats, SYP and PSD95 in mature rats. Moreover, low-dose PM2.5 exposure diminished the expression of PSD95 in immature rats. In addition, high-dose PM2.5 exposure reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation in both immature and mature rats, and low-dose PM2.5 exposure lessened BDNF expression and CREB phosphorylation in immature rats. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that PM2.5 impairs emotional and cognitive development by disrupting structural synaptic plasticity, possibly via the CREB/BDNF signaling pathway.

15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751711

RESUMO

The maltooligosaccharide-forming amylases (MFAses) degrade starch into maltooligosaccharides which potentially benefit human diet and grow popular in food processing, but little has been studied about their product specificity and structures. We focused on this topic and provide evidence through an X-ray crystal structure of the maltotetraose (G4)-forming amylase from Pseudomonas saccharophila STB07 (MFAps), as well as co-crystal structures of MFAps with G4 and with pseudo-maltoheptaose (pseudo-G7) determined at up to 1.1 Å resolution. G4 and pseudo-G7 occupy active cleft subsites -4 to -1 and -4 to +3 respectively. Binding induces conformational changes in the active sites except Asp193, working as the base catalyst. Comparison of the MFAps structure with those of other α-amylases revealed obvious differences in the loop structures providing dominant interactions between protein and substrate in the non-reducing side of the active sites cleft. These structures at the non-reducing end may govern the G4 specificity of MFAps and also be relevant to its exo-type action pattern.

16.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 328, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, acupuncture has been increasingly integrated into pediatric care worldwide. However, recent epidemiological studies about pediatric users of acupuncture are lacking. The current study aimed to fill the gap and carry out the large-scale investigation on the basis of the pediatric population in Taiwan. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide population-based study to investigate the utilization of acupuncture in Taiwan. We analyzed data from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 (LHID 2000). The datasets contained all original claims data for 1 million beneficiaries who were randomly sampled from the registry of all beneficiaries enrolled in the Taiwan's National Health Insurance Program from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2011. Children younger than 18 years old were enrolled into our study for analysis. The demographic data, treatment modalities and distributions by disease categories of the pediatric acupuncture users were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the trends in acupuncture use over time. RESULTS: The one-year prevalence of pediatric acupuncture users increased from 1.78% in 2002 to 5.34% in 2011. Acupuncture use significantly increased each year (p-value< 0.0001). Patients who were male, of greater age, resided in highly urbanized areas and suffered from injury or disorders of the musculoskeletal system were more likely to accept acupuncture treatment. Infantile cerebral palsy and psychoses were the top two health issues among those receiving complex acupuncture treatment. Older (> 9 years old) children tended to receive acupuncture treatment due to injury and musculoskeletal system disorders more than younger (≤9 years old) children. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that the utilization of acupuncture in pediatrics became increasingly popular year by year in Taiwan from 2002 to 2011. The results of this study may provide some valuable information for further clinical practice and acupuncture research, as well as to the government and societies concerning pediatric health care.

17.
Dalton Trans ; 48(46): 17331-17339, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724671

RESUMO

Using two Schiff-base ligands containing an electron-withdrawing group (NO2), we obtained two mononuclear and two trinuclear complexes with the general formula [Dy(hni)(NO3)(DMF)2]·DMF (1·DMF), [Dy(hni)2(H2O)2]·NO3·EtOH (2·NO3·EtOH), [Dy3(hnc)3(DMF)6] (3) and [Gd3(hnc)3(DMF)6] (4) (H-hni: 2-(hydroxyl-3-methoxy-5-nitrophenyl)methylene(isonictino)hydrazine and H3-hnc: 1,5-bis(2-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-nitrobenzylidene)carbonohydrazide). Four complexes were confirmed by infrared spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal structure of complex 3 reveals that the modified Schiff-base ligand provides two different tridentate coordination pockets (ONN and ONO) to encapsulate DyIII with a unique N-N pathway. The magnetic properties of all four complexes have been investigated using dc and ac susceptibility measurements. The frequency-dependent ac susceptibility is indicative of single-molecule magnetic behavior without and/or with an optimum dc field with a relaxation barrier Ueff = 34 K (400 Oe), 19 K (0 Oe) and 80 K (0 Oe) for complexes 1, 2 and 3, respectively.

18.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 132(22): 2690-2697, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previously, the authors modified the surgical technique to preserve tibial bone mass for Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical outcomes and values of this modified technique. METHODS: Clinical data of 34 consecutive patients who underwent the unilateral modified UKA technique (modified group, 34 knees) were retrospectively analyzed. To compare the outcome, a match-paired control group (conventional group, 34 knees) of an equal number of patients using the conventional technique system in the same period were selected and matched with respect to diagnosis, age, pre-operative range of motion (ROM), and radiological grade of knee arthrosis. Clinical outcomes including knee Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score, ROM, and complications were compared between the two groups. Post-operative radiographic assessments included hip-knee-ankle angle (HKA), joint line change, implant position, and alignment. RESULTS: The mean follow-up time was 38.2 ±â€Š6.3 months. There was no difference in baseline between the two groups. The amount of proximal tibial bone cut in the modified group was significantly less than that of the conventional group (4.7 ±â€Š1.1 mm vs. 6.7 ±â€Š1.3 mm, t = 6.45, P < 0.001). Joint line was elevated by 2.1 ±â€Š1.0 mm in the modified group compared with -0.5 ±â€Š1.7 mm in the conventional group (t = -7.46, P < 0.001). No significant differences were observed between the two groups after UKA with respect to HSS score, VAS score, ROM, and HKA. Additionally, the accuracy of the post-operative implant position and alignment was similar in both groups. As for implant size, the tibial implant size in the modified group was larger than that in the conventional group (χ = 4.95, P = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: The modified technique for tibial bone sparing was comparable with the conventional technique in terms of clinical outcomes and radiographic assessments. It can preserve tibial bone mass and achieve a larger cement surface on the tibial side.

20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(48): e18127, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770243

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the association between colorectal cancer and zolpidem use in Taiwan.A case-control study was conducted using the database of Taiwan National Health Insurance Program from 2000 to 2013. Participants aged 20 to 84 years with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer were selected as the cases. Sex-matched and age-matched participants without colorectal cancer were randomly selected as the matched controls. The odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for colorectal cancer associated with zolpidem use were calculated by the multivariable logistic regression model.There were 4912 cases with colorectal cancer and 4912 matched controls without colorectal cancer. The mean age was 63 years and 58% were male participants. After adjustment for co-variables, the multivariable logistic regression model disclosed that there was no statistical association between colorectal cancer and zolpidem use (adjusted OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.95-1.15).No statistical association can be detected between colorectal cancer and zolpidem use in Taiwan.

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