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1.
J Cyst Fibros ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183965

RESUMO

With the growing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, we need to better understand its impact in specific patient groups like those with Cystic Fibrosis (CF). We report on 181 people with CF (32 post-transplant) from 19 countries diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 prior to 13 June 2020. Infection with SARS-CoV-2 appears to exhibit a similar spectrum of outcomes to that seen in the general population, with 11 people admitted to intensive care (7 post-transplant), and 7 deaths (3 post-transplant). A more severe clinical course may be associated with older age, CF-related diabetes, lower lung function in the year prior to infection, and having received an organ transplant. Whilst outcomes in this large cohort are better than initially feared overall, possibly due to a protective effect of the relatively younger age of the CF population compared to other chronic conditions, SARS-CoV-2 is not a benign disease for all people in this patient group.

2.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melanoma and the immune system are intimately related. However, the association of immunosuppressive medications (ISMs) with survival in melanoma is not well understood. The study evaluated this at a population level. METHODS: A cohort of patients with a diagnosis of invasive cutaneous melanoma (2007-2015) was identified from the Ontario Cancer Registry and linked to identify demographics, stage at diagnosis, prescription of immunosuppressive medications (both before and after diagnosis), and outcomes. The demographics of patients with and without prescriptions for ISM were compared. Patients eligible for Ontario's Drug Benefit Plan were included to ensure accurate prescription data. The primary outcome was overall survival. Cox Proportional Hazards Regression models identified factors associated with mortality, including use of ISM as a time-varying covariate. RESULTS: Of the 4954 patients with a diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma, 1601 had a prescription for ISM. The median age of the patients was 74 years. Overall, 58.4% of the patients were men (60.5% of those without ISM and 54% of those using ISM; p < 0.001). The use of oral immunosuppression was associated with an increased hazard of death (hazard ratio, 5.84; 95% confidence interval, 5.11-6.67; p < 0.0001) when control was used for age, disease stage at diagnosis, anatomic site, comorbidity, and treatment. Other factors associated with death were increasing age, male sex, increased disease stage, truncal location of primary melanoma, and inadequate treatment. In sensitivity analysis with steroid-only ISM use excluded, survival did not differ significantly (p = 0.355). CONCLUSIONS: The use of immunosuppressive steroids for melanoma is associated with worse overall survival. Use of steroids should be limited when possible.

3.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can ; 42(9): 1093-1102.e3, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487508

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of class III obesity (body mass index >40 kg/m2) on wait times for endometrial cancer surgery in Ontario, as well as other factors that influence wait time. METHODS: We performed a population-based cross-sectional study evaluating diagnosis-to-surgery time for women with endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium, during the period of 2006 to 2015, using linked administrative databases. Wait time differences between women with and without class III obesity were evaluated using a Wilcoxon rank-sum test. A multivariable generalized linear model under a generalized estimating equations approach was used to evaluate patient factors (i.e., obesity, age, comorbidities, marginalization, recent immigration, diagnosis year, geographic location), tumour characteristics (i.e., grade, stage), provider type (i.e., surgeon specialty), and institutional characteristics (i.e., rurality, hysterectomy volume, availability of minimally invasive surgery) that influence wait times. RESULTS: In total, 9797 women met the criteria for inclusion; 2171 (22%) had class III obesity. The overall median wait time was 55 days (interquartile range [IQR] 37-77 d) and the median wait time was significantly longer for women with class III obesity (62 [IQR 43-88] vs. 53 [IQR 36-74] d, standardized mean difference, 0.30). Age <40 or >70 years, comorbidities, lower-grade disease, surgery at an urban teaching hospital, and surgery at a high-volume hospital with greater availability of minimally invasive surgery were associated with longer wait times. After adjusting for these variables, women with class III obesity waited 12% longer. CONCLUSION: Class III obesity, comorbidities, and older age are associated with a longer diagnosis-to-surgery time. As the prevalence of obesity and endometrial cancer rise, processes are needed to promote equitable, timely access to care.

4.
J Cyst Fibros ; 19(3): 355-358, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376098

RESUMO

Information is lacking on the clinical impact of the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, on people with cystic fibrosis (CF). Our aim was to characterise SARS-CoV-2 infection in people with cystic fibrosis. METHODS: Anonymised data submitted by each participating country to their National CF Registry was reported using a standardised template, then collated and summarised. RESULTS: 40 cases have been reported across 8 countries. Of the 40 cases, 31 (78%) were symptomatic for SARS-CoV-2 at presentation, with 24 (60%) having a fever. 70% have recovered, 30% remain unresolved at time of reporting, and no deaths have been submitted. CONCLUSIONS: This early report shows good recovery from SARS-CoV-2 in this heterogeneous CF cohort. The disease course does not seem to differ from the general population, but the current numbers are too small to draw firm conclusions and people with CF should continue to strictly follow public health advice to protect themselves from infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Fibrose Cística/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália , Canadá , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Fibrose Cística/complicações , Fibrose Cística/terapia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Avaliação de Sintomas , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 27(8): 2927-2948, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248374

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Few studies have examined outcomes in immunosuppressed patients who develop melanoma. The purpose of this study is to compare survival in immunosuppressed patients who developed melanoma with that in patients with melanoma who are not immunosuppressed. METHODS: Immunosuppressed patients were defined as having solid organ transplant, lymphoma, leukemia, or human immunodeficiency virus prior to diagnosis of melanoma. Patients with cutaneous melanoma with and without immunosuppression were identified retrospectively from the Ontario Cancer Registry (2007-2015) and linked with administrative databases to identify demographics, treatment, and outcomes. Immunosuppressed patients were matched with non-immunosuppressed patients based on age at diagnosis, sex, birth year, stage at diagnosis, and propensity score. The primary outcome was overall survival. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression was used to identify factors associated with survival. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were well balanced in 218 immunosuppressed patients matched to 436 controls. Of the patients, 186 (28.4%) were female, and median age at melanoma diagnosis was 69 (interquartile range, IQR 59-78) years. Three-year overall survival (OS) was 65% for immunosuppressed patients and 79% for non-immunosuppressed patients. Melanoma was the leading cause of death for both groups. On multivariable analysis, immunosuppression was associated with increased mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 1.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30-2.23]. Adequate treatment (HR 0.36, 95% CI 0.22-0.58) and dermatologist visits either before (HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.36-0.73) or after (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.41-0.90) melanoma diagnosis were associated with improved OS. CONCLUSIONS: Immunosuppressed patients who develop melanoma have worse outcomes when matched to non-immunosuppressed patients. This decrease in survival appears related to the underlying condition rather than diagnosis of melanoma.

6.
CMAJ Open ; 8(1): E191-E198, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous costing and resource estimates for cancer have not been complete owing to lack of comprehensive data on cancer-related medication and radiation treatment. Our objective was to calculate the mean overall costs per patient of cancer-related medications and radiation, as well as by disease subtype and stage, in the first year after diagnosis for the 4 most prevalent cancers in Ontario. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using provincial health administrative databases to identify population health system resources and costs for all patients diagnosed with breast, colorectal, lung or prostate cancer between Jan. 1, 2010, and Dec. 31, 2015 in Ontario. The primary outcome measure was the overall average cost per patient in the 365 days after diagnosis for cancer-related medications and radiation treatment, calculated with the use of 2 novel costing algorithms. We determined the cost by disease, disease subtype and stage as secondary outcomes. RESULTS: There were 168 316 Ontarians diagnosed with cancer during the study period, 50 141 with breast cancer, 38 108 with colorectal cancer, 34 809 with lung cancer and 45 258 with prostate cancer. The mean per-patient cost for cancer-related medications was $8167 (95% confidence interval [CI] $8023-$8311), $6568 (95% CI $6446-$6691), $2900 (95% CI $2816-$2984) and $1211 (95% CI $1175-$1247) for breast, colorectal, lung and prostate cancer, respectively. The corresponding mean radiation treatment costs were $18 529 (95% CI $18 415-$18 643), $15 177 (95% CI $14 899-$15 456), $10 818 (95% CI $10 669-$10 966) and $16 887 (95% CI $16 648-$17 125). In general, stage III and IV cancers were the most expensive stages for both medications and radiation across all 4 disease sites. INTERPRETATION: Our work updates previous costing estimates to help understand costs and resources critical to health care system planning in a single-payer system. More refined costing estimates are useful as inputs to allow for more robust health economic modelling and health care system planning.

7.
J Rheumatol ; 47(11): 1644-1651, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062600

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We assessed the accuracy of case definition algorithms for psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in health administrative data and used primary care electronic medical records (EMR) to describe disease and treatment characteristics of these patients. METHODS: We randomly sampled 30,424 adult Ontario residents from the Electronic Medical Record Primary Care database and identified 2215 patients with any possible psoriatic disease-related terms in their EMR. The relevant patient records were chart abstracted to confirm diagnoses of psoriasis or PsA. This validation set was then linked to health administrative data to assess the performance of different algorithms for physician billing diagnosis codes, hospitalization diagnosis codes, and medications for psoriatic disease. We report the performance of selected case definition algorithms and describe the disease characteristics of the validation set. RESULTS: Our reference standard identified 1028 patients with psoriasis and 77 patients with PsA, for an overall prevalence of 3.4% for psoriasis and 0.3% for PsA. Most patients with PsA (66%) had a rheumatology-confirmed diagnosis, while only 30% of the patients with psoriasis had dermatology-confirmed diagnosis. The use of systemic medications was much more common with PsA than with psoriasis. All algorithms had excellent specificity (97-100%). The sensitivity and positive predictive value were moderate and varied between different algorithms (34-72%). CONCLUSION: The accuracy of case definition algorithms for psoriasis and PsA varies widely. However, selected algorithms produced population prevalence estimates that were within the expected ranges, suggesting that they may be useful for future research purposes.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961491

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Information about the pre-diagnosis period in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is limited. We compared health care utilization related to musculoskeletal issues during a 5-year period prior to the diagnosis of PsA versus subjects with no prior inflammatory arthritis within a primary care setting. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, matched cohort study using electronic medical records and administrative data in Ontario, Canada. Age- and sex-matched cohorts of PsA patients and comparators from the same family physicians were assembled. Comparators were not allowed to have prior spondyloarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, or rheumatoid arthritis billing code diagnoses. The study outcomes included health care utilization and costs related to non-specific musculoskeletal issues during a 5-year period prior to the index date. RESULTS: We studied 462 PsA patients and 2310 matched comparators. The odds ratio (OR) related to visiting a primary care physician for nonspecific musculoskeletal issues in patients with PsA was 2.14 (95% CI 1.73, 2.64) in the year immediately preceding the index date and was similarly elevated up to 5 years prior. The OR related to using other musculoskeletal-related health care services, including musculoskeletal specialists visits, joint injections, joint imaging, and emergency department visits, were higher in PsA as early as 5 years preceding the index date. Total and musculoskeletal-related healthcare costs prior to the index date were higher in patients with PsA versus comparators. CONCLUSION: A prodromal PsA phase, characterized by non-specific musculoskeletal symptoms may exist. Further study is needed to determine if this represents a window for earlier diagnosis of PsA.

9.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227588, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923231

RESUMO

We aimed to compare 30-day readmission after medical-surgical hospitalization for people who experience imprisonment and matched people in the general population in Ontario, Canada. We used linked population-based correctional and health administrative data. Of people released from Ontario prisons in 2010, we identified those with at least one medical or surgical hospitalization between 2005 and 2015 while they were in prison or within 6 months after release. For those with multiple eligible hospitalizations, we randomly selected one hospitalization. We stratified people by whether they were in prison or recently released from prison at the time of hospital discharge. We matched each person with a person in the general population based on age, sex, hospitalization case mix group, and hospital discharge year. Our primary outcome was 30-day hospital readmission. We included 262 hospitalizations for people in prison and 1,268 hospitalizations for people recently released from prison. Readmission rates were 7.7% (95%CI 4.4-10.9) for people in prison and 6.9% (95%CI 5.5-8.3) for people recently released from prison. Compared with matched people in the general population, the unadjusted HR was 0.72 (95%CI 0.41-1.27) for people in prison and 0.78 (95%CI 0.60-1.02) for people recently released from prison. Adjusted for baseline morbidity and social status, hospitalization characteristics, and post-discharge health care use, the HR for 30-day readmission was 0.74 (95%CI 0.40-1.37) for people in prison and 0.48 (95%CI 0.36-0.63) for people recently released from prison. In conclusion, people recently released from prison had relatively low rates of readmission. Research is needed to elucidate reasons for lower readmission to ensure care quality and access.


Assuntos
Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Readmissão do Paciente/tendências , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Canadá , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário , Alta do Paciente , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Prisões , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
CJEM ; 22(2): 232-240, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526408

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to describe emergency department (ED) utilization by people in provincial prison and on release, and to compare with ED utilization for the general population. METHODS: We linked correctional and health administrative data for people released from provincial prison in Ontario in 2010. We matched each person by age and sex with four people in the general population. We compared ED utilization rates using generalized estimating equations, by sex and for high urgency and ambulatory care sensitive conditions. RESULTS: People who experienced imprisonment (N = 48,861) had higher ED utilization rates compared with the general population (N = 195,444), with rate ratios of 3.2 (95% CI 3.0-4.4) for men and 6.5 (95% CI 5.6-7.5) for women in prison and a range of rate ratios between 3.1 and 7.7 for men and 4.2 and 8.8 for women over the 2 years after release. Most ED visits were high urgency, and between 1.0% and 5.1% of visits were for ambulatory care sensitive conditions. ED utilization rates increased on release from prison. CONCLUSIONS: People experiencing imprisonment in Ontario have higher ED utilization compared with matched people in the general population, primarily for urgent issues, and particularly in women and in the week after release. Providing high-quality ED care and implementing prison- and ED-based interventions could improve health for this population and prevent the need for ED use.

11.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 26(13): 4193-4203, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-based survival and costs of pancreas adenocarcinoma patients receiving adjuvant chemoradiation and chemotherapy following pancreaticoduodenectomy are poorly understood. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used linked administrative and pathological datasets to identify all patients diagnosed with pancreas adenocarcinoma and undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy in Ontario between April 2004 and March 2014, who received postoperative chemoradiation or chemotherapy. Stage and margin status were defined by using pathology reports. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression survival analyses were used to determine associations between adjuvant treatment approach and survival, while stratifying by margin status. Median overall health system costs were calculated at 1 and 3 years for chemoradiation and chemotherapy, and differences were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: Among 709 patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreas cancer during the study period, the median survival was 21 months. Median survival was 19 months for chemoradiation and 22 months for chemotherapy. Patients receiving chemoradiation were more likely to have positive margins: 47.7% compared with 19.2% in chemotherapy. After stratifying by margin status and controlling for confounders, adjusted hazard ratio of death were not statistically different between chemotherapy and chemoradiation [margin positive, hazard ratio (HR) = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.88-1.27; margin negative, HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.91-1.18]. Overall 1-year health system costs were significantly higher for chemoradiation (USD $70,047) than chemotherapy (USD $54,005) (p ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Chemotherapy and chemoradiation yielded similar survival, but chemoradiation resulted in higher costs. To create more sustainable healthcare systems, both the efficacy and costs of therapies should be considered.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/economia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante/economia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/economia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/economia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Idoso , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante/mortalidade , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
12.
JAMA ; 322(9): 843-856, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479136

RESUMO

Importance: Medical imaging increased rapidly from 2000 to 2006, but trends in recent years have not been analyzed. Objective: To evaluate recent trends in medical imaging. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of patterns of medical imaging between 2000 and 2016 among 16 million to 21 million patients enrolled annually in 7 US integrated and mixed-model insurance health care systems and for individuals receiving care in Ontario, Canada. Exposures: Calendar year and country (United States vs Canada). Main Outcomes and Measures: Use of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, and nuclear medicine imaging. Annual and relative imaging rates by imaging modality, country, and age (children [<18 years], adults [18-64 years], and older adults [≥65 years]). Results: Overall, 135 774 532 imaging examinations were included; 5 439 874 (4%) in children, 89 635 312 (66%) in adults, and 40 699 346 (30%) in older adults. Among adults and older adults, imaging rates were significantly higher in 2016 vs 2000 for all imaging modalities other than nuclear medicine. For example, among older adults, CT imaging rates were 428 per 1000 person-years in 2016 vs 204 per 1000 in 2000 in US health care systems and 409 per 1000 vs 161 per 1000 in Ontario; for MRI, 139 per 1000 vs 62 per 1000 in the United States and 89 per 1000 vs 13 per 1000 in Ontario; and for ultrasound, 495 per 1000 vs 324 per 1000 in the United States and 580 per 1000 vs 332 per 1000 in Ontario. Annual growth in imaging rates among US adults and older adults slowed over time for CT (from an 11.6% annual percentage increase among adults and 9.5% among older adults in 2000-2006 to 3.7% among adults in 2013-2016 and 5.2% among older adults in 2014-2016) and for MRI (from 11.4% in 2000-2004 in adults and 11.3% in 2000-2005 in older adults to 1.3% in 2007-2016 in adults and 2.2% in 2005-2016 in older adults). Patterns in Ontario were similar. Among children, annual growth for CT stabilized or declined (United States: from 10.1% in 2000-2005 to 0.8% in 2013-2016; Ontario: from 3.3% in 2000-2006 to -5.3% in 2006-2016), but patterns for MRI were similar to adults. Changes in annual growth in ultrasound were smaller among adults and children in the United States and Ontario compared with CT and MRI. Nuclear medicine imaging declined in adults and children after 2006. Conclusions and Relevance: From 2000 to 2016 in 7 US integrated and mixed-model health care systems and in Ontario, rates of CT and MRI use continued to increase among adults, but at a slower pace in more recent years. In children, imaging rates continued to increase except for CT, which stabilized or declined in more recent periods. Whether the observed imaging utilization was appropriate or was associated with improved patient outcomes is unknown.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Imagem/tendências , Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Diagnóstico por Imagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Cabeça/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/estatística & dados numéricos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário , Cintilografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Cintilografia/tendências , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/tendências , Ultrassonografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ultrassonografia/tendências , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
13.
CMAJ Open ; 7(3): E516-E523, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to characterize the demographic characteristics and investigate the cost of a publicly funded system, the Ontario Trillium Drug Program (TDP), for an oncology patient population. METHODS: We ascertained all TDP claims between April 1997 and December 2016 from the Ontario Drug Benefit database to assess use and cost. Each drug was classified as a cancer treatment drug, cancer supportive therapy drug or noncancer drug. We also identified a cohort of patients with cancer with least 1 TDP claim, for whom we examined demographic and claims-related characteristics. RESULTS: Over the study period, 50 975 293 TDP claims totalling $4.8 billion were made. Although the proportion of cancer claims among all TDP claims remained constant between 1997 and 2016, the total annual cost of cancer treatment drugs increased nearly 40-fold. Imatinib and lenalidomide together accounted for nearly half of the cost of all cancer treatment drugs. We identified a cohort of 49 892 patients with cancer, of whom 18 631 (37.3%) were enrolled in the TDP before their cancer diagnosis and 31 261 (62.7%) were enrolled after their diagnosis. The former were more likely than the latter to be in lower income quintiles and to have more chronic conditions. Significant differences were also found in the distribution of cancer diagnoses between the 2 groups. INTERPRETATION: In the TDP, use increased over time and differed across cancer diagnoses and drugs. These results have public health and policy implications as antineoplastic drug costs continue to rise and place a burden on patients.

14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(7): e197249, 2019 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339541

RESUMO

Importance: The use of medical imaging has sharply increased over the last 2 decades. Imaging rates during pregnancy have not been quantified in a large, multisite study setting. Objective: To evaluate patterns of medical imaging during pregnancy. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study was performed at 6 US integrated health care systems and in Ontario, Canada. Participants included pregnant women who gave birth to a live neonate of at least 24 weeks' gestation between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2016, and who were enrolled in the health care system for the entire pregnancy. Exposures: Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, conventional radiography, angiography and fluoroscopy, and nuclear medicine. Main Outcomes and Measures: Imaging rates per pregnancy stratified by country and year of child's birth. Results: A total of 3 497 603 pregnancies in 2 211 789 women were included. Overall, 26% of pregnancies were from US sites. Most (92%) were in women aged 20 to 39 years, and 85% resulted in full-term births. Computed tomography imaging rates in the United States increased from 2.0 examinations/1000 pregnancies in 1996 to 11.4/1000 pregnancies in 2007, remained stable through 2010, and decreased to 9.3/1000 pregnancies by 2016, for an overall increase of 3.7-fold. Computed tomography rates in Ontario, Canada, increased more gradually by 2.0-fold, from 2.0/1000 pregnancies in 1996 to 6.2/1000 pregnancies in 2016, which was 33% lower than in the United States. Overall, 5.3% of pregnant women in US sites and 3.6% in Ontario underwent imaging with ionizing radiation, and 0.8% of women at US sites and 0.4% in Ontario underwent CT. Magnetic resonance imaging rates increased steadily from 1.0/1000 pregnancies in 1996 to 11.9/1000 pregnancies in 2016 in the United States and from 0.5/1000 pregnancies in 1996 to 9.8/1000 pregnancies in 2016 in Ontario, surpassing CT rates in 2013 in the United States and in 2007 in Ontario. In the United States, radiography rates doubled from 34.5/1000 pregnancies in 1996 to 72.6/1000 pregnancies in 1999 and then decreased to 47.6/1000 pregnancies in 2016; rates in Ontario slowly increased from 36.2/1000 pregnancies in 1996 to 44.7/1000 pregnancies in 2016. Angiography and fluoroscopy and nuclear medicine use rates were low (5.2/1000 pregnancies), but in most years, higher in Ontario than the United States. Imaging rates were highest for women who were younger than 20 years or aged 40 years or older, gave birth preterm, or were black, Native American, or Hispanic (US data only). Considering advanced imaging only, chest imaging of pregnant women was more likely to use CT in the United States and nuclear medicine imaging in Ontario. Conclusions and Relevance: The use of CT during pregnancy substantially increased in the United States and Ontario over the past 2 decades. Imaging rates during pregnancy should be monitored to avoid unnecessary exposure of women and fetuses to ionizing radiation.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Imagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Diagnóstico por Imagem/classificação , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/estatística & dados numéricos , Ontário , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Radiação Ionizante , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 71(8): 1084-1091, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30171803

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and incidence of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) over time in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We performed a population-based study of Ontario health administrative data, using validated case definitions for psoriasis and PsA. We computed the crude and age- and sex-standardized cumulative prevalence and incidence of psoriasis from 2000 to 2015. RESULTS: Among the 10,774,802 individuals ages ≥20 years residing in Ontario in 2015, we identified 273,238 patients with psoriasis and 18,655 patients with PsA, equating to cumulative prevalence estimates of 2.54% and 0.17%, respectively. Correcting the prevalence estimates for imperfect sensitivity and specificity resulted in similar estimates. The male:female ratio was approximately 1.0 for both conditions. For psoriasis, the age- and sex-standardized cumulative prevalence increased from 1.74% in 2000 to 2.32% in 2015. For PsA, the age- and sex-standardized cumulative prevalence increased from 0.09% in 2008 to 0.15% in 2015. Between 2008 and 2015, annual incidence rates for psoriasis decreased, whereas those for PsA remained relatively stable. CONCLUSION: The prevalence and incidence of psoriasis and PsA in Ontario are similar to those observed in Europe and the US. The steady increase in the prevalence of psoriasis and PsA over the past decade may be due to a combination of population aging, population growth, and increasing life expectancy.


Assuntos
Artrite Psoriásica/epidemiologia , Psoríase/epidemiologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 18(1): 97, 2018 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30591044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa continues to face the highest rate of mortality from diabetes in the world due to limited access to quality diabetes care. We assessed the quality of diabetes care in a rural diabetes clinic in western Kenya. METHODS: To provide a comprehensive assessment, a set of clinical outcomes, process, and structure metrics were evaluated to assess the quality of diabetes care provided in the outpatient clinic at Webuye District Hospital. The primary clinical outcome measures were the change in HbA1c and point of care blood glucose. In assessing process metrics, the primary measure was the percentage of patients who were lost to follow up. The structure metrics were assessed by evaluating different facets of the operation of the clinic and their accordance with the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) guidelines. RESULTS: A total of 524 patients were enrolled into the diabetes clinic during the predefined period of evaluation. The overall clinic population demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in HbA1c and point of care blood glucose at all time points of evaluation after baseline. Patients had a mean baseline HbA1C of 10.2% which decreased to 8.4% amongst the patients who remained in care after 18 months. In terms of process measures, 38 patients (7.3%) were characterized as being lost to follow up as they missed clinic visits for more than 6 months. Through the assessment of structural metrics, the clinic met at least the minimal standards of care for 14 out of the 19 domains recommended by the IDF. CONCLUSION: This analysis illustrates the gains made in various elements of diabetes care quality which can be used by other programs to guide diabetes care scale up across the region.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Ambulatório Hospitalar , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Glicemia/análise , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Quênia , Perda de Seguimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ambulatório Hospitalar/normas , Ambulatório Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 18(1): 845, 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30413165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Access to primary care is an important determinant of health, and data are sparse on primary care utilization for people who experience imprisonment. We aimed to describe primary care utilization for persons released from prison, and to compare utilization with the general population. METHODS: We linked correctional data for all persons released from provincial prison in Ontario, Canada in 2010 with health administrative data. We matched each person by age and sex with four general population controls. We compared primary care utilization rates using generalized estimating equations. We adjusted rate ratios for aggregated diagnosis groups, to explore this association independent of comorbidity. We examined the proportion of people using primary care using chi squared tests and time to first primary care visit post-release using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Compared to the general population controls, the prison release group had significantly increased relative rates of primary care utilization: at 6.1 (95% CI 5.9-6.2) in prison, 3.7 (95% CI 3.6-3.8) in the week post-release and between 2.4 and 2.6 in the two years after prison release. All rate ratios remained significantly increased after adjusting for comorbidity. In the month after release, however, 66.3% of women and 75.5% of men did not access primary care. CONCLUSIONS: Primary care utilization is high in prison and post-release for people who experience imprisonment in Ontario, Canada. Increased use is only partly explained by comorbidity. The majority of people do not access primary care in the month after prison release. Future research should identify reasons for increased use and interventions to improve care access for persons who are not accessing care post-release.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/terapia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisões/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Feminino , Medicina Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Ontário , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0201592, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30075019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many people experience imprisonment each year, and this population bears a disproportionate burden of morbidity and mortality. States have an obligation to provide equitable health care in prison and to attend to care on release. Our objective was to describe health care utilization in prison and post-release for persons released from provincial prison in Ontario, Canada in 2010, and to compare health care utilization with the general population. METHODS: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study. We included all persons released from provincial prison to the community in 2010, and age- and sex-matched general population controls. We linked identities for persons released from prison to administrative health data. We matched each person by age and sex with four general population controls. We examined ambulatory care and emergency department utilization and medical-surgical and psychiatric hospitalization, both in prison and in the three months after release to the community. We compared rates with those of the general population. RESULTS: The rates of all types of health care utilization were significantly higher in prison and on release for people released from prison (N = 48,861) compared to general population controls (N = 195,444). Comparing those released from prison to general population controls in prison and in the 3 months after release, respectively, utilization rates were 5.3 (95% CI 5.2, 5.4) and 2.4 (95% CI 2.4, 2.5) for ambulatory care, 3.5 (95% CI 3.3, 3.7) and 5.0 (95% CI 4.9, 5.3) for emergency department utilization, 2.3 (95% CI 2.0, 2.7) and 3.2 (95% CI 2.9, 3.5) for medical-surgical hospitalization, and 21.5 (95% CI 16.7, 27.7) and 17.5 (14.4, 21.2) for psychiatric hospitalization. Comparing the time in prison to the week after release, ambulatory care use decreased from 16.0 (95% CI 15.9,16.1) to 10.7 (95% CI 10.5, 10.9) visits/person-year, emergency department use increased from 0.7 (95% CI 0.6, 0.7) to 2.6 (95% CI 2.5, 2.7) visits/person-year, and hospitalization increased from 5.4 (95% CI 4.8, 5.9) to 12.3 (95% CI 10.1, 14.6) admissions/100 person-years for medical-surgical reasons and from 8.6 (95% CI 7.9, 9.3) to 17.3 (95% CI 14.6, 20.0) admissions/100 person-years for psychiatric reasons. CONCLUSIONS: Across care types, health care utilization in prison and on release is elevated for people who experience imprisonment in Ontario, Canada. This may reflect high morbidity and suboptimal access to quality health care. Future research should identify reasons for increased use and interventions to improve care.


Assuntos
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisioneiros , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Ontário , Saúde da População , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
J Surg Oncol ; 117(4): 597-617, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29228470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Variability in melanoma management has prompted concerns about equitable and timely treatment. We investigated patterns of melanoma diagnosis and treatment using population-level data. METHODS: Patients with invasive cutaneous melanoma were identified retrospectively from the Ontario Cancer Registry (2003-2012) and deterministically linked with administrative databases to identify incidence, disease characteristics, geographic origin, and multimodal treatment within a year of diagnosis. Melanoma treatment was categorized as inadequate or adequate based on multidisciplinary clinical algorithms. Multivariable logistic regression was used to model factors associated with treatment adequacy. RESULTS: From 2003 to 2012, 22 918 patients with invasive melanoma were identified with annual age/sex standardized incidence rates of 11.7-14.3/100 000 for females and 13.4-15.9/100 000 for males. Melanoma occurred at median age of 62 and primarily on extremities (43.9%). Within 1 year after diagnosis, 86.7% of patients received surgery as primary therapy. A total of 2312 (10.6%) patients received inadequate or no treatment after diagnosis. Receiving adequate treatment was associated with consultation with dermatology (OR 1.92, CI 1.71-2.14), plastic surgery (OR 4.80, CI 4.32-5.34), or general surgery (OR 2.15, CI 1.94-2.38). CONCLUSIONS: Significant variation exists in melanoma management and nearly one in nine patients is inadequately treated. Referral to sub-specialized providers is critical for ensuring appropriate care.


Assuntos
Melanoma/diagnóstico , Melanoma/terapia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Melanoma/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário/epidemiologia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(3): 238-243, 2018 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29193984

RESUMO

Purpose The 21-gene assay Oncotype Dx (Genomic Health, Redwood City, CA) test is used to aid the decision about chemotherapy in patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer who received endocrine therapy. Economic studies to support test adoption used decision-analytic models with assumptions and data derived from disparate sources. The objective was to evaluate whether the 21-gene assay test resulted in an overall cost expense or saving to the health system. Patients and Methods One thousand participants enrolled in a field evaluation study, were linked to population-level health system administrative databases, and were observed for 20 months. The cost for the cohort, which included the cost of the test, subsequent treatments received, and health care encounters, was determined. The cost in the absence of the test was compared with the pretest recommendation about chemotherapy from the field study for a base case and under scenarios that reflected different adjuvant chemotherapy use. Overall health system costs and incremental costs were calculated. Results The 21-gene assay resulted in a net decrease in chemotherapy use of 23%. For the base case incremental analysis, the actual overall health system cost of this cohort, including the cost of 21-gene assay, was $29.2 million compared with $26.2 million in the absence of the test-an increase of $3.1 million. For three of the four scenario analyses, the actual overall cost to the health system exceeded the estimated cost in the absence of the test. Results showed that, when at least half of the population received adjuvant chemotherapy, the cost increased to $30.2 million. Conclusion The use of real-world administrative data showed that, despite lower rates of chemotherapy use, the 21-gene assay test results in an overall incremental cost to the health care system in the short-term under most assumptions.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/economia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/economia , Testes Genéticos/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Medicina de Precisão/economia , Demandas Administrativas em Assistência à Saúde , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/economia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Redução de Custos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Bases de Dados Factuais , Custos de Medicamentos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econômicos , Seleção de Pacientes , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Transcriptoma
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