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1.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 2935315, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31737168

RESUMO

Excessive food intake and metabolic disorder promote obesity and diabetes. In China, peanut skin is used as a herbal medicine to treat hemophilia, thrombocytopenic purpura, and hepatic hemorrhage. In the present study, we demonstrated that peanut skin extract (PSE) safely reduced appetite, body weight, fat tissue, plasma TG and TC, and blood glucose level in mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO). Moreover, the leptin/leptin receptor/neuropeptide Y (NPY) and adiponectin signaling pathways involved in the antiobesity effects of PSE are confirmed through leptin and adiponectin overexpression and leptin receptor silencing in mice. PSE consisted of oligosaccharide and polyphenol in a mass ratio of 45 : 55, and both parts were important for the antiobesity function of PSE. Our results suggested that PSE can be developed as functional medical food to treat metabolic disorders and obesity.

2.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(502)2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341059

RESUMO

TYK2 is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase involved in adaptive and innate immune responses. A deactivating coding variant has previously been shown to prevent receptor-stimulated activation of this kinase and provides high protection from several common autoimmune diseases but without immunodeficiency. An agent that recapitulates the phenotype of this deactivating coding variant may therefore represent an important advancement in the treatment of autoimmunity. BMS-986165 is a potent oral agent that similarly blocks receptor-stimulated activation of TYK2 allosterically and with high selectivity and potency afforded through optimized binding to a regulatory domain of the protein. Signaling and functional responses in human TH17, TH1, B cells, and myeloid cells integral to autoimmunity were blocked by BMS-986165, both in vitro and in vivo in a phase 1 clinical trial. BMS-986165 demonstrated robust efficacy, consistent with blockade of multiple autoimmune pathways, in murine models of lupus nephritis and inflammatory bowel disease, supporting its therapeutic potential for multiple immune-mediated diseases.

4.
J Med Chem ; 62(20): 8953-8972, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314518

RESUMO

As a member of the Janus (JAK) family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases, TYK2 plays an important role in mediating the signaling of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-12, IL-23, and type 1 interferons. The nicotinamide 4, identified by a SPA-based high-throughput screen targeting the TYK2 pseudokinase domain, potently inhibits IL-23 and IFNα signaling in cellular assays. The described work details the optimization of this poorly selective hit (4) to potent and selective molecules such as 47 and 48. The discoveries described herein were critical to the eventual identification of the clinical TYK2 JH2 inhibitor (see following report in this issue). Compound 48 provided robust inhibition in a mouse IL-12-induced IFNγ pharmacodynamic model as well as efficacy in an IL-23 and IL-12-dependent mouse colitis model. These results demonstrate the ability of TYK2 JH2 domain binders to provide a highly selective alternative to conventional TYK2 orthosteric inhibitors.

5.
J Med Chem ; 62(20): 8973-8995, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318208

RESUMO

Small molecule JAK inhibitors have emerged as a major therapeutic advancement in treating autoimmune diseases. The discovery of isoform selective JAK inhibitors that traditionally target the catalytically active site of this kinase family has been a formidable challenge. Our strategy to achieve high selectivity for TYK2 relies on targeting the TYK2 pseudokinase (JH2) domain. Herein we report the late stage optimization efforts including a structure-guided design and water displacement strategy that led to the discovery of BMS-986165 (11) as a high affinity JH2 ligand and potent allosteric inhibitor of TYK2. In addition to unprecedented JAK isoform and kinome selectivity, 11 shows excellent pharmacokinetic properties with minimal profiling liabilities and is efficacious in several murine models of autoimmune disease. On the basis of these findings, 11 appears differentiated from all other reported JAK inhibitors and has been advanced as the first pseudokinase-directed therapeutic in clinical development as an oral treatment for autoimmune diseases.

6.
J Neuroinflammation ; 16(1): 116, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microglia and CNS-infiltrating monocytes/macrophages (CNS-MPs) perform pro-inflammatory and protective anti-inflammatory functions following ischemic stroke. Selective inhibition of pro-inflammatory responses can be achieved by Kv1.3 channel blockade, resulting in a lower infarct size in the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model. Whether beneficial effects of Kv1.3 blockers are mediated by targeting microglia or CNS-infiltrating monocytes/macrophages remains unclear. METHODS: In the 30-min tMCAO mouse model, we profiled functional cell-surface Kv1.3 channels and phagocytic properties of acutely isolated CNS-MPs at various timepoints post-reperfusion. Kv1.3 channels were flow cytometrically detected using fluorescein-conjugated Kv1.3-binding peptide ShK-F6CA as well as by immunohistochemistry. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed to measure Kv1.3 (Kcna3) and Kir2.1 (Kcnj2) gene expression. Phagocytosis of 1-µm microspheres by acutely isolated CNS-MPs was measured by flow cytometry. RESULTS: In flow cytometric assays, Kv1.3 channel expression by CD11b+ CNS-MPs was increased between 24 and 72 h post-tMCAO and decreased by 7 days post-tMCAO. Increased Kv1.3 expression was restricted to CD11b+CD45lowLy6clow (microglia) and CD11b+CD45highLy6Clow CNS-MPs but not CD11b+CD45highLy6chigh inflammatory monocytes/macrophages. In immunohistochemical studies, Kv1.3 protein expression was increased in Iba1+ microglia at 24-48 h post-tMCAO. No change in Kv1.3 mRNA in CNS-MPs was observed following tMCAO. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that resident microglia and a subset of CD45highLy6clow CNS-MPs are the likely cellular targets of Kv1.3 blockers and the delayed phase of neuroinflammation is the optimal therapeutic window for Kv1.3 blockade in ischemic stroke.

7.
J Adv Nurs ; 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197839

RESUMO

AIM: The aims of this study are: (a) to determine the incidence of postoperative delirium (POD) among surgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients in China and identify risk factors, especially, which are modifiable and have value for developing a prediction model; (b) to develop and validate a prediction model of delirium to recognize high-risk patients in surgical ICUs; (c) to investigate the short- and long-term outcomes of delirious patients and identify the predictors of patient outcomes. DESIGN: A single-centre prospective cohort study. METHODS: Patients will be enrolled from three surgical ICUs in a tertiary teaching hospital. Delirium assessment and perioperative data will be collected throughout the hospitalization. Delirious patients will be followed up for 2 years. The study was approved by the ethics committee in May 2018 and was funded by the clinical research grant from Zhongshan hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai. DISCUSSION: Developing POD can be a burden to patients both for the short- and long-term period. Due to the lack of effective treatments for POD, prevention remains the best strategy. This study will provide an effective tool for early screening of high-risk patients of POD and provide a better understanding of the aetiology and outcome of delirium. IMPACT: In clinical practice, a prediction model will offer an effective tool for ICU nurses to assess high-risk patients, which can support them to implement preventive strategies at the early stages to targeted patients. The follow-up results will help us better understand the impact of delirium on patients' long-term outcome.

8.
Nanotechnology ; 30(37): 375703, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163404

RESUMO

Upconversion nanoparticle (UCNP)-based luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) systems are a powerful tool widely used to detect organic molecules or metal ions because of their simplicity and high sensitivity. The sandwich structure NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+@NaYF4@NH2 UCNPs, as a highly selective and sensitive aqueous probe for detecting nitroaromatics, has been designed and prepared by a cothermolysis method and modified with polyetherimide to acquire amine groups on the surface of the core/shell UCNPs. The detection principle of nitroaromatics is based on LRET, which forms the Meisnheimer complex between the electron-deficient cyclobenzene of nitroaromatics and the electron-rich amino group on the surface of the sandwich structure UCNPs. As a consequence, nitroaromatics can be brought into close proximity to the sandwich structure UCNPs. With the increase of nitroaromatics (2,4,6-trinitrophenol and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) concentrations, the sandwich structure NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+@NaYF4@NH2 UCNPs display a dramatic luminescent quenching effect at 407 nm and 540 nm under 980 nm excitation. The luminescent quenching intensity of the sandwich structure UCNPs is linearly correlated to the concentration of the nitroaromatics. The detection limit of 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) are 0.78 and 0.77 ng ml-1, respectively. Therefore, the sandwich structure of NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+@NaYF4@NH2 UCNPs can act as a valuable probe to detect nitroaromatics in public safety and security conditions.

9.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 217: 107-112, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928835

RESUMO

Usually, the luminescence intensity and mechanism of rare-earth ions doped materials are dependent on both doping concentration and sample temperature. In this study, we attempt to explore the concentration effect on up-conversion (UC) luminescence and the dependence of luminescence temperature quenching on excitation wavelength in YNbO4: Ho3+/Yb3+ phosphors. The YNbO4: Ho3+/Yb3+ phosphors with various Ho3+ and Yb3+ concentrations were synthesized via a high-temperature solid-state reaction technique. Intense green UC emission peaked at 543 nm was observed, accompanying with weak red and near infrared (NIR) UC emissions centered at 659 and 745 nm. Based on the laser working current dependence of UC luminescence, two-photon processes were responsible for both the green and the red UC emissions under 980 nm excitation, which have no apparent dependence on both Ho3+ and Yb3+ concentrations. According to the Arrhenius model, crossover process was responsible for the temperature-dependent down-conversion (DC) luminescence quenching of Ho3+ under 452 nm excitation. However, the temperature quenching processes of the green and the red UC luminescence cannot be well explained by Arrhenius model. It was found that the UC luminescence intensity decayed with increasing sample temperature, which was caused by both the crossover and temperature-dependent energy transfer processes.

10.
Clin Endosc ; 2019 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862154

RESUMO

Air embolism is a rare complication of upper endoscopy and potentially causes life-threatening events. A 67-year-old man with a history of surgery of cardiac carcinoma and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor underwent painless upper endoscopy because of tarry stools. During the procedure, air embolism developed, which caused decreased pulse oxygen saturation and delayed sedation recovery. He recovered with some weakness of the left upper limb in the intensive care unit without hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The etiology, clinical manifestations, and treatments of air embolism are discussed based on the literature reports. Although air embolism is uncommon in endoscopic examinations, the patients' outcomes could be improved if clinicians are alert to this potential complication, and promptly start proper diagnostic and therapeutic measures.

11.
J Med Chem ; 62(7): 3228-3250, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893553

RESUMO

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, is a member of the Tec family of kinases and is essential for B cell receptor (BCR) mediated signaling. BTK also plays a critical role in the downstream signaling pathways for the Fcγ receptor in monocytes, the Fcε receptor in granulocytes, and the RANK receptor in osteoclasts. As a result, pharmacological inhibition of BTK is anticipated to provide an effective strategy for the clinical treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. This article will outline the evolution of our strategy to identify a covalent, irreversible inhibitor of BTK that has the intrinsic potency, selectivity, and pharmacokinetic properties necessary to provide a rapid rate of inactivation systemically following a very low dose. With excellent in vivo efficacy and a very desirable tolerability profile, 5a (branebrutinib, BMS-986195) has advanced into clinical studies.

12.
Mol Pharm ; 16(4): 1423-1432, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763105

RESUMO

3ß,23,28-Trihydroxy-12-oleanene 3ß-caffeate (compound 1) is a neuritogenic pentacyclic triterpenoid, which was isolated from Desmodium sambuense based on a PC12 cell bioassay system. Compound 1 induced neurite outgrowth dose-dependently in PC12 cells and primary cortical neurons at doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 1 µM. The potential target of compound 1 was predicted by ChemProteoBase profiling, and the mechanism of action was investigated using specific inhibitors, Western blot analysis, and PC12 [rasN17] and PC12 [mtGAP] mutants. Compound 1 activates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as an ER stress inducer, and the maker of ER stress GRP78 protein significantly increased after treatment with compound 1. The inhibitors of tyrosine kinase B (TrkB), insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK), and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) significantly decreased the neurite outgrowth induced by compound 1. Furthermore, the increases of phosphorylation of TrkB, IGF-1R, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and protein kinase B (AKT) were observed in the compound 1-treated group, and the phosphorylation of these proteins was diminished by corresponding inhibitors. Thus, the compound-1-induced neuritogenic activity depended on the activation of slight ER stress and associated BDNF-TrkB/Ras/Raf/ERK and IGF-1R/PI3K/AKT signaling pathways in PC12 cells.

13.
ChemMedChem ; 13(18): 1972-1977, 2018 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30044536

RESUMO

(3S,4R)-23,28-Dihydroxyolean-12-en-3-yl (2E)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)acrylate (1 a), which possesses significant neuritogenic activity, was isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plant, Desmodium sambuense. To confirm the structure and to assess biological activity, we semi-synthesized 1 a from commercially available oleanolic acid. A series of novel 1 a derivatives was then designed and synthesized for a structure-activity relationship (SAR) study. All synthetic derivatives were characterized by analysis of spectral data, and their neuritogenic activities were evaluated in assays with PC12 cells. The SAR results indicate that the number and position of the hydroxy groups on the phenyl ring and the triterpene moiety, as well as the length of the (saturated or unsaturated) alkyl chain that links the phenyl ring with the triterpene critically influence neuritogenic activity. Among all the tested compounds, 1 e [(3S,4R)-23,28-dihydroxyolean-12-en-3-yl (2E)-3-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)acrylate] was found to be the most potent, inducing significant neurite outgrowth at 1 µm.

14.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; : 271678X18783653, 2018 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29890880

RESUMO

Cerebral ischemia has a harmful effect on the synapse associated with neurological impairment. The "tripartite synapse" is assembled by the pre- and postsynaptic terminals, embraced by astrocytic elongations known as peripheral astrocytic processes (PAPs). Ischemic stroke induces the detachment of PAPs from the synapse, leading to synaptic dysfunction and neuronal death. Ezrin is a membrane-associated protein, required for the formation of PAPs, that links the cell surface to the actin cytoskeleton. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) is a serine proteinase that upon binding to its receptor (uPAR) promotes neurite growth during development. In the adult brain, neurons release uPA and astrocytes recruit uPAR to the plasma membrane during the recovery phase from an ischemic stroke, and uPA/uPAR binding promotes functional improvement following an ischemic injury. We found that uPA induces the synthesis of ezrin in astrocytes, with the subsequent formation of PAPs that enter in direct contact with the synapse. Furthermore, either the release of neuronal uPA or intravenous treatment with recombinant uPA (ruPA) induces the formation of PAPs in the ischemic brain, and the interaction of these PAPs with the pre- and postsynaptic terminals protects the integrity of the "tripartite synapse" from the harmful effects of the ischemic injury.

15.
J Biol Chem ; 293(24): 9234-9247, 2018 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29720403

RESUMO

Synaptic repair in the ischemic brain is a complex process that requires reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Ezrin, radixin, and moesin (ERM) are a group of evolutionarily conserved proteins that link the plasma membrane to the actin cytoskeleton and act as scaffolds for signaling transduction. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) is a serine proteinase that upon binding to the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen into plasmin on the cell surface and activates intracellular signaling pathways. Early studies indicate that uPA and uPAR expression increase during the recovery phase from an ischemic stroke and that uPA binding to uPAR promotes neurorepair in the ischemic brain. The in vitro and in vivo studies presented here show that either the release of neuronal uPA or treatment with recombinant uPA induces the local synthesis of ezrin in the synapse and the recruitment of ß3-integrin to the postsynaptic density (PSD) of cerebral cortical neurons by a plasminogen-independent mechanism. We found that ß3-integrin has a double effect on ezrin, inducing its recruitment to the PSD via the intercellular adhesion molecule-5 (ICAM-5) and its subsequent activation by phosphorylation at Thr-567. Finally, our data indicate that by triggering the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in the postsynaptic terminal, active ezrin induces the recovery of dendritic spines and synapses that have been damaged by an acute ischemic stroke. In summary, our data show that uPA-uPAR binding promotes synaptic repair in the ischemic brain via ezrin-mediated reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in the postsynaptic terminal.

16.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(27): 8100-8104, 2018 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29729060

RESUMO

Asexual and sexual reproduction are the most important biological events in the life cycle of phytopathogenic and toxigenic Fusarium and are responsible for disease epidemics. However, the signaling molecules which induce the asexual reproduction of Fusarium are unknown. Herein we describe the structure elucidation, including the absolute configuration, of Fusarium asexual reproduction inducer (FARI), a new sesquiterpene derivative, by spectroscopic analysis, total synthesis, and conidium-inducing assays of synthetic isomers. We have also uncovered the universality of FARI among Fusarium species. Moreover, a mechanism-of-action study suggested that the Gpmk1 and LaeA signaling pathways are required for conidium formation induced by FARI; conversely, the Mgv1 of mitogen-activated protein kinase is not involved in conidium formation. FARI exhibited conidium-inducing activity at an extremely low dose and high stereoselectivity, which may suggest the presence of a stereospecific target.

17.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 5736, 2018 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29636498

RESUMO

YNbO4 phosphors with various Er3+ and Yb3+ concentrations were synthesized via a traditional high-temperature solid-state reaction method. Their crystal structure was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld refinements, and it was confirmed that the obtained samples exist in monoclinic phase. The Er3+ and Yb3+ concentration-dependent up-conversion (UC) luminescence was studied under 1550 nm excitation. By inspecting the dependence of UC intensity on the laser working current, it was found that four-photon and three-photon population processes were co-existent for generating the green UC emissions in the samples with higher Yb3+ concentrations. In addition, it was observed that the temperature sensing properties of YNbO4: Er3+/Yb3+ phosphors were sensitive to both Er3+ and Yb3+ doping concentrations. Furthermore, based on the obtained temperature response of the UC luminescence phosphors, 1550 nm laser-irradiation-induced thermal effect was studied, and it was discovered that the sample temperature was very sensitive to the doping concentrations of Er3+ and Yb3+ and the excitation power.

18.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; 38(11): 1896-1910, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29547062

RESUMO

Cerebral ischemia causes the presynaptic release of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). The postsynaptic density (PSD) is a postsynaptic structure that provides a matrix where signaling transduction of excitatory synapses takes place. The postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) is the most abundant scaffolding protein in the postsynaptic density (PSD), where it modulates the postsynaptic response to the presynaptic release of glutamate by regulating the anchoring of glutamate receptors to the PSD. We found that tPA induces the local translation of PSD-95 mRNA and the subsequent recruitment of PSD-95 protein to the PSD, via plasminogen-independent activation of TrkB receptors. Our data show that PSD-95 is removed from the PSD during the early stages of cerebral ischemia, and that this effect is abrogated by either the release of neuronal tPA, or intravenous administration of recombinant tPA (rtPA). We report that the effect of tPA on PSD-95 is associated with inhibition of the phosphorylation and recruitment of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors to the PSD, known to amplify the effect of the excitotoxic injury, and that this is followed by TrkB-mediated protection of dendritic spines from the harmful effects of the hypoxic insult. These data reveal that tPA is a synaptic protector in the ischemic brain.

19.
Opt Express ; 26(2): 1870-1881, 2018 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29401909

RESUMO

Ag-Eu3+ co-doped fluoroborate glass phosphors doped with various Eu3+-concentrations were prepared by a melt-quenching technique. The luminescent properties of these glass phosphors were characterized by excitation and emission spectra. Broad excitation and emission bands located, respectively, at 300-450 nm and 390-700 nm originating from silver aggregates were observed. Strong red emissions were detected under 404 nm violet light-emitting diode (LED) excitation for those Ag-Eu3+ co-doped samples. It was found that these red emissions of Eu3+ well compensated the deficiency of the red spectral components in glasses containing Ag aggregates. In addition, it was confirmed that stable white light could be achieved from the combination of a specific Ag-Eu3+ co-doped fluoroborate glass phosphor and LEDs with different output wavelengths. By adjusting the luminescence intensity ratio of the glass phosphor to the 404 nm violet LED, tunable emitting color was realized, and the studied glass phosphors showed excellent emitting color stability toward LED drive currents. Our results demonstrated that this kind of easy fabrication, low-cost, and highly stable Ag-Eu3+ co-doped fluoroborate glass phosphors had potential application in white LED.

20.
J Neuroinflammation ; 15(1): 45, 2018 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29452577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polymerase δ-interacting protein 2 (Poldip2) is a multifunctional protein that regulates vascular extracellular matrix composition and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a dynamic system assembled by endothelial cells, basal lamina, and perivascular astrocytes, raising the possibility that Poldip2 may be involved in maintaining its structure. We investigated the role of Poldip2 in the late BBB permeability induced by cerebral ischemia. METHODS: Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) was induced in Poldip2+/+ and Poldip2+/- mice. The volume of the ischemic lesion was measured in triphenyltetrazolium chloride-stained sections. BBB breakdown was evaluated by Evans blue dye extravasation. Poldip2 protein expression was evaluated by western blotting. RT-PCR, zymography, and ELISAs were used to measure mRNA levels, activity, and protein levels of cytokines and MMPs. Cultured astrocytes were transfected with Poldip2 siRNA, and mRNA levels of cytokines were evaluated as well as IκBα protein degradation. RESULTS: Cerebral ischemia induced the expression of Poldip2. Compared to Poldip2+/+ mice, Poldip2+/- animals exhibited decreased Evans blue dye extravasation and improved survival 24 h following stroke. Poldip2 expression was upregulated in astrocytes exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) and siRNA-mediated downregulation of Poldip2 abrogated OGD-induced IL-6 and TNF-α expression. In addition, siRNA against Poldip2 inhibited TNF-α-induced IκBα degradation. TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, VEGF, and MMP expression induced by cerebral ischemia was abrogated in Poldip2+/- mice. The protective effect of Poldip2 depletion on the increased permeability of the BBB was partially reversed by systemic administration of TNF-α. CONCLUSIONS: Poldip2 is upregulated following ischemic stroke and mediates the breakdown of the BBB by increasing cerebral cytokine production and MMP activation. Therefore, Poldip2 appears to be a promising novel target for the development of therapeutic strategies to prevent the development of cerebral edema in the ischemic brain.

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