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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 443(Pt B): 130350, 2023 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36444061

RESUMO

High-temperature pyrolysis of waste tires is a promising method to produce high-quality carbon black. In this study, carbon black formation characteristics were investigated during tire pyrolysis at 1000-1300 °C with residence times of < 1 s, 1-2 s, and 2-4 s. It is shown that with temperature increasing from 1000 °C to 1300 °C carbon black yield was increased from 10% to 27% with residence times of 2-4 s. Carbon black exhibited a core-shell nanostructure over 1100 °C and the graphitization degree was promoted with the temperature and residence time. While the mean particle diameter decreased with the temperature to 69 nm at 1300 °C and further increased by residence time. The molecular-level evolution from tire to initial carbon black was further revealed by reactive force field molecular dynamics simulations. Light oil, gas, and radicals were transformed to initial cyclic molecules and long carbon chains via carbon-addition-hydrogen-migration, H-abstraction-C2H2-addition, and radical-chain reactions, subsequently forming PAHs. The coupling of PAHs aliphatic side chains formed large graphene layers that gradually bent to fullerene-like cores and generated incipient carbon black. The process mechanism from volatiles evolution to carbon black was proposed, which may be helpful for obtaining high-quality carbon black from high-temperature pyrolysis of waste tires.

2.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 3): 114703, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334822

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Incorporation of greenspace may be a novel environmental policy that might result in positive health effects; hence, this study aimed to investigate the association between residential greenness and dementia incidence. The effects of particulate air pollution on mediating dementia were also determined. METHODS: A prospective cohort study involving 375,342 UK biobank participants was conducted, in which Cox regression models were used to determine the association of greenspace exposure with the risks of all-cause dementia (ACD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD). Sociodemographic variables, lifestyle or dietary characteristics and apolipoprotein E4 status were controlled using two levels of adjusted models. Mediation analyses were performed to determine the mediation effects of PMs. RESULTS: The results indicated that there were 4929 ACD, 2132 AD, and 1184 VD incidents throughout the 8-year study. In the multi-adjusted model, each interquartile increment in greenspace (buffer 300m) conferred the lower risks of ACD (HR = 0.968, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.938-1.000]) and VD (HR = 0.926, 95% CI: 0.867-0.989). The fourth greenspace quartile conferred also reduced risks of ACD (HR = 0.891, 95% CI: 0.804-0.989) and VD (HR = 0.778, 95% CI: 0.630-0.960) in reference to the first quartile. With regard to 1000m catchment, each interquartile increment conferred a 5.0% (95% CI: 1.8-8.1) lower risk of ACD, and the fourth greenspace quartile conferred a 10.9% (95% CI: 0.9-19.8) lower risk of ACD compared to the first quartile. The protective effect of greenness might be mediated based on the reduction of PM2.5 and PM10 (Pindirect effect<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Increasing greenness reduces the risk of dementia. This study suggests that greenspace is an environmental strategy that helps prevent dementia.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doença de Alzheimer , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Incidência , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/análise
3.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(1): 170-175, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35799538

RESUMO

According to clinical statistics, the mortality of patients with early brainstem hemorrhage is high. In this study, we established rat models of brainstem hemorrhage by injecting type VII collagenase into the right basotegmental pontine and investigated the pathological changes of early brainstem hemorrhage using multi-sequence magnetic resonance imaging and histopathological methods. We found that brainstem hematoma gradually formed in the injured rats over the first 3 days and then reduced after 7 days. The edema that occurred was mainly of the vasogenic type. No complete myelin sheath structure was found around the focus of the brainstem hemorrhage. The integrity and continuity of nerve fibers gradually deteriorated over the first 7 days. Neuronal degeneration was mild in the first 3 days and then obviously aggravated on the 7th day. Inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1ß, and tumor necrosis factor α appeared on the 1st day after intracerebral hemorrhage, reached peak levels on the 3rd day, and decreased from the 7th day. Our findings show the characteristics of the progression of early brainstem hemorrhage.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 1): 159362, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36240934

RESUMO

Despite a conspicuous exacerbation of asthma among patients hospitalized due to influenza infection, no study has attempted previously to elucidate the relationship between environmental factors, influenza activity, and asthma simultaneously in adults. In this study, we examined this relationship using population-based hospitalization records over 22 years. Daily numbers of hospitalizations due to asthma in adults of 41 public hospitals in Hong Kong during 1998-2019 were obtained. The data were matched with meteorological records and air pollutant concentrations. We used type-specific and all-type influenza-like illness plus (ILI+) rates as proxies for seasonal influenza activity. Quasi-Poisson generalized additive models together with distributed-lag non-linear models were used to examine the association. A total of 212,075 hospitalization episodes due to asthma were reported over 22 years. The cumulative adjusted relative risk (ARR) of asthma hospitalizations reached 1.15 (95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.12-1.18) when the ILI+ total rate increased from zero to 20.01 per 1000 consultations. Compared with the median temperature, a significantly increased risk of asthma hospitalization (cumulative ARR = 1.10, 95 % CI, 1.05-1.15) was observed at the 5th percentile of temperature (i.e., 14.6 °C). Of the air pollutants, oxidant gas was significantly associated with asthma, but only at its extreme level of concentrations. In conclusion, cold conditions and influenza activities are risk factors to asthma exacerbation in adult population. Influenza-related asthma exacerbation that appeared to be more common in the warm and hot season, is likely to be attributable to influenza A/H3N2. The heavy influence of both determinants on asthma activity implies that climate change may complicate the asthma burden.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Influenza Humana , Adulto , Humanos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/induzido quimicamente , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2 , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Temperatura Baixa , Estações do Ano , Hospitalização , Tempo (Meteorologia)
5.
EBioMedicine ; 86: 104336, 2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36356475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hearing impairment was recently identified as the most prominent risk factor for dementia. However, the mechanisms underlying the link between hearing impairment and dementia are still unclear. METHODS: We investigated the association of hearing performance with cognitive function, brain structure and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteins in cross-sectional, longitudinal, mediation and genetic association analyses across the UK Biobank (N = 165,550), the Chinese Alzheimer's Biomarker and Lifestyle (CABLE, N = 863) study, and the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI, N = 1770) database. FINDINGS: Poor hearing performance was associated with worse cognitive function in the UK Biobank and in the CABLE study. Hearing impairment was significantly related to lower volume of temporal cortex, hippocampus, inferior parietal lobe, precuneus, etc., and to lower integrity of white matter (WM) tracts. Furthermore, a higher polygenic risk score (PRS) for hearing impairment was strongly associated with lower cognitive function, lower volume of gray matter, and lower integrity of WM tracts. Moreover, hearing impairment was correlated with a high level of CSF tau protein in the CABLE study and in the ADNI database. Finally, mediation analyses showed that brain atrophy and tau pathology partly mediated the association between hearing impairment and cognitive decline. INTERPRETATION: Hearing impairment is associated with cognitive decline, brain atrophy and tau pathology, and hearing impairment may reflect the risk for cognitive decline and dementia as it is related to bran atrophy and tau accumulation in brain. However, it is necessary to assess the mechanism in future animal studies. FUNDING: A full list of funding bodies that supported this study can be found in the Acknowledgements section.

6.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 38(4): 317-321, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36414554

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effects of 5-tetradecanoxy 2-furanic acid (TOFA) on cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells. Methods: Eca-109 cells and KYSE-450 cells were divided into control group (DMSO) and experimental group (TOFA), respectively. The cells (4×103 cells/100 µl) were inoculated into 96-well plates with 5 multiple wells at each concentration. After 24 h culture, cells were treated with DMSO or different concentrations (1, 3, 5, 10 µg/ ml) of TOFA for 24, 48 and 72 h. Cell proliferation was detected by MTT, cell cycle and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry, the expression levels of p21 and Cleaved caspase-3 and modification levels of p-Akt, p-mTOR and p-4EBP1 were detected by Western blot, and intracellular free fatty acids were detected by special kits. Results: MTT results showed that TOFA inhibited the proliferation of Eca109 and KYSE-450 cells in a concentration and time dependent manner (all P<0.05), with IC50 of 4.65 µg/ml and 3.93 µg/ml for 48 h, respectively. Flow cytometry results showed that compared with DMSO group, the percentage of cells in G2/M phase was increased and the apoptosis rate was increased in the experimental group. Western blotting results showed that compared with DMSO group, p21 and Cleaved caspase-3 protein expression levels were up-regulated, and p-AKT, p-mTOR and p-4EBP1 protein expression levels were down-regulated (all P<0.05). Conclusion: TOFA inhibits the proliferation, blocks the cycle progression and promotes apoptosis of ESCC, the mechanism may be related to the AKT/mTOR/4EBP1 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago , Humanos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/patologia , Caspase 3 , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Dimetil Sulfóxido , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
7.
Nano Lett ; 22(22): 9013-9019, 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36326581

RESUMO

The spin-orbit interaction of light is a fundamental manifestation of controlling its angular momenta with numerous applications in photonic spin Hall effects and chiral quantum optics. However, observation of an optical spin Hall effect, which is normally very weak with subwavelength displacements, needs quantum weak measurements or sophisticated metasurfaces. Here, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate the spin-orbit interaction of light in the form of strong chiroptical responses by breaking the in-plane inversion symmetry of a dielectric substrate. The chiroptical signal is observed at the boundary of a microdisk illuminated by circularly polarized vortex beams at normal incidence. The generated chiroptical spectra are tunable for different photonic orbital angular momenta and microdisk diameters. Our findings, correlating photonic spin-orbit interaction with chiroptical responses, may provide a route for exploiting optical information processing, enantioselective sensing, and chiral metrology.

8.
Clin Kidney J ; 15(11): 2056-2062, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36320364

RESUMO

Background: Patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) are highly susceptible to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and its complications. Remdesivir has improved outcomes in COVID-19 patients but its use has been limited among ESKD patients due to insufficient data regarding safety outcomes. We sought to evaluate the safety of remdesivir among dialysis patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted among patients age ≥18 years on maintenance dialysis and hospitalized with COVID-19 between 1 May 2020 and 31 January 2021 within an integrated health system who were treated or not treated with remdesivir. The primary outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes were intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and transaminitis (AST/ALT >5× normal). Pseudo-populations were created using inverse probability of treatment weights with propensity scoring to balance patient characteristics among the two groups. Multivariable Poisson regression with robust error was performed to estimate 30-day mortality risk ratio. Results: A total of 486 (407 hemodialysis and 79 peritoneal dialysis) patients were hospitalized with COVID-19, among which 112 patients (23%) were treated with remdesivir [median treatment four days (interquartile range 2-5)]. The 30-day mortality rate was 24.1% among remdesivir-treated and 27.8% among non-treated patients. The estimated 30-day mortality rate was 0.74 (95% confidence interval 0.52-1.05) among remdesivir treated compared with non-treated patients. Liver injury and ICU admission rates were 1.8% and 14.3% among remdesivir-treated patients compared with 2.4% and 16% among non-treated patients. Conclusion: Among dialysis patients hospitalized with COVID-19, remdesivir was not associated with higher rates of liver injury or ICU admissions, and demonstrated a trend toward lower 30-day mortality.

9.
Front Chem ; 10: 897578, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36339034

RESUMO

Current treatment of Helicobacter pylori involves a triple therapy comprising one proton pump inhibitor and two other antibiotics; however, the outcomes are limited due to the existence of antibiotic resistant strains. We previously reported that moenomycin A, a cell-wall transglycosylase inhibitor, is highly active against multidrug-resistant Helicobacter pylori. Herein we show that combination of moenomycin A with the protein synthesis inhibitor clarithromycin or metronidazole can synergistically achieve almost 95% eradication of multidrug-resistant Helicobacter pylori. We also found that the moenomycin A-non-susceptible strains of Helicobacter pylori with deletion of transglycosylase exhibit moenomycin A hyposensitivity, faster growth and impaired biofilm formation compared to the parental strain. Overall, the combination of moenomycin A and clarithromycin or metronidazole to achieve a synergistic effect on different targets is a promising treatment for multidrug-resistant Helicobacter pylori.

10.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 424, 2022 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational age (GA) is associated with later cognition and behavior. However, it is unclear how specific cognitive domains and brain structural development varies with the stepwise change of gestational duration. METHODS: This large-scale longitudinal cohort study analyzed 11,878 early adolescents' brain volume maps at 9-10 years (baseline) and 5685 at 11-12 years (a 2-year follow-up) from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. According to gestational age, adolescents were divided into five categorical groups: ≤ 33 weeks, 34-35 weeks, 36 weeks, 37-39 weeks, and ≥ 40 weeks. The NIH Toolbox was used to estimate neurocognitive performance, including crystallized and fluid intelligence, which was measured for 11,878 adolescents at baseline with crystallized intelligence and relevant subscales obtained at 2-year follow-up (with participant numbers ranging from 6185 to 6310 depending on the cognitive domain). An additional large population-based cohort of 618,070 middle adolescents at ninth-grade (15-16 years) from the Danish national register was utilized to validate the association between gestational age and academic achievements. A linear mixed model was used to examine the group differences between gestational age and neurocognitive performance, school achievements, and grey matter volume. A mediation analysis was performed to examine whether brain structural volumes mediated the association between GA and neurocognition, followed with a longitudinal analysis to track the changes. RESULTS: Significant group differences were found in all neurocognitive scores, school achievements, and twenty-five cortical regional volumes (P < 0.05, Bonferroni corrected). Specifically, lower gestational ages were associated with graded lower cognition and school achievements and with smaller brain volumes of the fronto-parieto-temporal, fusiform, cingulate, insula, postcentral, hippocampal, thalamic, and pallidal regions. These lower brain volumes mediated the association between gestational age and cognitive function (P = 1 × 10-8, ß = 0.017, 95% CI: 0.007-0.028). Longitudinal analysis showed that compared to full term adolescents, preterm adolescents still had smaller brain volumes and crystallized intelligence scores at 11-12 years. CONCLUSIONS: These results emphasize the relationships between gestational age at birth and adolescents' lower brain volume, and lower cognitive and educational performance, measured many years later when 9-10 and 11-12 years old. The study indicates the importance of early screening and close follow-up for neurocognitive and behavioral development for children and adolescents born with gestational ages that are even a little lower than full term.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Lactente , Idade Gestacional , Estudos Longitudinais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cognição , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
11.
Front Mol Biosci ; 9: 1063551, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36339724

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fmolb.2022.864039.].

12.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277203, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36342937

RESUMO

To estimate the incidence of foodborne gastroenteritis caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica, Shigella, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in China, population surveys and sentinel hospital surveillance were implemented in six provinces from July 2010 to July 2011, and a multiplier calculation model for the burden of disease was constructed. The multiplier for salmonellosis and V. parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis was estimated at 4,137 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2,320-5,663], and for shigellosis at 4,356 (95% CI 2,443-5,963). Annual incidence per 100,000 population was estimated as 245 (95% CI 138-336), 67 (95% CI 38-92), and 806 (95% CI 452-1,103) for foodborne salmonellosis, shigellosis, and V. parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis, respectively, indicating that foodborne infection caused by these three pathogens constitutes an important burden to the Chinese healthcare system. Continuous implementation of active surveillance of foodborne diseases, combined with multiplier models to estimate disease burden, makes it possible for us to better understand food safety status in China.


Assuntos
Disenteria Bacilar , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Gastroenterite , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella , Infecções por Salmonella , Salmonella enterica , Shigella , Vibrio parahaemolyticus , Humanos , Disenteria Bacilar/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia
13.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 1020806, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36425098

RESUMO

Background: Hyperlactatemia is common in the intensive care unit (ICU) and relevant to prognosis, while the process of lactate normalization requires a relatively long period. We hypothesized that the dynamic change in base excess (BE) would be associated with ICU mortality and lactate clearance. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of adult patients with hyperlactatemia admitted to the ICU from 2016 to 2021. The patients were divided into two groups according to whether the peak BE in 12 h was reached in the first 6 h. We compared ICU mortality and lactate clearance at 6 and 12 h after ICU admission. Results: During the study period, 1,608 patients were admitted to the ICU with a lactate concentration of >2.0 mmol/L and stayed in the ICU for >24 h. The mortality rate was 11.2%. The patients were divided into two groups according to whether the peak BE was reached in the first 6 h following ICU admission: Peak BE12h ≤ 6h and Peak BE12h > 6h. The patients were also recorded as whether bicarbonate treatment was received (bicarbonate group, CRRT included) or not (non-bicarbonate group). Furthermore, lactic acid clearance patterns were identified by time-series clustering (TSC) using various algorithms and distance measures. We compared ICU mortality and lactate clearance at 6 and 12 h after ICU admission with logistic regression. After adjustment for other confounding factors, we found that Peak BE12h > 6h was independently associated with ICU mortality with an odds ratio of 2.231 (p = 0.036) in the bicarbonate group and 2.359 (p < 0.005) in the non-bicarbonate group. In addition, based on the definition of >10% lactate clearance at 6 h or >30% at 12 h, we found that Peak BE12h ≤ 6h had 85.2% sensitivity and 38.1% specificity for effective lactate clearance. In time-series clustering analysis, four categories were discriminated, and pattern of lactic acid clearance reveals the early prognostic value of BE in clearance of lactic acid. Conclusion: A prolonged time to reaching the peak BE was independently associated with ICU mortality. In patients with hyperlactatemia, Peak BE12h ≤ 6h could be used as an indicator to predict effective lactate clearance.

14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1025350, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36439135

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the safety and efficacy of vedolizumab for the prophylaxis and treatment of gastrointestinal involvement of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (GI-aGVHD). Methods: Literature search within PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library for observational studies and clinical trials that evaluated the effect of vedolizumab on GI-aGVHD was done through 17 May 2022. A bivariate and random-effect meta-analysis derived the pooled observational percentages and pooled risk ratios (RRs) from baseline of primary endpoints including overall response, complete response, mortality, and adverse events. Results: There was a total of 122 participants in eight eligible studies, including one study on the prophylactic use of vedolizumab and seven studies on vedolizumab for the treatment of GI-aGVHD. Of seven studies that reported details on baseline grades of GI-aGVHD, a total of 47 patients (47.95%) were of stage 4, 31 patients (31.63%) were of stage 3, 10 patients (10.2%) were of stage 2, and 10 patients (10.2%) were of stage 1. The use of vedolizumab for the treatment of GI-aGVHD yielded a significantly improved objective response rate (ORR) at 14 days (pooled ORR = 60.53%, pooled RR = 14.14, 95% CI: 2.95-67.71), 28 days (pooled ORR = 50%, RR = 7.36, 95% CI = 2.14-25.37), and 12 months (pooled ORR = 76.92%, RR = 13.66, 95% CI = 3.5-53.35) from baseline. Likewise, the use of vedolizumab was followed by a significantly improved complete response (CR) at 12 months (pooled CR = 27.27%, RR = 5.50, 95% CI = 1.01-29.95), yet the CR at 14 days and 28 days did not reach statistical significance. Fifty-seven out of 87 (pooled overall survival, OS = 34.5%) and 46 out of 65 (pooled OS = 29.2%) patients expired at 6 and 12 months after the use of vedolizumab, respectively. Prophylactic use of vedolizumab was not associated with any specific type of reported adverse events, while patients with GI-aGVHD on vedolizumab presented with significantly increased risks of adverse events including infections (RR = 7.55) and impaired metabolism or nutritional complications (RR = 9.00). All analyses were of a low heterogeneity (all I-squares = 0%). Conclusion: Vedolizumab was safe and effective for the prophylaxis and management of early grade GI-aGVHD. More clinical evidence is warranted to validate these findings. Systematic review registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=345584, identifier CRD42022345584.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Indução de Remissão
15.
Front Oncol ; 12: 963896, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36439487

RESUMO

Background: The interactions between tumor cells and the host immune system play a crucial role in lung cancer progression and resistance to treatment. The alterations of EGFR signaling have the potential to produce an ineffective tumor-associated immune microenvironment by upregulating a series of immune suppressors, including inhibitory immune checkpoints, immunosuppressive cells, and cytokines. Elevated Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) expression, one EGFR ligand correlated with higher histology grading, worse patient prognosis, and lower overall survival rate, acts as a chemotactic factor. However, the role of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) in the accumulation of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment remains unclear. Methods: The clinical association of HB-EGF expression in lung cancer was examined using the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository. HB-EGF expression in different cell types was determined using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) dataset. The correlation between HB-EGF expression and cancer-immune infiltrated cells was investigated by performing TIMER and ClueGo pathways analysis from TCGA database. The chemotaxis of HB-EGF and macrophage infiltration was investigated using migration and immunohistochemical staining. Results: The high HB-EGF expression was significantly correlated with poor overall survival in patients with lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) but not lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). Moreover, HB-EGF expression was correlated with the infiltration of monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells in LUAD but not in LUSC. Analysis of scRNA-seq data revealed high HB-EGF expression in lung cancer cells and myeloid cells. Results from the pathway analysis and cell-based experiment indicated that elevated HB-EGF expression was associated with the presence of macrophage and lung cancer cell migration. HB-EGF was highly expressed in tumors and correlated with M2 macrophage infiltration in LUAD. Conclusions: HB-EGF is a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target for lung cancer progression, particularly in LUAD.

16.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36442194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients rank among the highest levels of comorbidities compared to persons with other diseases. However, it is unclear whether the conditions are caused by shared pathophysiology due to the genetic pleiotropy for AD risk genes. OBJECTIVE: To figure out the genetic pleiotropy for AD risk genes in a wide range of diseases. METHODS: We estimated the polygenic risk score (PRS) for AD and tested the association between PRS and 16 ICD10 main chapters, 136 ICD10 level-1 chapters, and 377 diseases with cases more than 1,000 in 312,305 individuals without AD diagnosis from the UK Biobank. RESULTS: After correction for multiple testing, AD PRS was associated with two main ICD10 chapters: Chapter IV (endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases) and Chapter VII (eye and adnexa disorders). When narrowing the definition of the phenotypes, positive associations were observed between AD PRS and other types of dementia (OR = 1.39, 95% CI [1.34, 1.45], p = 1.96E-59) and other degenerative diseases of the nervous system (OR = 1.18, 95% CI [1.13, 1.24], p = 7.74E-10). In contrast, we detected negative associations between AD PRS and diabetes mellitus, obesity, chronic bronchitis, other retinal disorders, pancreas diseases, and cholecystitis without cholelithiasis (ORs range from 0.94 to 0.97, FDR <  0.05). CONCLUSION: Our study confirms several associations reported previously and finds some novel results, which extends the knowledge of genetic pleiotropy for AD in a range of diseases. Further mechanistic studies are necessary to illustrate the molecular mechanisms behind these associations.

17.
J Environ Manage ; 326(Pt B): 116780, 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36402014

RESUMO

Accurate reconstructions of past environments are critical and urgent because they can help understand how modern environments might respond to current climatic and land-use changes. However, the effect of microbial degradation and consequential modification in plant-derived-biomarkers during the early degradation phase is not yet apparent, that might bias the paleoenvironmental investigation. In this regard, a litterbag experiment was conducted to reveal the microbial effects on n-alkane-associated biomarker changes associated with three habitats (ravine, windward, and leeward) in a lowland subtropical rainforest in southern Taiwan. Freshly collected leaves of plant species Iles rotunda, Ficus benjamina, and Castanopsis carlesii were distributed in the habitat leaf litterbag experiment for 15 and 75 days incubation, respectively. The results revealed that the average leaf decomposition rate was 19.4% ± 6.4% during the first 15 days and 39% ± 11% within 75 days incubation for all leaves. The overall leaf mass degradation of I. rotunda, F. benjamina and C. carlesii in the ravine after 75 days was 58%, 51% and 41%, respectively, which were higher than those in the windward (28%, 36% and 38%) and leeward habitats (35%, 26% and 42%, respectively) indicating higher decomposition rate in the ravine habitat than the others. The predominant n-alkanes in I. rotunda were C31 and C29, whereas in F. benjamina these were C31, C29, and C33, and in C. carlesii it was C31. After 75 days, the ravine habitat showed a 60% decrease in the total n-alkane concentration compared to windward and leeward habitats, suggesting the microbial community associated with the ravine habitat has a higher efficiency of degrading n-alkanes. However, the biomarkers such as carbon preference index (CPI), average carbon length (ACL) and the C31/C29 ratio did not show statistical difference in all habitats from 15 to 75 days incubation. The next-generation sequencing revealed that microbial communities changed significantly from 15 to 75 days in all habitats. The alkB gene-containing bacteria and their family lineages increased substantially during the first 15 days incubation in all habitats. Furthermore, several bacterial genera were exclusively present in the ravine habitat, whereas some were only in the leeward and windward habitats. Despite the heterogeneity of microbial proliferation, difference in biomass and n-alkane degradation among the three habitats, most of the n-alkane-associated biomarkers remained the same. Therefore, we concluded that the microbial effects on n-alkane degradation during the early phase in plant leaves had little influence on the results of most n-alkane biomarkers.

18.
Nutrients ; 14(22)2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36432627

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical activity (PA) and dietary habits, and their impact on body weight changes during the Level 3 alert period that resulted in the lockdown in Taiwan. The study was conducted between 1 July 2021 and 15 July 2021, using a Google Forms online survey platform. Personal data, anthropometric information, PA information, and dietary habit information were collected before and during the alert period. Exactly 374 respondents, aged between 20 and 66, were included in the study. The results indicate that the lockdown during the alert period negatively impacted all levels of PA, including vigorous and moderate activities and walking. Additionally, respondents showed a sedentary lifestyle, with an increased daily sitting time of 22%. However, body weight and dietary behavior were not significantly affected, and some dietary questions achieved significant differences, including eating three meals less regularly, among others. During the pandemic, exercise was still one of the most important ways to maintain health; therefore, we hope to bring more attention to the prevention of sedentary lifestyles and dietary abnormalities in Taiwan during a pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Pandemias , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Exercício Físico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Peso Corporal , Dieta
19.
Gynecol Endocrinol ; : 1-13, 2022 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36437750

RESUMO

Objective: The effect of antioxidant supplements on glucose metabolism and lipid profiles in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) remains controversial. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate whether antioxidant supplements improve glucose metabolism and lipid profiles in women with PCOS to provide optimal nutritional supplement advice in clinical practice. Methods: The search was conducted across multiple medical databases from inception to January 1, 2022 and performed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A random effects model was used to calculate the overall effects. Results: Eighteen trials (1113 participants) were included. Antioxidant supplements significantly improved insulin resistance (95% CI, -0.62, -0.30; p < 0.00001; I2 =48%), fasting insulin (95% CI, -0.80, -0.44; p < 0.00001; I2 = 48%), and fasting plasma glucose (95% CI, -0.54, -0.21; p < 0.00001; I2 = 38%) in patients with PCOS. However, antioxidant supplements were found to not improve most indices of lipid profiles in PCOS except triglyceride. Conclusions: Antioxidant supplements are an effective intervention for relieving insulin resistance but do not significantly improve lipid metabolism in women with PCOS.

20.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 1014530, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36325463

RESUMO

Purpose: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. However, there is currently no consensual definition or diagnostic criteria for severe and different forms of leptospirosis. Therefore, more insight on clinical manifestations, risk factors, and outcomes of leptospirosis is warranted. The identification of leptospirosis with distinct clinical manifestations and prognosis in our population. Methods: Multiple correspondence analysis and hierarchical classification on principal components were presented to identify different clinical types of leptospirosis. The outcomes were clinical phenotypes, laboratory and imaging findings, and prognosis. Results: The 95 enrolled patients had median values of 54.0 years (39.0-65.0) for age, 9.0 (7.0-14.0) for total hospital stay lengths, of whom 86.3% was male and 40.0% was transferred to ICU. Three clinical types were distinguished: mild leptospirosis (n=43, 45.3%) with less organ dysfunction and shorter hospital stays; respiratory leptospirosis (n=28, 29.5%) with hemoptysis, and respiratory and circulatory failure; and hepato-renal leptospirosis (n=24, 25.3%) with worst liver and kidney dysfunction. Total hospital mortality was 15.8% and was associated with dyspnea and high levels of neutrophil counts. Conclusions: The identification of leptospirosis with distinct clinical manifestations and prognosis in our population may assist clinicians to distinguish leptospirosis-like disease. Moreover, dyspnea and neutrophil count were found to be independent risk factors for severe leptospirosis progression.


Assuntos
Leptospira , Leptospirose , Animais , Masculino , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Zoonoses , Dispneia/complicações
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