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1.
J Interv Cardiol ; 2020: 4713591, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372887

RESUMO

Background: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is referred as liver transaminase and predominantly expressed by hepatocytes. Previous evidences showed that high levels of ALT were reversely associated with short- and long-term outcomes in patients with myocardial infarction. Besides, low lymphocyte has been demonstrated to be significantly correlated with adverse clinical outcomes in coronary artery disease (CAD). However, evidences about the relationship between ALT-to-lymphocyte ratio (ALR) and outcomes in CAD patients with normal liver function are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between ALR and clinical outcomes in patients with CAD. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study, and a total of 3561 patients were enrolled in Clinical Outcomes and Risk Factors of Patients with CAD after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), from January 2013 to December 2017. After excluding patients with liver dysfunction, we finally enrolled 2714 patients. These patients were divided into two groups according to ALR value: the lower group (ALR < 14.06, n = 1804) and the higher group (ALR ≥ 14.06, n = 910). The average follow-up time was 37.59 ± 22.24 months. Results: We found that there were significant differences between the two groups in the incidence of all-cause mortality (ACM) (P < 0.001) and cardiac mortality (CM) (P=0.010). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis suggested that CAD patients with higher ALR tended to have an increased accumulated risk of ACM and CM (log rank P < 0.001 and P=0.006, respectively). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that ALR was an independent predictor of ACM (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.017 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.289-3.158), P=0.002) and CM (HR = 1.862 (95% CI: 1.047-3.313), P=0.034). We did not find significant difference in the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs) between the two groups after adjustments of confounders. Conclusion: Our results indicate that ALR is an independent predictor of long-term adverse outcomes in CAD patients who underwent PCI.

2.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 137, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The financial burden of oral diseases is a growing concern as the medical expenses rise worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the dental expenditure, analyze its progressivity and horizontal inequality under the general health finance and insurance system, and identify the key social determinants of the inequality for Chinese adults. METHODS: A secondary analysis used the data of 13,464 adults from the 4th National Oral Health Epidemiological Survey (NOHES) in China was undertaken. The dental expenditure was collected and divided into out-of-pocket and health insurance payments. Horizontal inequality index and Kakwani index were used to analyze the horizontal inequality and progressivity, respectively. The decomposition model of the concentration index was set up to explore the associated socioeconomic determinants. RESULTS: The results showed that a mean dental expenditure per capita of Chinese adults was $20.55 (95% Confidence Interval-CI: 18.83,22.26). Among those who actually used dental service, the cost was $100.95 (95%CI: 93.22,108.68). Over 90% of dental spending was due to out-of-pocket expenses. For self-reported oral health, the horizontal inequality index was - 0.1391 and for the decayed tooth (DT), it was - 0.2252. For out-of-pocket payment, the Kakwani index was - 0.3154 and for health insurance payment it was - 0.1598. Income, residential location, educational attainment, oral hygiene practice, self-reported oral health, age difference were the main contributors to the inequality of dental expenditure. CONCLUSION: Dental expenditure for Chinese adults was at a lower level due to underutilization. The ratio of payments of dental expenditure and utilization was disproportional, whether it was out-of-pocket or insurance payment. Individuals who were more in need of oral care showed less demand for service or not required service in time. For future policy making on oral health, it is worth the effort to further promote the awareness of the importance of oral health and utilization of dental service.

3.
Immunity ; 2020 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413330

RESUMO

The World Health Organization has declared SARS-CoV-2 virus outbreak a worldwide pandemic. However, there is very limited understanding on the immune responses, especially adaptive immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we collected blood from COVID-19 patients who have recently become virus-free, and therefore were discharged, and detected SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular immunity in eight newly discharged patients. Follow-up analysis on another cohort of six patients 2 weeks post discharge also revealed high titers of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. In all 14 patients tested, 13 displayed serum-neutralizing activities in a pseudotype entry assay. Notably, there was a strong correlation between neutralization antibody titers and the numbers of virus-specific T cells. Our work provides a basis for further analysis of protective immunity to SARS-CoV-2, and understanding the pathogenesis of COVID-19, especially in the severe cases. It also has implications in developing an effective vaccine to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

4.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283933

RESUMO

The decoration of two-dimensional (2D) substrates with nanoparticles (NPs) serve as heterostructures for various catalysis applications. Deep understanding of catalyst degradation mechanisms during service conditions is crucial to improve the catalyst durability. Herein, we studied the sintering behavior of Pt and bimetallic Au-core Pt-shell (Au@Pt core-shell) NPs on MoS2 supports at high temperatures under vacuum, nitrogen (N2), hydrogen (H2), and air environments by in situ gas-cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The key observations are summarized as effect of environment: while particle migration and coalescence (PMC) was the main mechanism that led to Pt and Au@Pt NPs degradation under vacuum, N2, and H2 environments, the degradation of MoS2 substrate was prominent under exposure to air at high temperatures. Pt NPs were less stable in H2 environment when compared with the Pt NPs under vacuum or N2, due to Pt-H interactions that weakened the adhesion of Pt on MoS2. Effect of NP composition: under H2, the stability of Au@Pt NPs was higher in comparison to Pt NPs. This is because H2 promotes the alloying of Pt-Au, thus reducing the number of Pt at the surface (reducing H2 interactions) and increasing Pt atoms in contact with MoS2. Effect of NP size: The alloying effect promoted by H2 was more pronounced in small size Au@Pt NPs resulting in their higher sintering resistance in comparison to large size Au@Pt NPs and similar size Pt NPs. The present work provides key insights into the parameters affecting the catalyst degradation mechanisms on 2D supports.

5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(1): 52-58, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237410

RESUMO

It is of great significance to carry out scientific investigation of threatened species and assess their in-situ conservation status in order to guide the conservation and management of these species within a region. In this study, we explored and assessed the biodiversity and in-situ conservation status of the threatened medicinal vascular plants(TMVPs) in central China. The results showed that there were 276 TMVPs in central China, including 18 critically endangered(CR), 77 endangered(EN), and 181 vulnerable(VU) species. Of which, 222 TMVPs were distributed in 49 national nature reserves, with an in-situ conservation rate of 80.43%. And the in-situ conservation rate of CR, EN and NR species were 83.33%, 77.92% and 81.22%, respectively. The complementary algorithm was used to select the nine national nature reserves with the highest protection and complementary contribution to the TMVPs. The cumulative protection contribution rate of these nine nature reserves was 81.98%. Fifty-four TMVPs were distributed outside of national nature reserves, while mainly distributed within 10 hotspot counties including Badong county, Hubei province, Sangzhi county, Hunan province, Jianghua Yao Autonomous county, Hunan province and so on. In general, TMVPs are well protected by the national nature reserves in central China. However, there are still some conservation gaps. It is necessary to carry out further field investigation on the species with conservation gaps and identify the gap areas, so as to provide scientific guidance for the optimization of the conservation of TMVPs in this region.

6.
Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer ; 1873(2): 188353, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112817

RESUMO

Glioma is the most common primary malignant tumor in the human brain. Although there are a variety of treatments, such as surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, glioma is still an incurable disease. Super-enhancers (SEs) are implicated in the control of tumor cell identity, and they promote oncogenic transcription, which supports tumor cells. Inhibition of the SE complex, which is required for the assembly and maintenance of SEs, may repress oncogenic transcription and impede tumor growth. In this review, we discuss the unique characteristics of SEs compared to typical enhancers, and we summarize the recent advances in the understanding of their properties and biological role in gene regulation. Additionally, we highlight that SE-driven lncRNAs, miRNAs and genes are involved in the malignant phenotype of glioma. Most importantly, the application of SE inhibitors in different cancer subtypes has introduced new directions in glioma treatment.

7.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 1731-1743, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210563

RESUMO

Background: Paclitaxel is wildly used in chemotherapy, however, the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) occurred frequently. Various novel nano-based paclitaxel delivery systems were developed. The aim performed systemically review and meta-analyses to evaluate the effect adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of paclitaxel and its nano-based delivery systems. Methods: Systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane, Clinicalkey, Clinicaltrial.com, ASCO and ESMO. Data of adverse effect were analyzed to odds ratio (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (CI). The quality of studies was assessed with CASP Randomised Controlled Trial Checklist. Statistical analysis was used WinBUGS software (version 1.4.3) with the NetMetaXL interface (version 1.6.1). Results: Twenty-one studies, including 7011 patients and 6 paclitaxel formulations fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In all grade hypersensitivity reactions, comparing to SB-P, people with Lip-P had 0.19 times (95% CI= 0.02, 1.3) of chance, with Nab-P had 0.47 times (95% CI= 0.11, 1.40) of chance, with PPX had 0.44 times (95% CI= 0.03, 5.7) of chance for all grade adverse effect. In All grad neutropenia, comparing to Lip-P, people with SB-P had 0.83 times (95% CI= 0.15, 4.81) of chance for all grade adverse effect; comparing to PM-P, people with SB-P had 0.73 times (95% CI= 0.22, 2.42) of chance for all grade adverse effect. In leucopenia, comparing to Nab-P, people with SB-P had 0.66 times (95% CI= 0.50, 0.87) of chance for all grade adverse effect; comparing to PM-P, people with SB-P had 0.64 times (95% CI= 0.32, 1.16) of chance for all grade adverse effect. The rate of incidence in peripheral sensory neuropathy, myalgias and arthralgias tend to no significant differences between different formulations. Conclusion: Nano-based paclitaxel delivery resulted in fewer hypersensitivity reactions than solvent-based delivery. However, the incidence of neutropenia and leucopenia was higher in nano-based than solvent-based paclitaxel delivery. Dose-dependent ADRs were more frequent in paclitaxel anticancer treatment.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5045, 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193508

RESUMO

Osteosarcoma (OSA) is the most common type of cancer that originates in the bone and usually occurs in young children. OSA patients were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgery, and the results were disappointing. Marine antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been the focus of antibiotic research because they are resistant to pathogen infection. Piscidin-1 is an AMP from the hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis × M. chrysops) and has approximately 22 amino acids. Research has shown that piscidin-1 can inhibit bacterial infections and has antinociception and anti-cancer properties; however, the regulatory effects of piscidin-1 on mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer cells are still unknown. We aimed to identify the effects of piscidin-1 on mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) and apoptosis in OSA cells. Our analyses indicated that piscidin-1 has more cytotoxic effects against OSA cells than against lung and ovarian cancer cells; however, it has no effect on non-cancer cells. Piscidin-1 induces apoptosis in OSA cells, regulates mtROS, reduces mitochondrial antioxidant manganese superoxide dismutase and mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and decreases adenosine 5'-triphosphate production, thus leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. The mitochondrial antioxidant, mitoTempo, reduces the apoptosis induced by piscidin-1. Results suggest that piscidin-1 has potential for use in OSA treatment.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CO-V-2), was first reported in Wuhan, Hubei province, China has now rapidly spread over 50 countries. For the prevention and control of infection, Taiwan Centers for Disease Control initiated testing of SARS-CoV-2 on January 24th 2020 for persons suspected with this disease. Until February 28th, 43 flu-like symptomatic patients were screened in China Medical University Hospital. METHODS: Two patients were confirmed positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection by rRT-PCR as COVID-19 patients A and B. Causative pathogens for included patients were detected using FilmArray™ Respiratory Panel. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical presentations, laboratory data, radiologic findings, and travel and exposure contact histories, of the COVID-19 patients in comparison to those with other respiratory infections. RESULTS: Through contact with Taiwan No. 19 case patient on 27th January, COVID-19 patients A and B were infected. Both patients had no identified comorbidities and developed mild illness with temporal fever, persistent cough, and lung interstitial infiltrates. Owing to the persistence of positive SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory specimen, the two COVID-19 patients are still in the isolation rooms despite recovery until 10th of March. The results of FilmArrayTM Respiratory Panel revealed 22 of the 41 non-COVID-19 patients were infected by particular pathogens. In general, seasonal respiratory pathogens are more prevalent than SARS-CoV-2 in symptomatic patients in non- COVID-19 endemic area during the flu season. Since all patients shared similar clinical and laboratory findings, expanded surveillance of detailed exposure history for suspected patients and application of rapid detection tools are highly recommended.

10.
Anal Chem ; 92(5): 4029-4037, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031369

RESUMO

Gold-nanoparticles-based colorimetric assay is an attractive detection format, but is limited by the tedious and ineffective posthybridization manipulations for genomic analysis. Here, we present a new design for a colorimetric gene-sensing platform based on the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas system. In this strategy, programmable recognition of DNA by Cas12a/crRNA and RNA by Cas13a/crRNA with a complementary target activates the trans-ssDNA or -ssRNA cleavage. Target-induced trans-ssDNA or ssRNA cleavage triggers an aggregation behavior change for the designed AuNPs-DNA probes pair, enabling the completion of naked-eye gene detection (transgenic rice, African swine fever virus, and miRNAs as the models) within 1 h. This platform is also showing promise as a fast and inexpensive tool for bacteria identification using 16S rDNA or 16S rRNA. A CRISPR/Cas-based colorimetric platform shows superior characteristics, such as probe universality, compatibility with isothermal reaction conditions, on-site detection capability, and high sensitivity, thus, demonstrating its use as a robust next-generation gene detection platform.

11.
ACS Nano ; 14(2): 2497-2508, 2020 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045522

RESUMO

The lateral flow assay is one of the most convenient analytical techniques for analyzing the immune response, but its applicability to precise genetic analyses is limited by the false-positive signal and tedious and inefficient hybridization steps. Here, we introduce the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) /Cas system into the lateral flow assay, termed CRISPR/Cas9-mediated lateral flow nucleic acid assay (CASLFA), to address such issues. In this study, CASLFA is utilized to identify Listeria monocytogenes, genetically modified organisms (GMOs), and African swine fever virus (ASFV) at a detection limit of hundreds of copies of genome samples with high specificity within 1 h. We further evaluated the performance of CASLFA in a nonlaboratory environment and successfully confirmed 27 ASFV-infected samples from 110 suspected swine serum samples, with an accuracy of 100% when compared to real-time PCR (RT-PCR) assay. CASLFA satisfies some of the characteristics of a next-generation molecular diagnostics tool due to its rapidity and accuracy, allowing for point-of-care use without the need for technical expertise and complex ancillary equipment. This method has great potential for gene analysis in resource-poor or nonlaboratory environments.

12.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(3): 90, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060654

RESUMO

Puerarin is widely used as a therapeutic agent to cardiovascular diseases in clinics in China through intravenous administration, which could elicit adverse drug reactions caused by cosolvents, hindering its application in clinics. Therefore, the development of oral dosage is urgently needed. In our previous studies, we proved that the bioavailability of puerarin increased as particle sizes of nanocrystals decreased; however, we have not optimized the best process parameters for nanocrystals. In this study, we aim to fabricate fine nanocrystals (with smallest particle size) by Box-Behnken design and study the intestinal permeability of puerarin and its nanocrystals via employing everted gut sac model and in situ perfusion model. The results showed that the Box-Behnken design could be used to optimize the producing parameters of puerarin nanocrystals, and the particle sizes of fine nanocrystals were about 20 nm. Results of everted gut sacs showed that the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and verapamil had no influence on the absorption of puerarin and nanocrystals, and the nanocrystals could increase the Papp of puerarin for 2.2-, 2.9-, and 2.9-folds, respectively, in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Enhanced Ka and Peff were observed on the nanocrystal group, compared with puerarin, and PVP and verapamil had no influence on the absorption of nanocrystals, while the absorption of puerarin was influenced by P-gp efflux. Combining the results mentioned above, we can conclude that the Box-Behnken design benefits the optimization for preparation of nanocrystals, and the nanocrystals could enhance the intestinal absorption of puerarin by enhanced permeability and inhibited P-gp efflux.

13.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-12, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098490

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the relationships between cognitive emotion regulation (CER) strategies, resilience, and insomnia and the underlying mechanism that explains the relationships. Six hundred and fifty-three middle-aged and old people recruited from community service centers in Henan province completed questionnaires related to CER strategies, resilience, and insomnia. Results showed refocus on planning and positive reappraisal negatively predicted insomnia, and catastrophising, rumination and self-blame positively predicted insomnia. Moreover, maladaptive emotion regulation strategies (especially catastrophising) mediated the relationship between resilience and insomnia. The findings suggest the middle-aged and elderly with insomnia tended to employ maladaptive emotion regulation strategies and had lower resilience. Maladaptive emotion regulation strategies buffered the positive effect of resilience on sleep.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101398

RESUMO

Solid state electrolytes (SSEs) offer great potential to enable high-performance and safe lithium (Li) batteries. However, the scale-up synthesis and processing of SSEs is a major challenge. In this work, three-dimensional networks of lithium lanthanum titanite (LLTO) nanofibers are produced through a scale-up technique based on solution blowing. Compared with the conventional electrospinning method, the solution blowing technique enables high-speed fabrication of SSEs (e.g., 15 times faster) with superior productivity and quality. Additionally, the room-temperature ionic conductivity of composite polymer electrolytes (CPEs) formed from solution-blown LLTO fibers is 70% higher than the ones formed from electrospun fibers (1.9 × 10 -4 vs 1.1 × 10-4 S cm-1 for 10 wt % LLTO fibers). Furthermore, the cyclability of the CPEs made from solution-blown fibers in the symmetric Li cell is more than 2.5 times that of the CPEs made from electrospun fibers. These comparisons show that solution-blown ion-conductive fibers hold great promise for applications in Li metal batteries.

15.
J Med Chem ; 63(3): 1216-1232, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895569

RESUMO

Several epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed and approved by Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancers, but their efficacy can be compromised by acquired drug resistance conferred by EGFR-mutant variants. Here, we described the discovery of a novel E3 ligase von Hippel-Lindau-recruiting EGFR degrader, MS39 (compound 6), and a first-in-class E3 ligase cereblon-recruiting EGFR degrader, MS154 (compound 10), using the proteolysis targeting chimera technology. These compounds potently induced the degradation of mutant but not wild-type EGFR in an E3 ligase-dependent manner in cancer cell lines and effectively suppressed the growth of lung cancer cells compared with the corresponding negative controls. The global proteomic analyses revealed that the compounds were highly selective for EGFR. Furthermore, both compounds were bioavailable in mouse pharmacokinetic studies, and compound 6 is the first EGFR degrader suitable for in vivo efficacy studies. Overall, we provide a set of well-characterized chemical tools to the research community.

16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(6): 7575-7585, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958010

RESUMO

A simple and green layer-by-layer assembly strategy is developed for the preparation of a highly bioavailable nanocomposite photosensitizer by assembling near-infrared (NIR) light-sensitive porphyrin/G-quadruplex complexes on the surface of a highly biocompatible nanoparticle that is prepared via Zn2+-assisted coordination self-assembly of an amphiphilic amino acid. After being efficiently delivered to the target site and internalized into tumor cells via enhanced permeability and retention effect and interactions between aptamers and tumor markers, the as-prepared nanoassembly can be directly used as an NIR light-responsive photosensitizer for tumor photodynamic therapy (PDT) since the porphyrin/G-quadruplex complexes are exposed on the nanoassembly surface and kept in an active state. It can also disassemble under the synergistic stimuli of an acidic pH environment and overexpressed glutathione, leasing more efficient porphyrin/G-quadruplex composite photosensitizers while reducing the interference caused by glutathione-dependent 1O2 consumption. Since the nanoassembly can work no matter if it is disassembled or not, the compulsory requirement for in vivo photosensitizer release is eliminated, thus resulting in the great improvement of the bioavailability of the photosensitizer. The PDT applications of the nanoassembly were well demonstrated in both in vitro cell and in vivo animal experiments.

17.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(7): 4073-4083, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968423

RESUMO

We have successfully enhanced the performance of commercial supercapacitors that use Japan Kuraray 80F activated carbon and Super-P conductive carbon black as the conductive agent with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) additive. The ratios of conductive carbon black to rGO studied are 3:1, 5:1, 10:1, 15:1 and 1:0. The enhancement is most pronounced at 15:1, and the specific capacitance being 137.5 F g-1, which is a 23.8% improvement over the 1:0 control. The specific capacitance retention is 70.1% after 10000 cycles. The impedance resistance is also reduced to 1.5 Ω, which is 3.3 times lower than the 1:0 control. Additionally, the rGO additive does not alter the favorable pore size distribution of the primary matrix and successfully preserves its small mesoporous structure, which facilitates facile transport of electrolyte.

18.
Respir Med ; 161: 105847, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785506

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A single isolate of nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) from bronchoscopic samples satisfies the microbiological criterion for diagnosing NTM-pulmonary disease (PD). Studies investigating patients with NTM-PD and multiple culture-negative sputum samples but culture-positive bronchoscopic samples are lacking. We investigated the clinical characteristics, outcome, and predictors of radiographic progression in this special population. METHODS: Patients with negative NTM culture from ≥2 expectorated sputum samples within the 3 months prior to bronchoscopy diagnosis of NTM-PD between 2009 and 2017 were included. Patient characteristics and clinical course were described. Predictors for radiographic progression of NTM-PD within 2 years were analysed by using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Among 66 patients with bronchoscopy-diagnosed NTM-PD, radiographic progression occurred within 2 years in 17 (26%). Of the 60 patients not initially treated, radiographic progression occurred in 17 (28%). Among them, 10 never received treatment, with 6 deteriorating and 3 dying. Of the 6 and 7 patients who received treatment immediately after NTM-PD diagnosis and after radiographic progression, respectively, none had further radiographic progression. The independent predictors of radiographic progression were male sex, body mass index <18.5 kg/m2, use of inhaled corticosteroids, and acid-fast smear grade ≥2 of index bronchoscopic samples. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with bronchoscopy-diagnosed NTM-PD, one fourth experienced radiographic progression within 2 years. The risk was even higher in those with the aforementioned predictors, immediate treatment or close monitoring is recommended. For others, conservative management by regular microbiological monitoring for sputum samples and image follow-up may be the optimal choice.

19.
Int J Pharm ; 573: 118730, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705972

RESUMO

Poor water solubility and low bioavailability hinder the clinical application of about 70% of newly synthesized compounds. Nanocrystal technology has become a preferred way to improve bioavailability by improving solubility. However, it remains challenging to produce nanocrystals with ultra-small particle sizes to further enhance the extent of bioavailability. Herein, we constructed ultra-small puerarin nanocrystals (Pue-NCs) (20-40 nm) via formation of hydrogen bond during HPH. We confirmed the formation of hydrogen bonds by 1H NMR and FTIR, and observed the distribution of polymer chains by SEM and TEM. The absorption mechanisms were studied in Caco-2 cell monolayers, and the results showed that the major transport mechanism for puerarin was passive diffusion, meanwhile, for Pue-NCs, the passive transport and micropinocytosis-mediated endocytosis coexisted. The absolute bioavailability of Pue-NCs was 35.28%, which was 11.54 folds compared to that of puerarin. Therapeutic equivalence was demonstrated between Pue-NCs and puerarin injection at 50 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg, respectively, in isoproterenol-induced myocardial ischemia model. This study provides a novel strategy for preparing ultra-small nanocrystals by HPH to increase bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs.

20.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; 41(3): e1900561, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859398

RESUMO

Self-assembly of asymmetric block copolymers (BCPs) around active pore edges has emerged as an important strategy to produce smart membranes with tunable pathways for solute transport. However, thus far, it is still challenging to manipulate pore shape and functionality for directional transformation under external stimuli. Here, a versatile strategy by mesoscale simulations to design stimuli-responsive pores with various edge decorations in hybrid membranes is reported. Dopant BCPs are used as decorators to stabilize pore edges and extend their function in reconfiguring pores in response to repeated membrane stretching/shrinking caused by external stimuli. The decoration morphologies are predictable since the assemblies of dopant BCPs around pore edges are closely related to their self-assemblies in solution. The coassembly between different BCPs in the hybrid membrane for the control of pore morphology is featured, and the parameter settings, including block incompatibility and molecular architecture for the construction of a specific pore, are determined. Results show that harnessed dopant BCPs in the hybrid membrane can enhance pore formation and induce directional pore shape and functionality transformation. Diversified pore decorations exhibit potential that can be further explored in selective solute transport and the design of stimuli-responsive smart nanodevices.

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