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1.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 3, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Family history has traditionally been an essential part of clinical care to assess health risks. However, declining sequencing costs have precipitated a shift towards genomics-first approaches in population screening programs rendering the value of family history unknown. We evaluated the utility of incorporating family history information for genomic sequencing selection. METHODS: To ascertain the relationship between family histories on such population-level initiatives, we analysed whole genome sequences of 1750 research participants with no known pre-existing conditions, of which half received comprehensive family history assessment of up to four generations, focusing on 95 cancer genes. RESULTS: Amongst the 1750 participants, 866 (49.5%) had high-quality standardised family history available. Within this group, 73 (8.4%) participants had an increased family history risk of cancer (increased FH risk cohort) and 1 in 7 participants (n = 10/73) carried a clinically actionable variant inferring a sixfold increase compared with 1 in 47 participants (n = 17/793) assessed at average family history cancer risk (average FH risk cohort) (p = 0.00001) and a sevenfold increase compared to 1 in 52 participants (n = 17/884) where family history was not available (FH not available cohort) (p = 0.00001). The enrichment was further pronounced (up to 18-fold) when assessing only the 25 cancer genes in the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) Secondary Findings (SF) genes. Furthermore, 63 (7.3%) participants had an increased family history cancer risk in the absence of an apparent clinically actionable variant. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that the collection and analysis of comprehensive family history and genomic data are complementary and in combination can prioritise individuals for genomic analysis. Thus, family history remains a critical component of health risk assessment, providing important actionable data when implementing genomics screening programs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02791152 . Retrospectively registered on May 31, 2016.

2.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 699: 108754, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450239

RESUMO

Drug resistance is one of the major challenges for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with sorafenib. Our present study found that sorafenib resistant (SR) HCC cells showed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) characteristics with the downregulation of epithelial marker and upregulation of mesenchymal makers. The expression of Snail, a core factor of EMT, was increased in HCC/SR cells, while knockdown of Snail can restore sorafenib sensitivity and EMT potential of HCC/SR cells. Further, the upregulation of protein stability was responsible for the upregulation of Snail in HCC/SR cells. ATM and CSN2, which can stabilize Snail protein, were increased in HCC/SR cells. Knockdown of ATM and CSN2 can suppress the expression of Snail and increase sorafenib sensitivity of HCC/SR cells. It indicated that targeted inhibition of Snail might be helpful to overcome sorafenib resistance of HCC patients.

3.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(2): 679-694, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394158

RESUMO

Phospholipases play vital roles in immune and inflammatory responses in mammals and plants; however, knowledge of phospholipase functions in fungi is limited. In this study, we investigated the effects of deleting predicted phospholipase genes on cellulase and xylanase production, and morphological phenotype, in Penicillium oxalicum. Individual deletion of nine of the ten predicted phospholipase genes resulted in alteration of cellulase and xylanase production, and the morphological phenotypes, to various degrees. The mutant ∆POX07277 lost 22.5 to 82.8% of cellulase (i.e., filter paper cellulase, carboxymethylcellulase, and p-nitrophenyl-ß-cellobiosidase) and xylanase production, whereas p-nitrophenyl-ß-glucopyranosidase production increased by 5.8-127.8 fold. POX07277 (P. oxalicum gene No. 07277) was predicted to encode phospholipase A2 and was found to negatively affect the sporulation of P. oxalicum. Comparative transcriptomic and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis indicated that POX07277 dynamically affected the expression of cellulase and xylanase genes and the regulatory genes for fungal sporulation, under micro-crystalline cellulose induction. POX07277 was required for the expression of the known regulatory gene PoxCxrB (cellulolytic and xylanolytic regulator B in P. oxalicum), which is involved in cellulase and xylanase gene expression in P. oxalicum. Conversely, POX07277 expression was regulated by PoxCxrB. These findings will aid the understanding of phospholipase functions and provide novel insights into the mechanism of fungal cellulase and xylanase gene expression. KEY POINTS : • The roles of phospholipases were investigated in Penicillium oxalicum. • POX07277 (PLA2) is required for the expression of cellulase and xylanase genes. • PoxCxrB dynamically regulated POX07277 expression.

4.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(2): 661-678, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33409610

RESUMO

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are broadly conserved and play essential roles in multiple cellular processes, including fungal development, pathogenicity, and secondary metabolism. Their function, however, also exhibits species and strain specificity. Penicillium oxalicum secretes plant-biomass-degrading enzymes (PBDEs) that contribute to the carbon cycle in the natural environment and to utilization of lignocellulose in industrial processes. However, knowledge of the MAPK pathway in P. oxalicum has been relatively limited. In this study, comparative transcriptomic analysis of P. oxalicum, cultured on different carbon sources, found ten putative kinase genes with significantly modified transcriptional levels. Six of these putative kinase genes were knocked out in the parental strain ∆PoxKu70, and deletion of the gene, Fus3/Kss1-like PoxMK1 (POX00158), resulted in the largest reduction (91.1%) in filter paper cellulase production. Further tests revealed that the mutant ∆PoxMK1 lost 37.1 to 92.2% of PBDE production, under both submerged- and solid-state fermentation conditions, compared with ∆PoxKu70. In addition, the mutant ∆PoxMK1 had reduced vegetative growth and increased pigment biosynthesis. Comparative transcriptomic analysis showed that PoxMK1 deletion from P. oxalicum downregulated the expression of major PBDE genes and known regulatory genes such as PoxClrB and PoxCxrB, whereas the transcription of pigment biosynthesis-related genes was upregulated. Comparative phosphoproteomic analysis revealed that PoxMK1 deletion considerably modified phosphorylation of key transcription- and signal transduction-associated proteins, including transcription factors Mcm1 and Atf1, RNA polymerase II subunits Rpb1 and Rpb9, MAPK-associated Hog1 and Ste7, and cyclin-dependent kinase Kin28. These findings provide novel insights into understanding signal transduction and regulation of PBDE gene expression in fungi.Key points• PoxMK1 is involved in expression of PBDE- and pigment synthesis-related genes.• PoxMK1 is required for vegetative growth of P. oxalicum.• PoxMK1 is involved in phosphorylation of key TFs, kinases, and RNA polymerase II.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439104

RESUMO

Despite the availability of various diagnostic tests for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), misdiagnosis of IBD occurs frequently, and thus there is a clinical need to further improve the diagnosis of IBD. As gut dysbiosis is reported in IBD patients, we hypothesized that supervised machine learning (ML) could be used to analyze gut microbiome data for predictive diagnostics of IBD. To test our hypothesis, fecal 16S metagenomic data of 729 IBD and 700 non-IBD subjects from the American Gut Project were analyzed using five different ML algorithms. Fifty differential bacterial taxa were identified (LEfSe: LDA > 3) between the IBD and non-IBD groups, and ML classifications trained with these taxonomic features using random forest (RF) achieved a testing AUC of ~0.80. Next, we tested if operational taxonomic units (OTUs), instead of bacterial taxa, could be used as ML features for diagnostic classification of IBD. Top 500 high-variance OTUs were used for ML training and an improved testing AUC of ~0.82 (RF) was achieved. Lastly, we tested if supervised ML could be used for differentiating Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Using 331 CD and 141 UC samples, 117 differential bacterial taxa (LEfSe: LDA > 3) were identified, and the RF model trained with differential taxonomic features or high-variance OTU features achieved a testing AUC > 0.90. In summary, our study demonstrates the promising potential of artificial intelligence via supervised ML modeling for predictive diagnostics of IBD using gut microbiome data.

6.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398654

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd), a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, has neurotoxicity to humans and animals. Quercetin (QE), the main component of flavonoids, has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, little is reported about the influence of Cd exposure on necroptosis in the chicken brain and the antagonistic impacts of QE against Cd-induced brain necroptosis. The aim of this study was to ascertain the alleviative mechanism of QE on Cd-induced necroptosis in the chicken brain. Two hundred 3.5-month-old Isa hens were randomly divided into four groups, control group, QE group, Cd group, and Cd + QE co-administration group. The histopathological analysis indicated that necrosis features were observed in the Cd-intoxicated chicken brains. Meanwhile, the expression levels of RIPK1, RIPK3, and MLKL were elevated and the level of Caspase 8 was reduced in the Cd group, which further testified Cd triggered the occurrence of necroptosis in the chicken brain. Cd exposure obviously increased Cd accumulation, ROS generation, and MDA level; weakened the activities of antioxidase (SOD, GPx, and CAT); enhanced iNOS activity and NO production; promoted the expression of inflammatory factors (NF-κB, TNFα, COX-2, iNOS, PTGEs, and IL-1ß); and activated HSPs (HSP27, HSP40, HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90). But, these Cd-caused variations were obviously attenuated in the Cd + QE group. This study indicated that QE had an alleviative effect on Cd-induced necroptosis in the chicken brain through inhibition ROS/iNOS/NF-κB pathway.

7.
Anticancer Drugs ; 32(2): 127-137, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417325

RESUMO

Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors. MicroRNA-196b (miR-196b) has been demonstrated to play important roles in human cancers. However, its functions in gastric cancer progression were still largely unknown. In this study, the expression of miR-196b was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Esophageal cancer-related gene 4 (ECRG4) level was examined by western blot assay and immunohistochemistry staining assay. Cell proliferation was evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and colony formation assay. Cell migration and invasion were analyzed by transwell assay. The association between miR-196b and ECRG4 was analyzed by dual-luciferase reporter assay. The functional role of miR-196b in vivo was analyzed by murine xenograft assay. As a result, we found the expression of miR-196b was elevated and the protein expression of ECRG4 was reduced in gastric cancer tissues and cells. MiR-196b inhibition suppressed gastric cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. ECRG4 was a target of miR-196b and its protein expression was negatively regulated by miR-196b. Moreover, ECRG4 overexpression showed similar effects with miR-196b inhibition on the malignant behaviors of GC cells and ECRG4 knockdown reversed the effects of miR-196b inhibition on gastric cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. In addition, miR-196b inhibition suppressed tumor volume and weight in vivo. In conclusion, downregulation of miR-196b inhibited gastric cancer progression by modulating ECRG4 expression, indicating that miR-196b might be a potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer.

8.
Drug Deliv ; 28(1): 37-53, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33336610

RESUMO

Some cancers such as human breast cancer, prostate cancer, and lung cancer easily metastasize to bone, leading to osteolysis and bone destruction accompanied by a complicated microenvironment. Systemic administration of bisphosphonates (BP) or denosumab is the routine therapy for osteolysis but with non-negligible side effects such as mandibular osteonecrosis and hypocalcemia. Thus, it is imperative to exploit optimized drug delivery systems, and some novel nanotechnology and nanomaterials have opened new horizons for scientists. Targeted and local drug delivery systems can optimize biodistribution depending on nanoparticles (NPs) or microspheres (MS) and implantable biomaterials with the controllable property. Drug delivery kinetics can be optimized by smart and sustained/local drug delivery systems for responsive delivery and sustained delivery. These delicately fabricated drug delivery systems with special matrix, structure, morphology, and modification can minimize unexpected toxicity caused by systemic delivery and achieve desired effects through integrating multiple drugs or multiple functions. This review summarized recent studies about optimized drug delivery systems for the treatment of cancer metastatic osteolysis, aimed at giving some inspiration in designing efficient multifunctional drug delivery systems.

9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2254: 305-321, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326084

RESUMO

The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been widely used as an efficient genome-editing tool for studying physiological functions of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). In this chapter, we describe the experimental procedures for using the CRISPR/Cas9 system to genetically modify a long noncoding RNA in vivo through the targeted disruption and knockin approaches.

10.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 413(2): 585-597, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184759

RESUMO

The toxic protein of ricin has drawn wide attention in recent years as a potential bioterrorism agent due to its high toxicity and wide availability. For the verification of the potential anti-terrorism activities, it is urgent for the quantification of ricin in food-related matrices. Here, a novel strategy of trypsin/Glu-C tandem digestion was introduced for quantitative detection of ricin marker peptides in several beverage matrices using isotope-labeled internal standard (IS)-mass spectrometry. The ricin in beverages was captured and enriched by biotinylated anti-ricin polyclonal antibodies conjugated to streptavidin magnetic beads. The purified ricin was cleaved using the developed trypsin/Glu-C tandem digestion method and then quantitatively detected by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) with isotope-labeled T7A and TG11B selected as IS. The use of trypsin/Glu-C digestion allows shorter peptides, which are more suitable for MS detection, to be obtained than the use of single trypsin digestion. Under the optimized tandem digestion condition, except for T7A in the A-chain, two resulting specific peptides of TG13A, TG28A from the A-chain and two of TG11B, TG33B from the B-chain were chosen as novel marker peptides with high MS response. The uniqueness of the selected marker peptides allows for unambiguous identification of ricin among its homologous proteins in a single run. The MS response of the four novel marker peptides is increased by more than 10 times compared with that of individual corresponding tryptic peptides. Both the marker peptides of A-chain T7A and B-chain TG11B were selected as quantitative peptides based on the highest MS response among the marker peptides from their individual chains. The limit of detection (LOD) of ricin is 0.1 ng/mL in PBS and 0.5 ng/mL in either milk or orange juice. The linear range of calibration curves for ricin were 0.5-300 ng/mL in PBS, 1.0-400 ng/mL in milk, and 1.0-250 ng/mL in orange juice. The method accuracy ranged between 82.6 and 101.8% for PBS, 88.9-105.2% for milk, and 95.3-118.7% for orange juice. The intra-day and inter-day precision had relative standard deviations (%RSD) of 0.3-9.4%, 0.7-8.9%, and 0.2-6.9% in the three matrices respectively. Furthermore, whether T7A or TG11B is used as a quantitative peptide, the quantitative results of ricin are consistent. This study provides not only a practical method for the absolute quantification of ricin in beverage matrices but also a new strategy for the investigation of illegal use of ricin in chemical weapon verification tasks such as OPCW biotoxin sample analysis exercises.

11.
Mol Med Rep ; 23(1)2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179079

RESUMO

SH3 domain­containing kinase­binding protein 1 (CIN85), an 85 kDa protein known to be a member of the signal adaptor family, is abnormally expressed in several human malignancies and has been found to be involved in the growth, migration and invasion of these tumors. The objective of the present study was to clarify the clinical significance of CIN85 in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), as well as its in vitro functions. CIN85 expression was evaluated in 129 cases of ESCC and its adjacent normal tissues using immunohistochemistry to explore its clinical relevance and prognostic value. The functions of CIN85 in the ESCC TE1 cell line were analyzed in vitro using the interfering short hairpin RNA silencing technique. MTS, wound healing, clone formation and Transwell assays were used to detect the proliferation, migration and invasion of ESCC cells. CIN85 expression was identified mainly in ESCCs and their adjacent normal tissues, and the high expression of CIN85 was significantly associated with advanced Tumor Node Metastasis stage and lymph node metastasis. CIN85 gene silencing significantly inhibited TE1 cell proliferation, migration and invasion. These results demonstrated that CIN85 was highly expressed in advanced stage ESCC and lymph node metastasis, and played a critical role in tumor proliferation and progression. Therefore, CIN85 may be a promising therapeutic target for human ESCC.

12.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(12)2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33291756

RESUMO

Diagnosis of ovarian cancer is difficult due to the lack of clinical symptoms and effective screening algorithms. In this study, we aim to develop models for ovarian cancer diagnosis by detecting metabolites in urine and plasma samples. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) in positive ion mode was used for metabolome quantification in 235 urine samples and 331 plasma samples. Then, Urine and plasma metabolomic profiles were analyzed by univariate and multivariate statistics. Four groups of samples: normal control, benign, borderline and malignant ovarian tumors were enrolled in this study. A total of 1330 features and 1302 features were detected from urine and plasma samples respectively. Based on two urine putative metabolites, five plasma putative metabolites and five urine putative metabolites, three models for distinguishing normal-ovarian tumors, benign-malignant (borderline + malignant) and borderline-malignant ovarian tumors were developed respectively. The AUC (Area Under Curve) values were 0.987, 0876 and 0.943 in discovery set and 0.984, 0.896 and 0.836 in validation set for three models. Specially, the diagnostic model based on 5 plasma putative metabolites had better early-stage diagnosis performance than CA125 alone. The AUC values of the model were 0.847 and 0.988 in discovery and validation set respectively. Our results showed that normal and ovarian tumors have unique metabolic signature in urine and plasma samples, which shed light on the ovarian cancer diagnosis and classification.

13.
Biotechnol Biofuels ; 13(1): 187, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Application of raw starch-degrading enzymes (RSDEs) in starch processing for biofuel production can effectively reduce energy consumption and processing costs. RSDEs are generally produced by filamentous fungi, such as Penicillium oxalicum, but with very low yields, which seriously hampers industrialization of raw starch processing. Breeding assisted by random mutagenesis is an efficient way to improve fungal enzyme production. RESULTS: A total of 3532 P. oxalicum colonies were generated after multiple rounds of mutagenesis, by atmospheric and room-temperature plasma (ARTP) and/or ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). Of these, one mutant A2-13 had the highest RSDE activity of 162.7 U/mL, using raw cassava flour as substrate, a yield increase of 61.1%, compared with that of the starting strain, OXPoxGA15A. RSDE activity of A2-13 further increased to 191.0 U/mL, through optimization of culture conditions. Increased expression of major amylase genes, including the raw starch-degrading glucoamylase gene, PoxGA15A, and its regulatory gene, PoxAmyR, as well as several single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the A2-13 genome, were detected by real-time reverse transcription quantitative PCR and genomic re-sequencing, respectively. In addition, crude RSDEs produced by A2-13, combined with commercial α-amylase, could efficiently digest raw corn flour and cassava flour at 40 °C. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, ARTP/EMS-combined mutagenesis effectively improved fungal RSDE yield. An RSDE-hyperproducing mutant, A2-13, was obtained, and its RSDEs could efficiently hydrolyze raw starch, in combination with commercial α-amylase at low temperature, which provides a useful RSDE resource for future starch processing.

14.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 132: 110915, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254433

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies showed that the metabolic syndromes (MetS) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are responsible for a serious threat to human health worldwide. MetS is a syndromes characterized by fat metabolism disorder, obesity, diabetes, insulin resistance and other risk factors, which increases the risk of CVDs initiation and development. Although certain drugs play a role in lowering blood sugar and lipid, some side effects also occur. Considering the multiple pathogenesis, a great deal of natural products have been attempted to treat metabolic syndromes. Ginsenosides, as the active components isolated from Panax ginseng C.A.Mey, have been reported to have therapeutic effects on MetS and CVDs, of which pharmacological mechanisms were further studied as well. This review aims to systematically summarize current pharmacological effects of ginsenosides on MetS and CVDs, potential mechanisms and clinic trials, which will greatly contribute to the development of potential agents for related disease treatment.

15.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(11): 1006, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230188

RESUMO

A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03208-z.

16.
Front Neurosci ; 14: 559077, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33192246

RESUMO

Cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain (BF) have long been considered to be the key neurons in the regulation of cortical and behavioral arousal, and cholinergic activation in the downstream region of the BF can arouse anesthetized rats. However, whether the activation of BF cholinergic neurons can induce behavior and electroencephalogram (EEG) recovery from anesthesia is unclear. In this study, based on a transgenic mouse line expressing ChAT-IRES-Cre, we applied a fiber photometry system combined with GCaMPs expression in the BF and found that both isoflurane and propofol inhibit the activity of BF cholinergic neurons, which is closely related to the consciousness transition. We further revealed that genetic lesion of BF cholinergic neurons was associated with a markedly increased potency of anesthetics, while designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD)-activated BF cholinergic neurons was responsible for slower induction and faster recovery of anesthesia. We also documented a significant increase in δ power bands (1-4 Hz) and a decrease in ß (12-25 Hz) power bands in BF cholinergic lesioned mice, while there was a clearly noticeable decline in EEG δ power of activated BF cholinergic neurons. Moreover, sensitivity to anesthetics was reduced after optical stimulation of BF cholinergic cells, yet it failed to restore wake-like behavior in constantly anesthetized mice. Our results indicate a functional role of BF cholinergic neurons in the regulation of general anesthesia. Inhibition of BF cholinergic neurons mediates the formation of unconsciousness induced by general anesthetics, and their activation promotes recovery from the anesthesia state.

17.
Ir J Med Sci ; 2020 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maxillofacial space infection (MSI) experience review is beneficial for its management. AIM: To identify potential risk factors predisposing to the exacerbation of MSI and a prolonged length of stay (LOS). METHODS: We performed a comprehensive retrospective review of medical records of 222 MSI patients admitted in Center of Stomatology during 1993-2019. RESULTS: About 63.5% of 222 patients had an odontogenic infection, and submandibular space was the most involved space. Streptococcus spp. was the most common organism isolated (72.4%). Multiple-space cases had more systemic diseases, respiratory difficulty, and life-threatening complications and exhibited worse clinical characteristics (higher white-blood-cell-count, higher body temperature, and restricted mouth opening) than single-space cases (P < 0.05). No significant difference in LOS was found between multiple-space cases and single-space cases. Diabetes and hypertension both accounted for 35.1% in life-threatening cases. Multiple-space infection (60.4%), respiratory difficulty (11.7%), and systemic conditions (43.2%) were identified as critical risk factors associated with life-threatening complications in MSI patients (P < 0.001). A significantly prolonged LOS was found in cases aged ≥ 60 years or with systemic diseases. Community outpatient treatment shortened 1.9 days of LOS compared with self-medication before admission during 2010-2019 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Comprehensive managements are advisable for MSI patients with multiple-space infection, respiratory difficulty, systemic diseases to avoid disseminated exacerbation, and occurrence of life-threatening complications. Community outpatient treatment was beneficial to a reduced LOS. Timely access to dental outpatient management and simultaneously steady control of diabetes and hypertension was advocated. Improved coverage of insured dental outpatient treatment should be stressed.

18.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217142

RESUMO

Increasing the targeting ability of antifungal proteins towards specific components of fungal cells has the potential to improve their antifungal activity and reduce harmful effects to nontarget cells. To obtain effective disease resistance genes against cotton Verticillium wilt, we constructed several fusion genes, in which binding domains targeting chitin, sphingolipid or ergosterol in the fungal cell wall or cell membrane were individually fused to the antifungal peptide BbAFP1 from entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. Transient expression of fusion genes in cotton cotyledons indicated that the BbAFP1::ErBD fusion peptide with an ergosterol binding domain exhibited better disease resistance against V. dahliae than wild-type BbAFP1 and other fusion genes. BbAFP1::ErBD and BbAFP1 transgenic cotton were obtained and verified by Southern and Western blotting. Compared with BbAFP1-expressing cotton, BbAFP1::ErBD-expressing cotton showed higher disease resistance against V. dahliae, with smaller lesion areas (0.07 cm2 vs. 0.16 cm2 ) on the leaves and a lower disease index (23.9 vs. 34.5). Overexpression of BbAFP1::ErBD by transgenic tobacco also showed enhanced disease resistance against V. dahliae compared with that of the wild-type gene. These results indicated that construction of fusion antifungal peptides that target fungal cells is a powerful strategy to obtain new anti-disease genes, and the obtained fusion gene BbAFP1::ErBD has the potential to defend against plant fungal diseases.

19.
Molecules ; 25(22)2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218007

RESUMO

A series of novel synthetic substituted benzo[d]oxazole-based derivatives (5a-5v) exerted neuroprotective effects on ß-amyloid (Aß)-induced PC12 cells as a potential approach for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In vitro studies show that most of the synthesized compounds were potent in reducing the neurotoxicity of Aß25-35-induced PC12 cells at 5 µg/mL. We found that compound 5c was non-neurotoxic at 30 µg/mL and significantly increased the viability of Aß25-35-induced PC12 cells at 1.25, 2.5 and 5 µg/mL. Western blot analysis showed that compound 5c promoted the phosphorylation of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3ß) and decreased the expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in Aß25-35-induced PC12 cells. In addition, our findings demonstrated that compound 5c protected PC12 cells from Aß25-35-induced apoptosis and reduced the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, and decreased the expression of receptor for AGE (RAGE), ß-site amyloid precursor protein (APP)-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and Bcl-2-associated X protein/B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bax/Bcl-2) via Akt/GSK-3ß/NF-κB signaling pathway. In vivo studies suggest that compound 5c shows less toxicity than donepezil in the heart and nervous system of zebrafish.

20.
Biosci Rep ; 40(11)2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141168

RESUMO

Tumor mutation burden (TMB) is an essential biomarker to predict immunotherapy response. TMB measurement was mainly evaluated by whole-exome sequencing (WES), which was costly and difficult to be widely applied. In the present study, we aimed to establish and validate a miRNA signature to predict TMB level in endometrial cancer using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. MiRNA expression and somatic mutation profiles of uterine corpus endometrial carcinoma (UCEC) were downloaded from TCGA database. Total 518 patients with UCEC were randomly classified into training set (n=311) and validation set (n=207). Thirty-five differentially expressed miRNAs between high-TMB and low-TMB group were identified in training set. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) method was performed to select out 26 miRNAs to establish the optimal signature. The accuracy of the miRNA signature for predicting TMB level was 0.833 for training set, 0.749 for validation set and 0.799 for total set. Moreover, the miRNA signature had significant correlation with immune checkpoints related genes (PD-1, PD-L1, CTLA-4) and mismatch repair related genes (BRCA1, BRCA2, MLH1, MSH6) expression. In conclusion, this miRNA signature could predict TMB level in endometrial cancer and might have some merits in providing guidance for immunotherapy in endometrial cancer.

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