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1.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 132027, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455123

RESUMO

The binding interactions between Hg and dissolved organic matter (DOM) affect the fate and transport of Hg in the aquatic environment. Here, we investigate the effects of photo-irradiation on the binding characteristics of dissolved organic matter with Hg(II) using FT-IR and synchronous fluorescence two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS). Results showed that the binding of Hg(II) onto humic acid (HA) followed the order of humic-like fraction > fulvic-like fraction > protein-like fraction and photo-irradiation did not affect this order. The binding affinity of each site within the fluorescent fraction was affected by the photoreaction patterns. Pre-irradiation of HA before Hg(II) binding changed its structures and binding ability. UV irradiation showed a more obvious effect on Hg(II)-HA complexes than solar irradiation, and UV irradiation enhanced the reactivity of aromatic groups of HA. The amine or amide N-H of HA played a leading role in binding with Hg(II) in the dark, whereas the aromatic amine C-N became dominant after UV irradiation. In fulvic acid (FA), the aromatic hydrogen C-H played a leading role in Hg(II) binding in the dark, but solar irradiation promoted the binding ability of polysaccharide C-O and the carboxyl CO became dominant after UV irradiation. The response sensitivity of the fulvic-like fraction to Hg(II) was higher than that of the protein-like fraction in FA. Multiple types of sites binding to Hg(II) were verified in the fulvic-like fraction and protein-like fraction of FA. These findings provide new insight into photo-induced structural changes of DOM upon Hg binding.


Assuntos
Substâncias Húmicas , Mercúrio , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
2.
Sci Total Environ ; : 152047, 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34856249

RESUMO

Mercuric Hg2+ ion forms strong complexes with dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural waters. The complexation of Hg2+ by sulfhydryl groups of DOM was regarded as the main mechanism for Hg2+-DOM interactions, particularly in anoxic sulfur and DOM-rich environments. In the present study, the influences of pH and sulfide addition on the molecular structure of Hg2+-DOM complexes and the characteristics of Hg2+ binding to DOM were investigated using FT-IR and synchronous fluorescence two-dimensional correlation spectroscopic analysis. Results showed that, during the Hg2+ binding process, the aromatic hydrogen CH in humic acids (HA) gave the fastest responses to pH perturbation and the S-reacted HA (S-HA) exhibited different reaction patterns from the unreacted HA. In S-HA, the esters/alcohols CO and carboxyl CO gave the fastest responses to Hg2+ binding. In the process of S-HA binding to Hg2+, the protein-like fractions including proteins, amino acids or monoaromatics played the leading role. Sulfide addition of HA enhanced the reactivity of small molecular weight compounds with low aromaticity and improved the binding ability of protein-like fractions to Hg2+. These findings provide a better understanding of the interaction mechanisms between Hg2+ and DOM at a molecular level and have important environmental implications in Hg2+ biogeochemical transformation, transport and cycling.

3.
Appl Opt ; 60(25): 7686-7695, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613238

RESUMO

Recovering targets through diffusers is an important topic as well as a general problem in optical imaging. The difficulty of recovering is increased due to the noise interference caused by an imperfect imaging environment. Existing approaches generally require a high-signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) speckle pattern to recover the target, but still have limitations in de-noising or generalizability. Here, featuring information of high-SNR autocorrelation as a physical constraint, we propose a two-stage (de-noising and reconstructing) method to improve robustness based on data driving. Specifically, a two-stage convolutional neural network (CNN) called autocorrelation reconstruction (ACR) CNN is designed to de-noise and reconstruct targets from low-SNR speckle patterns. We experimentally demonstrate the robustness through various diffusers with different levels of noise, from simulative Gaussian noise to the detector and photon noise captured by the actual optical system. The de-noising stage improves the peak SNR from 20 to 38 dB in the system data, and the reconstructing stage, compared with the unconstrained method, successfully recovers targets hidden in unknown diffusers with the detector and photon noise. With the help of the physical constraint to optimize the learning process, our two-stage method is realized to improve generalizability and has potential in various fields such as imaging in low illumination.

4.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(9): e1009901, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506605

RESUMO

Neddylation, an important type of post-translational modification, has been implicated in innate and adapted immunity. But the role of neddylation in innate immune response against RNA viruses remains elusive. Here we report that neddylation promotes RNA virus-induced type I IFN production, especially IFN-α. More importantly, myeloid deficiency of UBA3 or NEDD8 renders mice less resistant to RNA virus infection. Neddylation is essential for RNA virus-triggered activation of Ifna gene promoters. Further exploration has revealed that mammalian IRF7undergoes neddylation, which is enhanced after RNA virus infection. Even though neddylation blockade does not hinder RNA virus-triggered IRF7 expression, IRF7 mutant defective in neddylation exhibits reduced ability to activate Ifna gene promoters. Neddylation blockade impedes RNA virus-induced IRF7 nuclear translocation without hindering its phosphorylation and dimerization with IRF3. By contrast, IRF7 mutant defective in neddylation shows enhanced dimerization with IRF5, an Ifna repressor when interacting with IRF7. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that myeloid neddylation contributes to host anti-viral innate immunity through targeting IRF7 and promoting its transcriptional activity.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Fator Regulador 7 de Interferon/imunologia , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/imunologia , Vírus de RNA/imunologia , Animais , Fator Regulador 7 de Interferon/biossíntese , Camundongos , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Proteína NEDD8/deficiência , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Ubiquitinas/deficiência
5.
Foods ; 10(9)2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574296

RESUMO

d-allulose has a significant application value as a sugar substitute, not only as a food ingredient and dietary supplement, but also with various physiological functions, such as improving insulin resistance, anti-obesity, and regulating glucolipid metabolism. Over the decades, the physiological functions of d-allulose and the corresponding mechanisms have been studied deeply, and this product has been applied to various foods to enhance food quality and prolong shelf life. In recent years, biotransformation technologies for the production of d-allulose using enzymatic approaches have gained more attention. However, there are few comprehensive reviews on this topic. This review focuses on the recent research advances of d-allulose, including (1) the physiological functions of d-allulose; (2) the major enzyme families used for the biotransformation of d-allulose and their microbial origins; (3) phylogenetic and structural characterization of d-allulose 3-epimerases, and the directed evolution methods for the enzymes; (4) heterologous expression of d-allulose ketose 3-epimerases and biotransformation techniques for d-allulose; and (5) production processes for biotransformation of d-allulose based on the characterized enzymes. Furthermore, the future trends on biosynthesis and applications of d-allulose in food and health industries are discussed and evaluated in this review.

6.
Front Oncol ; 11: 710545, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485147

RESUMO

Background: Post-transplant relapse remains a principal leading cause of failure after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in patients with adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of low-dose decitabine on the prevention of adult ALL relapse after allo-HSCT. Methods: In this prospective study, we enrolled 34 patients with ALL who underwent allo-HSCT from August 2016 to April 2020 and received low-dose decitabine maintenance treatment after transplantation. The primary objectives were cumulative incidence of relapse rate (CIR), overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS). The secondary objectives were graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and safety. Results: Among the enrolled 34 patients, 6 patients relapsed and 6 patients died. The 2-year CIR, OS, and DFS were 20.2, 77.5, and 73.6%, respectively. Subgroup analysis revealed the 2-year CIR, OS, and DFS rates of 12 patients with T-ALL/lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) were 8.3, 90, and 81.5%, respectively. None of the seven patients with T-ALL relapsed. During maintenance treatment, only one patient (2.9%) developed grade IV acute GVHD and four (11.8%) patients had severe chronic GVHD. Thirty-two patients (94.1%) developed only grade I to II myelosuppression, and two patients (5.8%) developed grade III to IV granulocytopenia. Conclusions: Maintenance treatment with low-dose decitabine after allo-HSCT may be used as a therapeutic option to reduce relapse in patients with adult ALL, especially in patients with T-ALL. Our findings require confirmation in larger-scale controlled trials. Clinical Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trials Registry, identifier ChiCTR1800014888.

7.
Entropy (Basel) ; 23(8)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34441144

RESUMO

Channel state information (CSI) provides a fine-grained description of the signal propagation process, which has attracted extensive attention in the field of indoor positioning. However, considering the influence of environment and hardware, the phase of CSI is distorted in most cases. It is difficult to extract effective location features in multiple scenes only through the determined artificial experience model. Graph neural network has performed well in many fields in recent years, but there is still a lot of room to explore in the field of indoor positioning. In this paper, a phase feature extraction network based on multi-dimensional correlation is proposed, named Cooperation-Graph Convolution Network (C-GCN). The purpose of C-GCN is to extract new features of multiple correlation and to mine the relationship between antenna and subcarrier as much as possible. C-GCN is composed of convolution layer and graph convolution layer. In the graph convolution layer, C-GCN regards each subcarrier of each antenna as a node in the graph network, constructs the connection by the correlation between the antenna and the subcarrier, and aggregates the node vectors by graph convolution. In the convolution layer, there is a natural corresponding structure between data packets, C-GCN extracts the fluctuation with convolution in Euclidean space. C-GCN combines these two layers, and applies end-to-end supervised training to obtain effective features. Extensive experiments are conducted in typical indoor environments to verify the superior performance of C-GCN in restraining error tailing. The average positioning error of C-GCN is 1.29 m in comprehensive office and 1.71 m in garage. Combined with the amplitude feature, the average positioning error is 0.99 m in comprehensive office and 1.14 m in garage.

8.
J Immunol ; 207(5): 1411-1418, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348973

RESUMO

The receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) adaptor protein has been implicated in viral infection. However, whether RACK1 promotes in vivo viral infection in mammals remains unknown. Moreover, it remains elusive how RACK1 is engaged in antiviral innate immune signaling. In this study, we report that myeloid RACK1 deficiency does not affect the development and survival of myeloid cells under resting conditions but renders mice less susceptible to viral infection. RACK1-deficient macrophages produce more IFN-α and IFN-ß in response to both RNA and DNA virus infection. In line with this, RACK1 suppresses transcriptional activation of type 1 IFN gene promoters in response to virus infection. Analysis of virus-mediated signaling indicates that RACK1 inhibits the phosphorylation of IRF3/7. Indeed, RACK1 interacts with IRF3/7, which is enhanced after virus infection. Further exploration indicates that virus infection triggers AMPK activation, which in turn phosphorylates RACK1 at Thr50 RACK1 phosphorylation at Thr50 enhances its interaction with IRF3/7 and thereby limits IRF3/7 phosphorylation. Thus, our results confirm that myeloid RACK1 promotes in vivo viral infection and provide insight into the control of type 1 IFN production in response to virus infection.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal , Animais , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/genética , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/metabolismo , Interferon beta/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fosforilação , Receptores de Quinase C Ativada , Transdução de Sinais
9.
J Immunol Res ; 2021: 9117805, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34195297

RESUMO

Although the strain-dependent effects of Bacteroides vulgatus on alleviating intestinal inflammatory diseases have been demonstrated, the literature has rarely focused on the underlying causes of this effect. In this study, we selected four B. vulgatus strains (FTJS5K1, FTJS7K1, FSDTA11B14, and FSDLZ51K1) with different genomic characteristics and evaluated their protective roles against dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced colitis. Compared to the other three tested strains, B. vulgatus 7K1 more strongly ameliorated the DSS-induced weight loss, shortening of the colon length, increased disease activity index scores, colonic tissue injury, and immunomodulatory disorder. In contrast, B. vulgatus 51K1 significantly worsened the DSS-induced alterations in the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) concentration and colonic histopathology. A comparative genomic analysis of B. vulgatus 7K1 and 51K1 showed that the beneficial effects of B. vulgatus 7K1 may be associated with some of its specific genes involved in the production of short-chain fatty acids or capsular polysaccharides and enhancement of its survivability in the gut. In conclusion, these findings indicate that the supplementation of B. vulgatus 7K1 is a potentially efficacious intervention for alleviating colitis and provides scientific support for the screening of probiotics with anticolitis effect.

10.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(9): 2700-2706, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gender-specific differences were found in serum uric acid (SUA) levels and the risk of isolated distal deep vein thrombosis (IDDVT). This study aimed to explore the association among gender, SUA, and IDDVT in stroke patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Finally, 3404 patients were recruited and divided into two groups: IDDVT (n = 1233) and Non-IDDVT (n = 2171) groups. Propensity score matching (PSM) was conducted to match the patients. Binary logistic regression was adopted to explore the association between SUA and IDDVT, with the SUA divided into quartiles. After PSM, 975 patients were included in each group. Non-IDDVT group had a larger proportion of male than IDDVT group (64.9% vs. 52.7%, p < 0.001). Moreover, males showed higher SUA levels than females (316.7 ± 102.1 vs. 261.8 ± 94.0 µmol/L, t = 12.1, p < 0.001). The highest quartile of SUA (≥346 µmol/L) showed a lower risk of IDDVT (OR = 0.629, p = 0.001), while the lowest quartile (≤225 µmol/L) showed a higher risk of IDDVT (OR = 1.361, p = 0.022). CONCLUSION: In patients with stroke, SUA played a protective role in IDDVT. Females had a higher risk of IDDVT, which may be owing to the lower SUA levels than males. In clinical practice, more attention should be paid to the risk of IDDVT in females, especially those with lower SUA levels.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Trombose Venosa/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia
11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(20): 24095-24105, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000184

RESUMO

Herein, a new type of injectable carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCh) hydrogel wound dressing with self-healing properties is constructed. First, CMCh samples are homogeneously synthesized in alkali/urea aqueous solutions. Subsequently, trivalent metal ions of Fe3+ and Al3+ are introduced to form coordination bonds with CMCh, leading to an ultrafast gelation process. A series of hydrogels can be obtained by altering the concentration of CMCh and the relative content of metal ions. Owing to the dynamic and reversible characteristics of the coordination bonds, the hydrogel exhibits self-healing, self-adaption, and thermoresponsive ability. Moreover, due to the interaction between the amino groups on CMCh and SO42-, the hydrogel undergoes phase separation and can be painlessly detached from the skin with little residue. Taking advantage of all these characteristics, the hydrogel is used as a wound dressing and can significantly accelerate skin tissue regeneration and wound closure. This hydrogel has great potential in the application of tissue engineering.


Assuntos
Bandagens , Quitosana/análogos & derivados , Hidrogéis , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Células COS , Quitosana/química , Quitosana/farmacologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humanos , Hidrogéis/química , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Pele/química
12.
Clin Interv Aging ; 16: 431-442, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727806

RESUMO

Background: Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a severe complication occurring in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. Stress hyperglycemia is frequent in patients with acute illness such as stroke. We aimed to explore the association between stress hyperglycemia and HT in AIS patients. Methods: A total of 287 consecutive participants with HT and 285 age- and sex-matched stroke patients without HT were enrolled in this study. Baseline glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were collected to measure stress hyperglycemia. The stress hyperglycemia ratio (SHR) was calculated by dividing the fasting plasma glucose at admission with HbA1c. HT was diagnosed by follow-up imaging assessment, and was radiologically classified as hemorrhagic infarction type (HI) 1 or 2 or parenchymal hematoma type (PH) 1 or 2. Results: Univariate analysis showed that SHR is significantly higher among patients with HT than those without HT. Compared to the patients in the lower three quartiles of SHR, the incidence of HT was significantly higher among patients with the highest quartile of SHR in total population, diabetic and non-diabetic population. We also observed that patients with the highest SHR quartile were associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic transformation after adjusted for potential covariates (68.4% versus 39.1%; adjusted odds ratio, 2.320; 95% confidence interval, 1.207-4.459; P=0.012). Conclusion: The stress hyperglycemia ratio, representing the state of stress hyperglycemia, was significantly associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic transformation in patients with acute ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , AVC Isquêmico/complicações , Idoso , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
13.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 36, 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a serious neurological complication of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) after revascularization. The majority of AIS patients do not have atrial fibrillation (AF) which could also develop into HT. In this study, we aimed to explore whether hemostasis parameters are risk factors of HT in non-AF patients. METHODS: We consecutively enrolled 285 AIS patients with HT. Meanwhile, age- and sex-matched 285 AIS patients without HT were included. The diagnosis of HT was determined by brain CT or MRI during hospitalization. All patients were divided into two subgroups based on the presence of AF and explore the differences between the two subgroups. Blood samples were obtained within 24 h of admission, and all patients were evenly classified into three tertiles according to platelet counts (PLT) levels. RESULTS: In this study, we found the first PLT tertile (OR = 3.509, 95%CI = 1.268-9.711, P = 0.016) was independently associated with HT in non-AF patients, taking the third tertile as a reference. Meanwhile, we also found mean platelet volume (MPV) (OR = 0.605, 95%CI = 0.455-0.805, P = 0.001) and fibrinogen (FIB) (OR = 1.928, 95%CI = 1.346-2.760, P < 0.001) were significantly associated with HT in non-AF patients. But in AF patients, hemostasis parameters showed no significant difference. Meanwhile, we found the MPV (OR = 1.314, 95%CI = 1.032-1.675, P = 0.027) and FIB (OR = 1.298, 95%CI = 1.047-1.610, P = 0.018) were significantly associated with long-term outcomes in non-AF HT patients. CONCLUSIONS: Low PLT, low MPV, and high FIB levels were independently associated with HT in non-AF patients. Additionally, MPV and FIB levels were significantly associated with unfavorable long-term outcomes in non-AF HT patients. Our study showed that hemostasis functions at admission may be beneficial for clinicians to recognize patients with a high risk of HT at an early stage and improve unfavorable long-term outcomes in non-AF patients.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral/sangue , Hemorragia Cerebral/etiologia , Hemostasia/fisiologia , AVC Isquêmico/sangue , AVC Isquêmico/complicações , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Fibrinogênio , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Volume Plaquetário Médio , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contagem de Plaquetas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Brain Behav ; 11(1): e01855, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314645

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a complex and multifactorial complication among patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS), and the inflammatory response has been considered as a risk factor for HT. We aimed to evaluate the stratification of FAR (fibrinogen-to-albumin ratio), an inflammatory biomarker, in HT patients. METHODS: A total of 256 consecutive stroke patients with HT and 256 age- and gender-matched stroke patients without HT were included in this study. HT during hospitalization was diagnosed by follow-up imaging assessment and was classified into hemorrhagic infarction (HI) and parenchymal hematoma (PH) according to the recommendations of European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study II classification. Blood samples were obtained at admission. RESULTS: Higher levels of FAR were observed in patients with HT compared with the non-HT group [10.29 (8.39-12.95) vs. 8.60 (7.25-10.8), p < .001], but no significant difference was found between the PH and HI [10.88 (8.72-13.40) vs. 10.13 (8.14-12.60), p > .05]. Patients were assigned to groups of high FAR (≥9.51) and low FAR (<9.51) based on the optimal cut-off value. After adjustment for potential confounders, the high FAR remained independently associated with the increased risk of HT (OR = 5.027, 95% CI = 5.027 (2.309-10.942), p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: High FAR was independently associated with the increased risk of HT after AIS.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Albuminas , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Hemorragia Cerebral , Fibrinogênio , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
15.
Front Oncol ; 10: 575366, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33224878

RESUMO

Pre-mRNA processing factor 19 (Prp19) was previously reported to be involved in tumor progression. However, Prp19 expression and its functions remain elusive in neuroblastoma. Here, we aim to identify the functions and mechanisms of Prp19 in neuroblastoma. Neuroblastic tumor tissue microarrays and two independent validation data sets indicate that Prp19 is associated with high-risk markers and bone marrow metastasis and serves as a prognostic marker for worse clinical outcomes with neuroblastoma. Gain- and loss-of-expression assays reveal that Prp19 promotes invasion, migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of neuroblastoma cells in vitro. Bioinformatics analysis of RNA-seq data shows that the expressions of YAP and its downstream genes are significantly inhibited after downregulation of Prp19. Prp19 and YAP expression in metastatic lymph nodes is higher than in situ neuroblastoma tissue. Further experiments show that Prp19 regulates YAP expression and consequently affects cell invasion, migration, and EMT in neuroblastoma by pre-mRNA splicing of YAP. In conclusion, our findings provide the first evidence that Prp19 is a potential therapeutic target and prognostic biomarker for patients with neuroblastoma.

16.
J AAPOS ; 24(6): 354.e1-354.e6, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212296

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the incidence of and timing and predictors for progression from pre-plus to plus disease, based on evaluation of images. METHODS: Two trained readers independently evaluated posterior pole images of infants from 13 North American centers for pre-plus/plus disease, stage, and zone of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Discrepancies between readers were adjudicated. To be eligible for analysis, eyes had to have at least two imaging sessions, the earlier one with pre-plus disease. RESULTS: Of 681 eyes of 444 infants with pre-plus first detected at mean postmenstrual age (PMA) of 35.5 ± 2.1 weeks, 54 (7.9%) progressed to plus disease at a mean PMA of 37.6 ± 2.4 weeks with the mean interval for progression of 2.7 weeks (range, 0.4-8.9 weeks). Progression rate was higher for eyes with larger number of quadrants of pre-plus (44% for eyes with four quadrants vs 4% with one quadrant [P < 0.0001]), earlier PMA with pre-plus (18% for 32 weeks' PMA vs 3% for PMA of >37 weeks [P = 0.02]), higher ROP stage (12% for stage 3, 2.5% for no ROP [P < 0.0001]), lower ROP zone (24% for zone I, 6% for zone II or no ROP [P < 0.0001]) at the time of first pre-plus detection. CONCLUSIONS: Based on image evaluation, 8% of eyes progressed from pre-plus to plus disease at a mean interval of 3 weeks. Pre-plus in multiple quadrants, higher stages of ROP, and lower zones of ROP were associated with higher risk of progression. Image evaluation for pre-plus may help in the identification of high-risk eyes for developing plus disease.


Assuntos
Retinopatia da Prematuridade , Telemedicina , Doença Aguda , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/diagnóstico , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia
17.
Front Neurol ; 11: 867, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013622

RESUMO

Background: Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a frequent, often asymptomatic event that occurs after acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Liver fibrosis, usually subclinical, is common and crucial in the development of liver disease. We aimed to investigate the association between liver fibrosis and HT in patients with AIS. Methods: We performed a single-center and retrospective study. A total of 185 consecutive participants with HT and 199 age- and sex-matched stroke patients without HT were enrolled in this study. We calculated one validated fibrosis index-Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) score-to assess the extent of liver fibrosis. HT was detected by routine CT or MRI and was radiologically classified as hemorrhagic infarction type 1 or 2 or parenchymal hematoma type 1 or 2. HT was also classified into asymptomatic or symptomatic. We used logistic regression models adjusted for previously established risk factors to assess the risks for HT. Results: The median FIB-4 score was significantly higher among patients who developed HT than among those without HT, whereas standard hepatic assays were largely normal. Patients were assigned to groups of high FIB-4 score and low FIB-4 score based on the optimal cutoff value. Compared with the subjects in the low-FIB-4-score group, incidence of HT for the high-FIB-4-score group was significantly higher. After adjustment for potential confounders, the patients with high FIB-4 score had 3.461-fold risk of HT in AIS compared to the patients with low FIB-4 score [odds ratio, 3.461 (95% CI, 1.404-8.531)]. Conclusion: Liver fibrosis, measured by FIB-4 score, was independently associated with the risk of HT in AIS patients.

18.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 12: 554168, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024432

RESUMO

Background: Braking force is a gait marker associated with gait stability. This study aimed to determine the alteration of braking force and its correlation with gait stability in Alzheimer disease (AD). Methods: A total of 32 AD patients and 32 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled in this study. Gait parameters (braking force, gait variability, and fall risk) in the walking tests of Free walk, Barrier, and Count backward were measured by JiBuEn® gait analysis system. Gait variability was calculated by the coefficient of variation (COV) of stride time, stance time, and swing time. Results: The braking force of AD was significantly weaker than HCs in three walking tests (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.007). Gait variability of AD showed significant elevation than HCs in the walking of Count backward (COVstride: P = 0.013; COVswing: P = 0.006). Fall risk of AD was significantly higher than HCs in three walking tests (P = 0.001, P = 0.001, P = 0.001). Braking force was negatively associated with fall risks in three walking tests (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001). There were significant negative correlations between braking force and gait variability in the walking of Free walk (COVstride: P = 0.018; COVswing: P = 0.013) and Barrier (COVstride: P = 0.002; COVswing: P = 0.001), but not Count backward (COVstride: P = 0.888; COVswing: P = 0.555). Conclusion: Braking force was weaker in AD compared to HCs, reflecting the worse gait stability of AD. Our study suggests that weakening of braking force may be a new gait marker to indicate cognitive and motor impairment and predict fall risk in AD.

19.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 14: 4085-4099, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33061309

RESUMO

Purpose: [6]-gingerol is a bioactive compound extracted from ginger, a traditional anti-emetic herb in Chinese medicine. Previous studies have demonstrated that [6]-gingerol can ameliorate chemotherapy-induced pica in rats, although the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. This study is designed to investigate [6]-gingerol's antiemetic mechanism focusing on the 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5-HT) system by evaluating the synthesis, metabolism and reuptake of 5-HT, as well as the mechanism of 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor (5-HT3 receptor), in a cisplatin-induced pica model of rats. Methods: Rats were randomly divided into control group (vehicle + saline, Con), [6]-gingerol control group (50 mg/kg [6]-gingerol + saline, G-con), ondansetron control group (2.6 mg/kg ondansetron + saline, O-con), cisplatin model group (vehicle + cisplatin, Model), ondansetron-treated group (2.6 mg/kg ondansetron + cisplatin, O-treated), high dosage of [6]-gingerol-treated group (100 mg/kg [6]-gingerol + cisplatin, GH-treated), and low dosage of [6]-gingerol-treated group (50 mg/kg [6]-gingerol + cisplatin, GL-treated). The rats were administered with [6]-gingerol, ondansetron, and vehicle (3% Tween-80) by gavage twice (7:00 AM and 7:00 PM). One hour after the first treatment (8:00 AM), rats in groups Model, O-treated, GH-treated and GL-treated were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 6 mg/kg cisplatin, and the other groups were injected i.p. with saline of equal volume. The consumption of kaolin of the rats were measured. All the rats were anesthetized by i.p. injection of pentobarbital sodium at 24 h post-cisplatin. After blood samples were taken, medulla oblongata and ileum were removed. The levels of 5-HT and its metabolite 5-HIAA in ileum, medulla oblongata and serum were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). The mRNA expression levels of 5-HT3 receptor, tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) were detected by real-time PCR. The protein expression levels and distribution of 5-HT3 receptor, TPH and MAO-A in the medulla oblongata and ileum were measured by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results: [6]-gingerol treatment significantly reduced the kaolin ingestion and the increase in 5-HT concentration in rats induced by cisplatin. TPH, MAO-A, SERT, and 5-HT3 receptor are important in 5-HT metabolism, and cisplatin-induced alterations in the associated protein/mRNA levels were restored when treated with [6]-gingerol. Conclusion: This suggests that the antiemetic effect of [6]-gingerol against cisplatin-induced emesis may be due to 5-HT attenuation via modulating the TPH/MAO-A/SERT/5-HT/5-HT3 receptor system.


Assuntos
Antieméticos/farmacologia , Catecóis/farmacologia , Álcoois Graxos/farmacologia , Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo , Pica/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores 5-HT3 de Serotonina/metabolismo , Receptores de Serotonina/metabolismo , Triptofano Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Animais , Antieméticos/administração & dosagem , Antieméticos/química , Catecóis/administração & dosagem , Catecóis/química , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Cisplatino/antagonistas & inibidores , Álcoois Graxos/administração & dosagem , Álcoois Graxos/química , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Masculino , Conformação Molecular , Monoaminoxidase/análise , Monoaminoxidase/genética , Pica/induzido quimicamente , Pica/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/análise , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de Serotonina/análise , Receptores de Serotonina/genética , Receptores 5-HT3 de Serotonina/análise , Receptores 5-HT3 de Serotonina/genética , Triptofano Hidroxilase/análise , Triptofano Hidroxilase/genética
20.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 131: 110699, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890970

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Xiao-Ban-Xia-Tang decoction (XBXT), an antiemetic formula in traditional Chinese medicine, has been proved to be a potential treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), but the underlying mechanisms are not adequately understood. This study aimed to investigate changes in the ileum transcriptome after cisplatin and XBXT treatment and to reveal whether the antiemetic mechanisms of XBXT are related to its anti-inflammatory effect. METHODS: The pica model was established by a single intraperitoneal injection of 6 mg/kg cisplatin in Wistar rats. Tissues from the gastric antrum and ileum were stained with hematoxylin-eosin to observe gastrointestinal tract pathological changes. Based on the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) which were altered by cisplatin and reversed by XBXT, the transcriptome data of rat ileum were analyzed by GO, KEGG, and PPI analyses. Several inflammatory DEGs were validated by RT-PCR. RESULTS: XBXT could reduce kaolin intake up to 72 h after modeling and alleviate the inflammatory damage of gastric antrum and ileum induced by cisplatin. According to the transcriptome profile, there were 75 DEGs down-regulated by cisplatin and up-regulated by XBXT and 343 DEGs up-regulated by cisplatin and down-regulated by XBXT. XBXT could blunt the overexpression of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (the rate-limiting enzyme of serotonin synthesis) in ileum. Enrichment analysis showed that inhibiting overexpression of several conventional inflammation pathways and pro-inflammation cytokines were related to the antiemetic effectiveness of XBXT. CONCLUSIONS: This study implies that inhibiting inflammatory signaling pathways and synthesis of serotonin might be potential mechanisms of XBXT's antiemetic effect against CINV.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antieméticos/farmacologia , Cisplatino/toxicidade , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , RNA-Seq , Animais , Citocinas/análise , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Masculino , Pica/induzido quimicamente , Pica/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Triptofano Hidroxilase/antagonistas & inibidores
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