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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4066, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492846

RESUMO

Human enteroviruses (HEVs) of the family Picornaviridae, which comprises non-enveloped RNA viruses, are ubiquitous worldwide. The majority of EV proteins are derived from viral polyproteins encoded by a single open reading frame (ORF). Here, we characterize a second ORF in HEVs that is crucial for viral intestinal infection. Disruption of ORF2p expression decreases the replication capacity of EV-A71 in human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Ectopic expression of ORF2p proteins derived from diverse enteric enteroviruses sensitizes intestinal cells to the replication of ORF2p-defective EV-A71 and respiratory enterovirus EV-D68. We show that the highly conserved WIGHPV domain of ORF2p is important for ORF2p-dependent viral intestinal infection. ORF2p expression is required for EV-A71 particle release from IECs and can support productive EV-D68 infection in IECs by facilitating virus release. Our results indicate that ORF2p is a determining factor for enteric enterovirus replication in IECs.

2.
Anesth Analg ; 129(3): 651-658, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diastolic dysfunction is common and may increase the risk of cardiovascular complications. This study investigated the hypothesis that, in patients with isolated left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, higher grade diastolic dysfunction was associated with greater risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) after surgery. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study. Data of adult patients with isolated echocardiographic diastolic dysfunction (ejection fraction, ≥50%) who underwent noncardiac surgery from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015 were collected. The primary end point was the occurrence of postoperative MACEs during hospital stay, which included acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, stroke, nonfatal cardiac arrest, and cardiac death. The association between the grade of diastolic dysfunction and the occurrence of MACEs was assessed with a multivariable logistic model. RESULTS: A total of 2976 patients were included in the final analysis. Of these, 297 (10.0%) developed MACEs after surgery. After correction for confounding factors, grade 3 diastolic dysfunction was associated with higher risk of postoperative MACEs (odds ratio, 1.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.27; P < .001) when compared with grades 1 and 2. Patients with grade 3 diastolic dysfunction developed more non-MACE complications when compared with grades 1 and 2 (uncorrected odds ratio, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.95; P = .017). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with isolated diastolic dysfunction undergoing noncardiac surgery, 10.0% develop MACEs during hospital stay after surgery; grade 3 diastolic dysfunction is associated with greater risk of MACEs.

3.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; : e906, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations of human androgen receptor (AR) gene are responsible for androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). Variable phenotypes and androgen receptor binding activity have permitted the classification of AIS into complete (CAIS), partial (PAIS), and minimal or mild (MAIS) forms. Somatic mosaicism in AIS is a rare condition which happened when de novo mutations occur after the zygotic stage. METHODS: Clinical evaluation, hormone measurements, and molecular analysis were performed to diagnose the patient in the study. RESULTS: A 46, XY girl who conceived through in vitro fertilization (IVF), presented with partial virilization of external genitalia, was found to have the p.C620R in heterozygosity. The variant p.C620R of AR has been previously reported in a patient with completely feminized external genitalia, which was inherited from the heterozygote carrier mother. Mutation analysis of the mother of our patient revealed that the variant was de novo and presented as a somatic mosaicism which indicated an insufficient amount of wild-type AR in our patient. CONCLUSION: This is the first case that AIS was caused by de novo mutation of AR in a 46, XY Disorder of Sexual Development (DSD) patient by the assisted reproduction technique (ART). The phenotype of partial virilization could be explained by AR mutation in somatic mosaicism.

4.
Brain Behav Immun ; 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437533

RESUMO

Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is characterized as cognitive deficits including memory and learning dysfunctions after liver injuries or hepatic diseases. Our understandings of neurological mechanisms of MHE-associated cognitive syndromes, however, are far from complete. In the current study we generated a mouse MHE model by repetitive administrations of thioacetamide (TAA), which induced hyperammonemia plus elevated proinflammatory cytokines in both the general circulation and motor cortex. MHE mice presented prominent motor learning deficits, which were associated with excess dendritic spine pruning in the motor cortex under 2-photon in vivo microscopy. The pharmaceutical blockade of glucocorticoid receptor or suppression of its biosynthesis further rescued motor learning deficits and synaptic protein loss. Moreover, MHE mice presented microglial activation, which can be alleviated after glucocorticoid pathway inhibition. In sum, our data demonstrates corticosterone-induced microglial activation, synaptic over-pruning and motor learning impairments in MHE, providing new insights for MHE pathogenesis and potential targets of clinical interventions.

6.
Cell Rep ; 28(2): 567-579.e4, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291589

RESUMO

As a Ca2+-activated lipid scramblase and ion channel that mediates Ca2+ influx, TMEM16F relies on both functions to facilitate extracellular vesicle generation, blood coagulation, and bone formation. How a bona fide ion channel scrambles lipids remains elusive. Our structural analyses revealed the coexistence of an intact channel pore and PIP2-dependent protein conformation changes leading to membrane distortion. Correlated to the extent of membrane distortion, many tightly bound lipids are slanted. Structure-based mutagenesis studies further reveal that neutralization of some lipid-binding residues or those near membrane distortion specifically alters the onset of lipid scrambling, but not Ca2+ influx, thus identifying features outside of channel pore that are important for lipid scrambling. Together, our studies demonstrate that membrane distortion does not require open hydrophilic grooves facing the membrane interior and provide further evidence to suggest separate pathways for lipid scrambling and ion permeation.

7.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 724-733, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130075

RESUMO

Anti-HBs is a well-known marker of protective capability against HBV. However, little is known about the association between the qAnti-HBs determined by immunoassays and the neutralization activity (NAT) derived from functional assays. We developed an in vitro assay for direct measurement of the NAT of human sera. The new assay was highly sensitive, with an analytical sensitivity of 9.6 ± 1.3 mIU/mL for the HBIG standard. For serum detection, the maximum fold dilution required to produce ≥50% inhibition (MDF50) of HBV infection was used as the quantitative index. In vitro NAT evaluations were conducted for a cohort of 164 HBV-free healthy individuals. The results demonstrated that the NAT positively correlated with the qAnti-HBs (R2 = 0.473, p < 0.001). ROC analysis indicated that the optimal cutoff value of the qAnti-HBs to discriminate significant NAT (MDF50 ≥ 8) was 62.9 mIU/mL, with an AUROC of 0.920. Additionally, we found that the qAnti-HBc was another independent parameter positively associated with the NAT (R2 = 0.300, p < 0.001), which suggested that antibodies against other HBV proteins generated by previous HBV exposure possibly also contribute to the NAT. In summary, the new cell-based assay provides a robust tool to analyse the anti-HBV NAT. Abbreviations: HBV: Hepatitis B virus; HBsAg: Hepatitis B surface antigen; Anti-HBs: Hepatitis B surface antibody; HBeAg: Hepatitis B e antigen; Anti-HBc: Hepatitis B core antibody; qAnti-HBs: quantitative hepatitis B surface antibody; qAnti-HBc: quantitative hepatitis B core antibody; qHBeAg: quantitative hepatitis B e antigen; NAT: neutralization activity; HBIG: hepatitis B immune globulin; NTCP: Na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide; IRES: internal ribosome entry site; ccHBV: cell culture derived hepatitis B virus; GE/cell: genome equivalent per cell; MOI: multiplicity of infection; Dpi: day post infection; HepG2-TetOn: a HepG2-derived cell line that expresses the doxycycline-regulated transactivator; ROC: receiver operating characteristic curve; AUROC: area under receiver operating characteristic curve; LLOQ: the lower limits of quantification; MDF50: the maximum fold dilution required to produce ≥50% inhibition; IC50: half maximal inhibitory concentration.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Testes de Neutralização/métodos , Soro/imunologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
Theranostics ; 9(7): 2115-2128, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037160

RESUMO

Rationale: Hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have been developed to address the shortage of primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) for therapeutic applications. However, the in vivo repopulation capacity of HLCs remains limited. This study investigated the roles of agonist antibody activating the c-Met receptor in promoting the in vivo proliferation and repopulation of engrafted PHHs and/or HLCs in mice with liver injuries due to different causes. Methods: An agonist c-Met receptor antibody (5D5) was used to treat PHHs and hiPSC-HLCs in both cell culture and hepatocyte-engrafted immunodeficient mice mimicking various inherited and acquired liver diseases. The promoting roles and potential influence on the hepatic phenotype of the 5D5 regimen in cell transplantation-based therapeutic applications were systematically evaluated. Results: In hiPSC-HLC cell cultures, 5D5 treatment significantly stimulated c-Met receptor downstream signalling pathways and accelerated cell proliferation in dose-dependent and reversible manners. In contrast, only slight but nonsignificant promotion was observed in 5D5-treated PHHs. In vivo administration of 5D5 greatly promoted the expansion of implanted hiPSC-HLCs in fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (Fah) deficient mice, resulting in significantly increased human albumin levels and high human liver chimerism (over 40%) in the transplanted mice at week 8 after transplantation. More importantly, transplantation of hiPSC-HLCs in combination with 5D5 significantly prolonged animal survival and ameliorated liver pathological changes in mice with acute and/or chronic liver injuries caused by Fas agonistic antibody treatment, carbon tetrachloride treatment and/or tyrosinemic stress. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that the proliferation of hiPSC-HLCs can be enhanced by antibody-mediated modulation of c-Met signalling and facilitate hiPSC-HLC-based therapeutic applications for life-threatening liver diseases.

9.
Asian J Androl ; 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031332

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated the genetics, clinical features, and therapeutic approach of 14 patients with 5α-reductase deficiency in China. Genotyping analysis was performed by direct sequencing of PCR products of the steroid 5α-reductase type 2 gene (SRD5A2). The 5α-reductase activities of three novel mutations were investigated by mutagenesis and an in vitro transfection assay. Most patients presented with a microphallus, variable degrees of hypospadias, and cryptorchidism. Eight of 14 patients (57.1%) were initially reared as females and changed their social gender from female to male after puberty. Nine mutations were identified in the 14 patients. p.G203S, p.Q6X, and p.R227Q were the most prevalent mutations. Three mutations (p.K35N, p.H162P, and p.Y136X) have not been reported previously. The nonsense mutation p.Y136X abolished enzymatic activity, whereas p.K35N and p.H162P retained partial enzymatic activity. Topical administration of dihydrotestosterone during infancy or early childhood combined with hypospadia repair surgery had good therapeutic results. In conclusion, we expand the mutation profile of SRD5A2 in the Chinese population. A rational clinical approach to this disorder requires early and accurate diagnosis, especially genetic diagnosis.

10.
J Vis Exp ; (146)2019 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033962

RESUMO

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a common enzyme expressed in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters from many molecules at basic pH and plays an indispensable role in phosphate metabolism. In humans, eukaryotic ALP is one of the most frequently used enzymatic signals in diagnosing various diseases, such as cholestasis and rickets. In S. aureus, ALP is detected exclusively on the cell membrane; it is also expressed as a secretory form as well. Yet, little is known about its function in biofilm formation. The purpose of this manuscript is to develop a quick and reliable assay to measure ALP activity in S. aureus biofilm that does not require protein isolation. Using p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) as a substrate, we measured ALP activity in S. aureus biofilm formed in 96-well tissue culture plates. Activity was based on the formation of the soluble reaction product measured by 405 nm absorbance. The high throughput nature of the 96 well tissue culture plate method provides a sensitive and reproducible method for ALP activity assays. The same experimental set up can also be extended to measure other extracellular molecular markers related to biofilm formation.

11.
Biomater Sci ; 7(5): 1794-1800, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888360

RESUMO

Biomedical applications and nanotechnological advances, including constrained synthesis, multimodal imaging, drug delivery, and bioassay, have strongly benefited from employing ferritin nanocages due to their remarkable properties of easy engineering, great biocompatible features, large capacity and so on. In this study, ferritin nanocages were used to display epitopes (model antigens derived from Enterovirus 71 (EV71) with different length) on C- and N-terminals and the loop zone to search for the optimal position for the fusion of the epitopes to the vaccine platform. The longest epitope displayed on the N-terminal and loop zone as well as the second longest peptide displayed on the loop zone of ferritin resulted in 100% passive protection of newborn BALB/c mice from the lethal EV71. This suggests that peptides fused onto the loop zone of ferritin could induce strong immune response. Our results increase the versatility of the vaccine platform and provide more options for the production of stable constructs, suggesting the potential future clinical applicability of ferritin-based antigen delivery nanoplatforms.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Desenho de Drogas , Epitopos/química , Ferritinas/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Enterovirus/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Imunização , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Vacinas de Subunidades/química , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia
12.
Gut ; 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop a novel therapeutic vaccine based on a unique B cell epitope and investigate its therapeutic potential against chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in animal models. METHODS: A series of peptides and carrier proteins were evaluated in HBV-tolerant mice to obtain an optimised therapeutic molecule. The immunogenicity, therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of the candidate were investigated systematically. RESULTS: Among the HBsAg-aa119-125-containing peptides evaluated in this study, HBsAg-aa113-135 (SEQ13) exhibited the most striking therapeutic effects. A novel immunoenhanced virus-like particle carrier (CR-T3) derived from the roundleaf bat HBV core antigen (RBHBcAg) was created and used to display SEQ13, forming candidate molecule CR-T3-SEQ13. Multiple copies of SEQ13 displayed on the surface of this particulate antigen promote the induction of a potent anti-HBs antibody response in mice, rabbits and cynomolgus monkeys. Sera and purified polyclonal IgG from the immunised animals neutralised HBV infection in vitro and mediated efficient HBV/hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) clearance in the mice. CR-T3-SEQ13-based vaccination induced long-term suppression of HBsAg and HBV DNA in HBV transgenic mice and eradicated the virus completely in hydrodynamic-based HBV carrier mice. The suppressive effects on HBsAg were strongly correlated with the anti-HBs level after vaccination, suggesting that the main mechanism of CR-T3-SEQ13 vaccination therapy was the induction of a SEQ13-specific antibody response that mediated HBV/HBsAg clearance. CONCLUSIONS: The novel particulate protein CR-T3-SEQ13 suppressed HBsAg effectively through induction of a humoural immune response in HBV-tolerant mice. This B cell epitope-based therapeutic vaccine may provide a novel immunotherapeutic agent against chronic HBV infection in humans.

13.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-8, 2019 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735461

RESUMO

Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) has caused worldwide epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), particularly in infants and pre-school children. Currently, there are no vaccines or antiviral drugs available for CA16-associated disease. In this study, a CA16-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb) NA11F12 was derived with an epidemic CA16 strain (GenBank no. JX127258). NA11F12 was found to have high cross-neutralization activity against different CA16 subgenotypes but not EV71 using RD cells. The neutralizing titers of NA11F12 ranged from 1:1024 to 1:12288 against A, B1, B2 and C subgenotypes of CA16 and was less than 8 against EV71 strain. In the neonatal mouse model, a single treatment of NA11F12 showed effective protection with a dose- and time-dependent relationship against lethal challenge by CA16 strain (GenBank no. JX481738). At day 1 post-infection, administering more than 0.1 µg/g of NA11F12 could protect 100% newborn mice from mobility and mortality challenged by CA16. With dose of 10 µg/g of NA11F12, a single administration fully protected mice against CA16-associated disease within 4 days post-infection. And there were 80% and 60% mice protected by administering NA11F12 at day 5 post-infection and day 6 post-infection when the control mice had shown clinical symptoms for 1- and 2-day, respectively. Immunohistochemical and histological analysis confirmed that NA11F12 significantly prohibited CA16 VP1 expression in various tissues and prevented CA16-induced necrosis. In conclusion, a CA16-specific MAb NA11F12 with high cross-neutralization activity was identified, which could effectively protect lethal CA16 challenge in mice. It could be a potential therapeutic MAb against CA16 in the future.

14.
Gut ; 2019 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700543

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Developing a small animal model that accurately delineates the natural history of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and immunopathophysiology is necessary to clarify the mechanisms of host-virus interactions and to identify intervention strategies for HBV-related liver diseases. This study aimed to develop an HBV-induced chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis mouse model through transplantation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). DESIGN: Transplantation of hBMSCs into Fah-/-Rag2-/-IL-2Rγc-/- SCID (FRGS) mice with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) induced by hamster-anti-mouse CD95 antibody JO2 generated a liver and immune cell dual-humanised (hBMSC-FRGS) mouse. The generated hBMSC-FRGS mice were subjected to assessments of sustained viremia, specific immune and inflammatory responses and liver pathophysiological injury to characterise the progression of chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis after HBV infection. RESULTS: The implantation of hBMSCs rescued FHF mice, as demonstrated by robust proliferation and transdifferentiation of functional human hepatocytes and multiple immune cell lineages, including B cells, T cells, natural killer cells, dendritic cells and macrophages. After HBV infection, the hBMSC-FRGS mice developed sustained viremia and specific immune and inflammatory responses and showed progression to chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis at a frequency of 55% after 54 weeks. CONCLUSION: This new humanised mouse model recapitulates the liver cirrhosis induced by human HBV infection, thus providing research opportunities for understanding viral immune pathophysiology and testing antiviral therapies in vivo.

15.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 484: 25-33, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682387

RESUMO

Unexplained hyperandrogenic oligoanovulation is a main feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). P450c17 phosphorylation selectively increases 17,20-lyase activity and androgen biosynthesis but minimally affects 17α-hydroxylase. Studies have recently identified mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAPK14, p38α) as the kinase responsible for enhancing 17,20-lyase activity through P450c17 phosphorylation. We investigated whether oxidant-induced oxidative stress increases 17,20-lyase activity through oxidant-sensitive p38α signaling pathways. NCI-H295R adrenal cells were treated with three oxidants, palmitate, H2O2 and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), to simulate the excessive oxidative stress of PCOS. Oxidant exposure significantly induced dehydroepiandrosterone production and increased p38α phosphorylation and activation, but the effect on 17α-hydroxyprogesterone production was far less clear. None of the treatments altered the expression of P450c17 or its necessary factors POR and b5. LC-MS/MS revealed increased DHEA production in NCI-H295R cells. Both p38α inhibition and siRNA-mediated silencing attenuated H2O2- or 0.45-0.75 mM PA-mediated augmentation of DHEA production with relatively stable 17OHP levels, indicating that activated p38α mediates oxidative stress-induced 17,20-lyase activation and androgen synthesis stimulation, which may underlie hyperandrogenism in PCOS.

16.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(4): 1931-1938, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617817

RESUMO

Coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10) recently has become one of the major pathogens of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in children worldwide, but no cure or vaccine against CVA10 is available yet. Serological evaluation of herd immunity to CVA10 will promote the development of vaccine. The traditional neutralization assay based on inhibition of cytopathic effect (Nt-CPE) is a common method for measuring neutralizing antibody titer against CVA10, which is time-consuming and labor-intensive. In this study, an efficient neutralization test based on a monoclonal antibody (mAb) 3D1 against CVA10, called Elispot-based neutralization test (Nt-Elispot), was developed. In the Nt-Elispot, the mAb 3D1 labeled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used to detect the CVA10-infected RD cells at a 1:4000 dilution and the optimal infectious dose of CVA10 was set at 105 TCID50/well when combined with a fixed incubation time of 14 h. Compared with the Nt-CPE, the Nt-Elispot method effectively shortened the detection period and presented a good correlativity with it. Using the Nt-Elispot, a total of 123 sera from healthy children were tested for neutralizing antibody against CVA10, demonstrating that the overall seroprevalence was 49.3% (54/123) and the geometric mean titer (GMT) had been calculated as 574.2. Furthermore, 2 anti-CVA10 neutralizing mAbs were obtained by screening via the Nt-Elispot. Overall, the established Nt-Elispot could be used as an efficient and high-throughput method for evaluating immunity to CVA10 and screening the neutralizing antibodies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Enterovirus/imunologia , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/imunologia , Testes de Neutralização/métodos , Pré-Escolar , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
17.
Antiviral Res ; 161: 28-35, 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419253

RESUMO

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the major pathogens of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which affects children worldwide and is often associated with neurological complications. At present, there is no vaccine or cure available for simultaneous EV71 and CA16 infection, posing a great need to develop novel strategies for the treatment of this disease. Here, we engineered four bispecific antibodies using variable fragments of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from EV71- and CA16-specific neutralizing antibodies. The engineered bispecific antibody Bs(scFv)4-IgG-1 exhibits remarkable cross-reactivity against EV71 and CA16 and has a more potent cross-neutralization than its parental antibodies. Furthermore, we showed that Bs(scFv)4-IgG-1 conferred 100% therapeutic efficacy against single or mixed EV71 and CA16 infections in mice. Our study provides important insights into bispecific antibody engineering against enterovirus and will inform new curative treatment options for HFMD.

18.
Nat Microbiol ; 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397341

RESUMO

Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) undergoes structural transformation between mature, cell-entry intermediate (A-particle) and empty forms throughout its life cycle. Structural information for the various forms and antibody-bound capsids will facilitate the development of effective vaccines and therapeutics against EV-D68 infection, which causes childhood respiratory and paralytic diseases worldwide. Here, we report the structures of three EV-D68 capsid states representing the virus at major phases. We further describe two original monoclonal antibodies (15C5 and 11G1) with distinct structurally defined mechanisms for virus neutralization. 15C5 and 11G1 engage the capsid loci at icosahedral three-fold and five-fold axes, respectively. To block viral attachment, 15C5 binds three forms of capsids, and triggers mature virions to transform into A-particles, mimicking engagement by the functional receptor ICAM-5, whereas 11G1 exclusively recognizes the A-particle. Our data provide a structural and molecular explanation for the transition of picornavirus capsid conformations and demonstrate distinct mechanisms for antibody-mediated neutralization.

19.
Anesth Analg ; 2018 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30273230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diastolic dysfunction is common and may increase the risk of cardiovascular complications. This study investigated the hypothesis that, in patients with isolated left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, higher grade diastolic dysfunction was associated with greater risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) after surgery. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study. Data of adult patients with isolated echocardiographic diastolic dysfunction (ejection fraction, ≥50%) who underwent noncardiac surgery from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015 were collected. The primary end point was the occurrence of postoperative MACEs during hospital stay, which included acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, stroke, nonfatal cardiac arrest, and cardiac death. The association between the grade of diastolic dysfunction and the occurrence of MACEs was assessed with a multivariable logistic model. RESULTS: A total of 2976 patients were included in the final analysis. Of these, 297 (10.0%) developed MACEs after surgery. After correction for confounding factors, grade 3 diastolic dysfunction was associated with higher risk of postoperative MACEs (odds ratio, 1.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.27; P < .001) when compared with grades 1 and 2. Patients with grade 3 diastolic dysfunction developed more non-MACE complications when compared with grades 1 and 2 (uncorrected odds ratio, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.95; P = .017). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with isolated diastolic dysfunction undergoing noncardiac surgery, 10.0% develop MACEs during hospital stay after surgery; grade 3 diastolic dysfunction is associated with greater risk of MACEs.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

20.
Sci Adv ; 4(9): eaat7459, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255146

RESUMO

Coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10) recently emerged as a major pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease and herpangina in children worldwide, and lack of a vaccine or a cure against CVA10 infections has made therapeutic antibody identification a public health priority. By targeting a local isolate, CVA10-FJ-01, we obtained a potent antibody, 2G8, against all three capsid forms of CVA10. We show that 2G8 exhibited both 100% preventive and 100% therapeutic efficacy against CVA10 infection in mice. Comparisons of the near-atomic cryo-electron microscopy structures of the three forms of CVA10 capsid and their complexes with 2G8 Fab reveal that a single Fab binds a border region across the three capsid proteins (VP1 to VP3) and explain 2G8's remarkable cross-reactivities against all three capsid forms. The atomic structures of this first neutralizing antibody of CVA10 should inform strategies for designing vaccines and therapeutics against CVA10 infections.

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