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1.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(2): 49, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982234

RESUMO

Streptococcus pneumoniae can cause several diseases including otitis media, sinusitis, pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis. The introduction of pneumococcal vaccines has changed the molecular epidemiological and antibiotic resistance profiles of related diseases. Analysis of molecular patterns and genome sequences of clinical strains may facilitate the identification of novel drug resistance mechanism. Three multidrug resistance 19A isolates were verified, serotyped and the complete genomes were sequenced combining the Pacific Biosciences and the Illumina Miseq platform. Genomic annotation revealed that similar central networks were found in the clinical isolates, and Mauve alignments indicated high similarity between different strains. The pan-genome analysis showed the shared and unique cluster in the strains. Mobile elements were predicted in the isolates including prophages and CRISPER systems, which may participate in the virulence and antibiotic resistance of the strains. The presence of 31 virulence factor genes was predicted from other pathogens for PRSP 19339 and 19343, while 30 for PRSP 19087. Meanwhile, 33 genes antibiotic resistance genes were predicted including antibiotic resistance genes, antibiotic-target genes and antibiotic biosynthesis genes. Further analysis of the antibiotic resistance genes revealed new mutations in the isolates. By comparative genomic analysis, we contributed to the understanding of resistance mechanism of the clinical isolates with other serotype strains, which could facilitate the concrete drug resistance mechanism study.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Infecções Pneumocócicas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Genômica , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Penicilinas , Sorogrupo , Sorotipagem , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genética
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23475, 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34873208

RESUMO

Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy of a fluorescence probe, 3,6-bis(1-methyl-2-vinylpyridinium) carbazole diiodide (o-BMVC), provides an objective method for preoperative diagnosis of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of thyroid nodules. The key of this o-BMVC test of FNA smears is the measurement of the digital number of o-BMVC foci in the nucleus. Thus, there are three categories classified in the o-BMVC test, which are nondiagnostic for unsatisfactory samples, benign for less numbers of o-BMVC foci, and malignant for more numbers of o-BMVC foci. The discrimination of indeterminate (including atypia, follicular neoplasm, suspicious) cytology into benign or malignant cases can reduce diagnostic uncertainty and benefit clinical decision making. This pilot study strongly suggests that the o-BMVC test is an invaluable method for diagnosing FNA samples. Particularly, the combination of FNA cytology and the o-BMVC test holds great promise to improve the efficacy of diagnosis and reduce the healthcare costs.

3.
Genome Biol Evol ; 13(12)2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34864973

RESUMO

Sporobolomyces roseus is an important oleaginous red yeast with critical biotechnological applications and has received significant recognition as a valuable source of industrial enzymes, carotenoids, and lipids. To reveal the genetic basis and functional components underlying its biotechnological applications, a high-quality genome assembly is required. Here, we present a novel genome assembly of S. roseus CGMCC 2.4355 using a combination of Illunima and Oxford Nanopore technologies. The genome has an assembly size of 21.4 Mb and consists of 15 scaffolds with an N50 length of 2,126,566 bp and GC content of 49.52%. The assembly is of high integrity, comprising 95.2% complete Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs (BUSCOs) as evaluated by a genome completeness assessment. The genome was predicted to contain 8,124 protein-coding genes, 6,890 of which were functionally annotated. We believe that the combination of our analyses and high-quality genome assembly will promote the basic development of S. roseus as an agent for biotechnological applications and make a significant contribution to assess the evolutionary relationship of Sporobolomyces species.

5.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2103543, 2021 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34957697

RESUMO

Neutrophils constitute abundant cellular components in human gastric cancer (GC) tissues, but their protumorigenic subset in pathogenesis of GC progression is unclear. Here, it is found that patients with GC show significantly higher neutrophil infiltration in tumors that is regulated by CXCL12-CXCR4 chemotaxis. These tumor-infiltrating neutrophils express high level immunosuppressive molecules FasL and PD-L2, and this FasL+ PD-L2+ neutrophil subset with a unique phenotype constitutes at least 20% of all neutrophils in advanced GC and predicts poor patient survival. Tumor induces neutrophils to express FasL and PD-L2 proteins with similar phenotype to those in GC tumors in both time-dependent and dose-dependent manners. Mechanistically, Th17 cell-derived IL-17A and tumor cell-derived G-CSF can significantly induce neutrophil FasL and PD-L2 expression via activating ERK-NF-κB and JAK-STAT3 signaling pathway, respectively. Importantly, upon over-expressing FasL and PD-L2, neutrophils acquire immunosuppressive functions on tumor-specific CD8+ T-cells and promote the growth and progression of human GC tumors in vitro and in vivo, which can be reversed by blocking FasL and PD-L2 on these neutrophils. Thus, the work identifies a novel protumorigenic FasL+ PD-L2+ neutrophil subset in GC and provides new insights for human cancer immunosuppression and anti-cancer therapies targeting these pathogenic cells.

6.
Mol Ther Oncolytics ; 23: 488-500, 2021 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34901391

RESUMO

Malignant ascites frequently occur in patients with advanced ovarian cancer at initial diagnosis, and in almost all cases of relapse, they are closely related to poor prognosis, chemoresistance, and metastasis. To date, effective management strategies have been limited. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of oncolytic adenovirus (OV) on malignant ascites in a mouse model of advanced ovarian cancer. The results suggested that OV conferred an effective ability to reduce ascites development and prolong overall survival. Further analysis of the ascitic immune microenvironment revealed that OV treatment promoted T cell infiltration, activation, and differentiation into the effector phenotype; reprogrammed macrophages toward the M1-like phenotype; and increased the ratios of both CD8+ T cells to CD4+ T cells and M1 to M2 macrophages. However, immunosuppressive factors such as PD-1, LAG-3, and Tregs emerged after treatment. Combination therapy including OV, CSF-1R inhibitor PLX3397, and anti-PD-1 remarkably delayed the progression of ascites, and combination therapy induced a greater extent of T cell infiltration, proliferation, and activation. This study provides experimental and theoretical evidence for oncolytic virus-based treatment of malignant ascites, which may further contribute to advanced ovarian cancer therapy.

7.
Kidney Med ; 3(6): 984-991.e1, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34939007

RESUMO

Rationale & Objective: We aimed to explore the associated factors of endothelial injury in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the relationship between endothelial dysfunction and CKD prognosis. Study Design: A prospective observational cohort study. Setting & Participants: 77 adults with CKD stages 1-5 were enrolled January 2010 to December 2010 and followed up until December 2015. Exposure: Serum asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) level at baseline, α-klotho, sodium-phosphorus synergistic transporter, and dimethylarginine-dimethylamine hydrolase expression in kidney biopsy samples. Outcome: Initiation of kidney replacement therapy (KRT). Analytical Approach: Kaplan-Meier analysis was used for evaluation of the incidence rate of KRT. All tests were 2 tailed, and statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05. Results: Mean serum ADMA level of 77 patients was 64.3 ± 34.6 ng/mL. ADMA level increased with CKD stages (P = 0.06) and declining kidney function (r = -0.267; P = 0.02). The expression of α-klotho in kidney biopsy specimens also decreased. Median follow-up time was 56 (interquartile range, 50.5-62) months. Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that during a total follow-up of 6 years, the incidence of KRT initiation in the high-ADMA group was significantly higher than that in the low group (35.9% vs 13.2%; P = 0.03). ADMA level was negatively correlated with α-klotho (r = -0.233; P = 0.04) and positively correlated with phosphorus level (r = 0.243; P = 0.04). The expression of sodium-phosphorus synergistic transporter in kidney tubules, which promoted phosphorus reabsorption, and the expression of dimethylarginine-dimethylamine hydrolase isoform 1, which regulated ADMA, were decreased. Correlation analysis also showed that ADMA level decreased while age increased at baseline (r = -0.292; P = 0.01). Limitations: Small sample size with limited longer-term follow-up. Conclusions: Serum ADMA levels increased as kidney function declined, and high serum ADMA level was associated with incident kidney failure. Low tissue α-klotho and high levels of plasma phosphorus or tissue expression of type II sodium/phosphate cotransporter in the kidney are associated with higher circulating ADMA levels, suggesting that they may be involved in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction in patients with CKD.

8.
Radiother Oncol ; 167: 81-88, 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34902369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extranodal extension (ENE) is a crucial prognostic factor of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, the role of ENE in regional recurrence (rENE) remains unclear. The purpose of our study is to assess the salvage outcome according to the presence of rENE in oral cancer patients with isolated nodal recurrence. METHODS: Oral cancer patients diagnosed with isolated nodal recurrence at the National Taiwan University Hospital between January 2010 and December 2015 were reviewed. All patients were classified into two groups: with and without rENE. The treatment included salvage neck dissection (ND) ± metronomic chemotherapy, salvage ND and radiation (RT)/concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT), Salvage RT/CCRT alone, metronomic chemotherapy, or supportive care. RESULTS: We analyzed 198 patients, 156 with rENE and 42 without rENE. rENE presented more frequently in patients with initial ENE+ (OR = 3.17, p = 0.04), prior RT+ (OR = 2.96, p = 0.02), initial N2/N3 (OR = 2.76, p = 0.01), and recurrent LN size >1.5 cm (OR = 2.33, p = 0.03). The extent of rENE were also significantly different in these patients. The 2-year disease-free survival for patients with and without rENE were 15.7% and 31.7%, respectively (p = 0.002). The 2-year overall survival for patients with and without rENE were 19.6% and 43.9%, respectively (p = 0.004). For patients without rENE, those received salvage ND had better survival outcome (p < 0.001). By contrast, for patients with rENE, those received salvage RT/CCRT had better survival outcome (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The rENE is frequently present (78.79%) in OSCC patients with isolated nodal recurrence. Individualized treatment modalities based on the presence of rENE should be recommended to achieve better salvage outcomes.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767045

RESUMO

CD8+CD103+ tissue-resident memory T cells (TRMs) are involved in tumor immune response and linked to favorable clinical outcome in human cancer. However, the distribution, phenotype, functional properties and clinical relevance of these cells in gastric cancer (GC) remain elusive. Here, our data show that, in comparison to non-tumor tissues, the percentages of CD8+CD103+ TRMs in tumors are significantly decreased. Most tumor-infiltrating CD8+CD103+ TRMs are CD45RA-CCR7- effector-memory cells with higher PD-1 and 4-1BB expression than those from non-tumor tissues. Further, tumor-infiltrating CD8+CD103+ TRMs show impaired cytolytic capacity due to decreased granzyme B and perforin expression. Moreover, ex vivo PD-1 blockade could restore the cytolytic capacity of tumor-infiltrating CD8+CD103+ TRMs, and such anti-PD-1-mediated reinvigoration of CD8+CD103+ TRMs could be further enhanced by 4-1BB co-stimulation. Finally, lower levels of Tumor-infiltrating CD8+CD103+ TRMs are positively correlated with GC progression and poor patients' survival. Our data suggest that restoring CD8+CD103+ TRM function by combining PD-1 blockade and 4-1BB co-stimulation may be a promising strategy for treating GC.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793123

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) gallium sulfide (GaS) offers a plethora of exceptional electrical and optical properties, allowing it to be used in a wide range of applications, including photodetectors, hydrogen generation, and nonlinear optical devices. In this paper, ultrathin 2D GaS nanosheets are synthesized using the liquid-phase exfoliation method, and the structure, morphology, and chemical composition of the as-prepared nanosheets are extensively investigated. After depositing 2D GaS nanosheets on side polished fibers, successful saturable absorbers (SAs) are fabricated for the first time. The realized modulation depths are 10 and 5.3% at 1 and 1.5 µm, respectively, indicating the wideband saturable absorption performance of the prepared SAs. By integrating GaS-SAs into three different wavelength-based fiber laser cavities, stable mode-locked pulses are achieved, having pulse durations of 46.22 ps (1 µm), 614 fs (1.5 µm), and 1.02 ps (2 µm), respectively. Additionally, different orders of harmonic mode-locked pulses with the highest repetition rate of 0.55 GHz (45th order) and Q-switched pulses with the shortest pulse duration of 2.2 µs are obtained in the telecommunication waveband. These findings suggest that 2D GaS has a lot of potential for broadband ultrafast photonics in nonlinear photonics devices.

12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780896

RESUMO

Hydrogel, as a three-dimensional material with high water content, has unique physicochemical and variable mechanical properties. Natural polysaccharide-based composite hydrogels are very popular within medical industry as these viscoelastic materials are non-toxic, biodegradable, bioabsorbable, and biocompatible. This research investigates the engineering of novel composite hydrogels from natural polysaccharides salecan and curdlan without any structural modification and chemical crosslinking. The scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and various rheological methods were employed to investigate the morphology, molecular interaction, and flow behavior of the samples respectively. The key rheological parameters were compared using the Power Law, Herschel-Bulkley and Arrhenius models. This is the first study reporting a novel composite hydrogel made from Salecan and Curdlan with ideal elasticity, enhanced thermostability, good injectability, self-recovery and other rheological properties that will pave the way for application in different fields.

13.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 135(22): 2541-2558, 2021 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730176

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Regulated in development and DNA damage responses-1 (REDD1) is a conserved and ubiquitous protein, which is induced in response to multiple stimuli. However, the regulation, function and clinical relevance of REDD1 in Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis are presently unknown. APPROACH: Immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and Western blot analyses were performed to examine the levels of REDD1 in gastric samples from H. pylori-infected patients and mice. Gastric tissues from Redd1-/- and wildtype (WT, control) mice were examined for inflammation. Gastric epithelial cells (GECs), monocytes and T cells were isolated, stimulated and/or cultured for REDD1 regulation and functional assays. RESULTS: REDD1 was increased in gastric mucosa of H. pylori-infected patients and mice. H. pylori induced GECs to express REDD1 via the phosphorylated cytotoxin associated gene A (cagA) that activated MAPKp38 pathway to mediate NF-κB directly binding to REDD1 promoter. Human gastric REDD1 increased with the severity of gastritis, and mouse REDD1 from non-marrow chimera-derived cells promoted gastric inflammation that was characterized by the influx of MHCII+ monocytes. Importantly, gastric inflammation, MHCII+ monocyte infiltration, IL-23 and IL-17A were attenuated in Redd1-/- mice. Mechanistically, REDD1 in GECs regulated CXCL1 production, which attracted MHCII+ monocytes migration by CXCL1-CXCR2 axis. Then H. pylori induced MHCII+ monocytes to secrete IL-23, which favored IL-17A-producing CD4+ cell (Th17 cell) polarization, thereby contributing to the development of H. pylori-associated gastritis. CONCLUSIONS: The present study identifies a novel regulatory network involving REDD1, which collectively exert a pro-inflammatory effect within gastric microenvironment. Efforts to inhibit this REDD1-dependent pathway may prove valuable strategies in treating of H. pylori-associated gastritis.

14.
J AOAC Int ; 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The less volatile fraction of perfumes can be easily contaminated by phthalates esters (PAEs) which are endocrine-disrupting chemicals during the production, bottling and transportation processes. It is necessary to establish an innovative and rapid method to determine the trace PAEs in commercial perfumes. OBJECTIVE: Hence, self-built spray-inlet microwave plasma torch ionization coupled with a quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometer (QTOF-MS) was developed for direct analysis of PAEs in perfumes with no sample pretreatment. METHODS: Perfumes were sprayed to the MPT's flame directly by sampling pump in 10 µL/min and the ions produced by MPT were introduced into QTOF-MS, the MPT worked at 2450 MHz and 40 W in the 800 ml/min flow rate of argon. RESULTS: For the developed method, excellent linearities were obtained and the correlation coefficient of Di-n-pentyl Phthalate was 0.9799 and the rest were larger than 0.99. The LODs and LOQs were obtained in the ranges of 1.452-18.96 ng/g and 4.839-63.19 ng/g, respectively. The spiked recoveries of PAEs were in the range of 100.1-105.2% with satisfied intra-day RSDs and inter-day RSDs ranging from 1.51-4.34% and 3.45-5.65%, respectively. PAEs in commercial perfumes were successfully detected by spray-inlet MPT-MS2 with low concentrations from 0.036-1.352 µg/g. CONCLUSIONS: The method is a promising tool in field analysis of PAEs in cosmetic solutions where rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis in needed. HIGHLIGHTS: The method was satisfactorily applied to the analysis of commercial perfume samples within 30 s, and earned merits such as simplicity, sensitivity, environmental friendliness and ease operation.

15.
Oral Oncol ; 122: 105569, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656054

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of proactive swallowing rehabilitation on swallowing function and quality of life (QoL) in oral cancer patients in the first two years after definitive treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive adult patients with locally advanced oral cancer who received radical surgery, free flap reconstruction, and adjuvant radiotherapy were recruited prospectively, to whom proactive swallowing rehabilitation was provided. Body weight (BW); fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES), functional oral intake scale (FOIS), and diet level; 10-item eating assessment tool (EAT-10), and MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI); and adherence at baseline, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 104 patients were included during May 2018 to July 2020. Compared to the baseline, significant deterioration in BW, FOIS, and MDADI was noted at one month. However, a trend of recovery was observed in FOIS from one month, and in BW and MDADI from three months. A total of 94% patients were free of tube feeding at 12 months but with a diet requiring special preparations or compensation. Safe swallowing could be achieved in approximately 90% of the participants after six months with diet modification or compensatory maneuvers. BW at 18 and 24 months did not differ significantly from baseline. CONCLUSION: Proactive swallowing therapy is feasible for patients with locally advanced oral cancer receiving definitive treatments. It facilitates safe oral intake and adequate nutrition. Patients who performed swallowing exercises had a faster and better recovery in swallowing function and swallowing-related QoL.

16.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to compare the clinical outcomes of Taiwanese patients with resected oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) who underwent reconstruction with free versus local flaps. METHODS: From 2011 to 2017, we examined 8646 patients with first primary OCSCC who received surgery either with or without adjuvant therapy. Of these patients, 7297 and 1349 received free and local flap reconstruction, respectively. Two propensity score-matched groups of patients who underwent free versus local flap (n = 1268 each) reconstructions were examined. Margin status was not included as a propensity score-matched variable. RESULTS: Compared with local flaps, patients who received free flaps had a higher prevalence of the following variables: male sex, age < 65 years, pT3-4, pN1-3, p-Stage III-IV, depth ≥ 10 mm, margin > 4 mm, extranodal extension (ENE), and adjuvant therapy (all p < 0.0001). Multivariable analysis identified the reconstruction method (local vs. free flaps, only overall survival [OS]), age ≥ 65 years, pT3-4, pN1-3, p-Stage III-IV, depth ≥ 10 mm (only OS), margins ≤ 4 mm, and ENE as independent adverse prognosticators for disease-specific survival (DSS) and OS. The results of propensity score-matched analyses revealed that, compared with free flaps, patients who underwent local flap reconstruction showed less favorable 5-year DSS (hazard ratio [HR] 1.26, 82%/77%; p = 0.0100) and OS (HR 1.21, 73%/68%; p = 0.0079). CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for covariates using multivariate models, and also by propensity score modeling, OCSCC patients who underwent free flap reconstruction showed a higher frequency of clear margins and a significant survival advantage compared with those who received local flaps.

17.
Pharmacol Res ; 174: 105955, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715330

RESUMO

Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by numerous complications, complex disease, and high mortality, making its treatment a top priority in the treatment of COVID-19. Integrated traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and western medicine played an important role in the prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of COVID-19 during the epidemic. However, currently there are no evidence-based guidelines for the integrated treatment of severe COVID-19 with TCM and western medicine. Therefore, it is important to develop an evidence-based guideline on the treatment of severe COVID-19 with integrated TCM and western medicine, in order to provide clinical guidance and decision basis for healthcare professionals, public health personnel, and scientific researchers involved in the diagnosis, treatment, and care of COVID-19 patients. We developed and completed the guideline by referring to the standardization process of the "WHO handbook for guideline development", the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system, and the Reporting Items for Practice Guidelines in Healthcare (RIGHT).

19.
Head Neck ; 43(12): 3764-3774, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The survival outcomes of different salvage treatments for patients with recurrent oral cancer remain unclear. METHODS: A total of 556 patients with recurrent oral cancer between 2010 and 2015 were reviewed. Clinical/pathological risk factors and different salvage treatments were analyzed. RESULTS: The 2-year disease-free survival rates after recurrence in patients not receiving salvage operation (305 patients), receiving salvage operation with (121 patients), and without (130 patients) major pathological risk factors (margin or extranodal extension) were 5.3%, 32.4%, and 77.2%, respectively (p < 0.001). The 2-year overall survival rates were 20.3%, 58.4%, and 89.2%, respectively (p < 0.001). A late-onset recurrence, salvage radiation, and salvage operation were independent factors for good disease-free and overall survival. Salvage radiation showed survival benefits among patients not indicated for salvage operations. CONCLUSIONS: Salvage operation was the first choice for recurrent oral cancer. Patients who received the salvage operation without major risk factors had the best survival.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias Bucais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Humanos , Neoplasias Bucais/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Terapia de Salvação , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(38): 11523-11533, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545740

RESUMO

Carotenoids are a group of tetraterpene pigments widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Torulene, torularhodin, and ß-carotene, three principal carotenoids synthesized by Rhodotorula glutinis ZHK, possess strong health-promoting properties such as antioxidant, provitamin A, and antitumor. Here, the effect of different salt conditions on carotenoids production of R. glutinisZHK was investigated. The results showed that the total carotenoids were significantly enhanced in 0.5 M (3.91 mg/L) and 0.75 M (5.41 mg/L) NaCl treatments than that in 1.0 M (0.35 mg/L) and control (1.42 mg/L) after 120 h of cultivation. Of which, the increase in torulene and torularhodin production acts as the main contributor to the enhancement of total carotenoids. Transcriptome profiling revealed that salt stress efficiently promotes the gene expression of crtI, which could explain the molecular mechanisms of the enhanced torulene and torularhodin production under salt stress. Further experiments indicated that torulene and torularhodin play an important role in quenching excrescent reactive oxygen species induced by salt stress. Together, the present study reports an effective strategy for simultaneously improving torulene and torularhodin production in R. glutinis ZHK.


Assuntos
Rhodotorula , Transcriptoma , Carotenoides , Rhodotorula/genética
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