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1.
J Exp Bot ; 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825878

RESUMO

Soybean has undergone extensive selection pressures for seed nutrient compositions and seed color during domestication, but the major genetic loci controlling seed coat color have not been completely understood, and the transcriptional regulation relationship among the loci remains elusive. Here, two major regulators, GmMYBA2 and GmMYBR, were functionally characterized as anthocyanin activator and repressor, respectively. Ectopic expression of GmMYBA2 in soybean hairy roots conferred the enhanced accumulation of delphinidin- and cyanidin-types of anthocyanins in W1t and w1T backgrounds, respectively, through activating anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in the reported loci. The seed coat pigmentation of GmMYBA2-OE transgenic plants in W1 background mimicked the imperfect black phenotype (W1/w1, i, R, t), suggesting that GmMYBA2 was responsible for R locus. Molecular and biochemical analysis showed that GmMYBA2 interacted with GmTT8a to directly activate anthocyanin biosynthetic genes. GmMYBA2 and GmMYBR might form a feedback loop to fine-tune seed coat coloration, which was confirmed in transgenic soybeans. Both GmTT8a and GmMYBR that were activated by GmMYBA2 in turn enhanced and obstructed the formation of GmMYBA2-GmTT8a module, respectively. The results revealed the sophisticated regulatory network underlying the soybean seed coat pigmentation loci and shed light on the understanding of the seed coat coloration and other seed inclusions.

2.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compared to adult studies, studies which involve the treatment of pediatric congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) are limited and no universal treatment regimen is available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)/human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) therapy for treating male adolescents with CHH. METHODS: Male adolescent CHH patients were treated with hCG/hMG (n = 20) or a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pump (n = 21). The treatment was divided into a study phase (0-3 months) and a follow-up phase (3-12 months). The testicular volume (TV), penile length (PL), penis diameter (PD), and sex hormone levels were compared between the two groups. The TV and other indicators between the groups were analyzed using a t-test (equal variance) or a rank sum test (unequal variance). RESULTS: Before treatment, there was no statistical difference between the two groups in terms of the biochemistry, hormones, and other demographic indicators. After 3 months of treatment, the TV of the hCG/hMG and GnRH groups increased to 5.1 ±â€Š2.3 mL and 4.1 ±â€Š1.8 mL, respectively; however, the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05, t = 1.394). The PL reached 6.9 ±â€Š1.8 cm and 5.1 ±â€Š1.6 cm (P < 0.05, t = 3.083), the PD reached 2.4 ±â€Š0.5 cm and 2.0 ±â€Š0.6 cm (P < 0.05, t = 2.224), respectively, in the two groups. At the end of 6 months of treatment, biomarkers were in normal range in the two groups. Compared with the GnRH group, the testosterone (T) level and growth of PL and PD were significantly greater in the hCG/hMG group (all P < 0.05). While the TV of both groups increased, the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05, t = 0.314). After 9 to 12 months of treatment, the T level was higher in the hCG/hMG group. Other parameters did not exhibit a statistical difference. CONCLUSIONS: The hCG/hMG regimen is feasible and effective for treating male adolescents with CHH. The initial 3 months of treatment may be a window to optimally observe the strongest effects of therapy. Furthermore, results from the extended time-period showed positive outcomes at the 1-year mark; however, the long-term effectiveness, strengths, and weaknesses of the hCG/hMG regimen require further research. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02880280; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02880280.

3.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abnormal hyperphosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein tau plays a pivotal role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We previously found that O-GlcNAcylation inversely correlates to hyperphosphorylation of tau in AD brain, and downregulation of brain O-GlcNAcylation promotes tau hyperphosphorylation and AD-like neurodegeneration in mice. OBJECTIVE: Herein we investigated the effect of increasing O-GlcNAcylation by using intermittent dosing with low doses of a potent novel O-GlcNAcase (OGA) inhibitor on AD-like brain changes and cognitive function in a mouse model of sporadic AD (sAD) induced by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of streptozotocin (STZ). METHODS: STZ was injected into the lateral ventricle of C57BL/6J mice. From the second day, Thiamme2-G (TM2G) or saline, as a vehicle control, was orally administered to the ICV-STZ mice three times per week for five weeks. A separate group of ICV-saline mice treated with saline was used as a baseline control. Behavioral tests, including open field and novel object recognition, were conducted three weeks after the first dose of the TM2G or saline. Protein O-GlcNAcylation, tau hyperphosphorylation, synaptic proteins, and neuroinflammation in the mouse brain were assessed by western blotting. RESULTS: ICV-STZ caused decreased protein O-GlcNAcylation. Enhancement of O-GlcNAcylation to moderate levels by using low-dose OGA inhibitor in ICV-STZ mice prevented STZ-induced body weight loss, rescued cognitive impairments, and restored AD-like pathologies, including hyperphosphorylation of tau and abnormalities in synaptic proteins and neuroinflammation. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that moderately increasing protein O-GlcNAcylation by using low doses of OGA inhibitor may be a suitable therapeutic strategy for sAD.

4.
Environ Int ; 152: 106495, 2021 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730632

RESUMO

Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have been increasingly and widely utilized in various fields, such as agriculture, food and cosmetics. However, various levels of adverse impacts of ZnO NPs on the ecological environment and public health have been associated with each stage of their production, use and disposal. ZnO NPs can be ingested by pregnant women and transferred to developing embryos/foetus through the placental barrier, however, the potential toxicity of ZnO NPs to embryonic and foetal development is largely unclear. In this study, we discovered that ZnO NPs exposure caused growth proportional failure of neural tube closure in mouse and chicken embryos and a simultaneous increase in apoptosis in the developing neural tubes of chicken embryos, which was verified in an in vitro experiment using the SH-SY5Y cell line. Furthermore, removal of free Zn2+ ions with EDTA or inhibition of Zn2+ ion absorption by CaCl2 partially alleviated the neurotoxicity induced by ZnO NPs, implying that ZnO NPs-induced developmental neurotoxicity is probably due to both ZnO NPs and the Zn2+ ions released from ZnO NPs. In addition, we found that ZnO NPs exposure caused endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis driven mainly by an increase in intracellular calcium (Ca2+) concentrations, rather than by the activation of three membrane protein receptors (ATF6, IRE-1 and PERK). Thus, Ca2+ imbalance-mediated apoptosis in the context of ZnO NPs exposure may lead to cellular dysfunctions in developing neural precursors, such as, abnormalities involved in neural tube closure, ultimately leading to neural tube defects (NTDs) during embryogenesis. In sum, our results revealed that ZnO NPs exposure greatly increases the risk of failure of neural tube closure through endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated neural cell death in the developing embryos, which may further lead to the NTD in fetal stage, including failure of neural tube closure.

5.
Cancer Gene Ther ; 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712707

RESUMO

Tumors are one of the main causes of death in humans. The development of safe and effective methods for early diagnosis and treatment of tumors is a difficult problem that needs to be solved urgently. It is well established that the occurrence of tumors involves complex biological mechanisms, and the tumor microenvironment (TME) plays an important role in regulating the biological behavior of tumors. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a group of activated fibroblasts with significant heterogeneity and plasticity in the tumor microenvironment. They secrete a variety of active factors to regulate tumor occurrence, development, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance. Although most studies suggest that CAFs have significant tumor-promoting functions, some evidence indicates that they may have certain tumor-suppressive functions in the early stage of tumors. Current research on CAFs continues to face many challenges, and the heterogeneity of their origin, phenotype, and function is a major difficulty and hot spot. To provide new perspectives for the research on CAFs and tumor diagnosis and treatment, this review summarizes the definition, origin, biomarkers, generation mechanism, functions, heterogeneity, plasticity, subpopulations, pre-metastasis niches (PMN), immune microenvironment, and targeted therapy of CAFs, describes the research progress and challenges, and proposes possible future research directions based on existing reports.

6.
Vaccine ; 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775439

RESUMO

Infections due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) are becoming a serious threat to patients in intensive care units. A PA vaccine is a practical and economical solution to solve the problems caused by PA infection successfully. In recent years, several antigen candidates have been tested in animal and human clinical trials, but none of them has been approved to date. An alternative strategy for antigen screening and protective antigens is in urgent demand. In this study, we generated a genome-wide library of PA protein fragments tagged with maltose-binding protein (MBP). Using sera from patients who recovered after PA infection, we identified a novel protective antigen, FlgE, which is the structural component of the flagella hook. Vaccination with recombinant FlgE (reFlgE) induced a Th2-predominant immune response and reduced bacterial load and inflammation in PA-infected mice. Anti-reFlgE antibodies recognized native FlgE on the bacterial membrane in vitro and conferred protection in mice, which may be due to the mediation of opsonophagocytic killing and inhibition of bacterial motility. In addition, the combination of reFlgE with rePcrVNH, an engineered antigen we reported previously, provided elevated protection against PA infection. Our data demonstrate that FlgE is a promising vaccine candidate for PA and provide a new strategy for the efficient screening of antigens of other pathogens.

7.
Endocr Pract ; 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705970

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome (EAS) is a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome, and diagnosis and management remain challenging. The aim of this study was to present the clinical spectrum of a group of EAS cases in a single center to explore better management strategies. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted to identify 88 confirmed EAS cases at our hospital from 1984 to 2019. The clinical, biochemical, imaging and pathological features were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 88 eligible EAS patients, 38 (43.2%) cases of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and a larger number of thymic/mediastinal NETs (29 cases, 33%) were identified. The clinical and biological features of EAS and Cushing's disease (CD) overlapped but were more severe in EAS. Inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS, 97.4%) and computed tomography (CT, 85.4%) provided the highest positive diagnostic accuracy. CT is also a useful tool to identify tumors in chest cavity compared with non-chest lesions (91.2% vs 57.1%). Although a greater tumor size (4.54 cm vs 1.44 cm) and higher rate of unsuppressible high-dose dexamethasone suppression test (83.3% vs 51.5%) were found in thymic/mediastinum NETs than in pulmonary NETs, the level of hormone production had no difference. CONCLUSIONS: EAS had more common and severe clinical presentations than CD, and multiple imaging approaches are required for reliable diagnosis. A higher rate of thymic/mediastinal NETs were found in our study. For patients without a certain tumor source, long-term follow-up and further evaluations are needed.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682343

RESUMO

The benefits and long-term effects of extracurricular scientific research on undergraduate students in many countries have been intensively investigated, but it remains obscure for Chinese medical students. In this study, we investigated the outcome of 60 medical students who have participated in extracurricular scientific research at Jinan University Medical School over a period of 7 years (2011-2018). The results revealed that these students have contributed to 31 biomedical science articles in reputable academic journals, as first- or co-authors. Furthermore, they also independently procured various funding based on their research achievements, and smaller awards for achievements in conferences and competitions. Assessment of the grade point average score of these students revealed that conducting extracurricular scientific research did not affect their routine medical study and exam grades (P>0.05). The students benefited from participating in extracurricular research, by acquiring the ability to think scientifically and enhancing their communication skills. In addition, the medical students were motivated to enlist for postgraduate studies so that they could further embark in scientific research. In sum, Chinese medical students are capable of participating in scientific research and make a significant contribution to science.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence regarding the associations of tooth loss and denture use with incident cognitive impairment are inconclusive in older adults, and few prospective studies have examined the potential interaction between tooth loss and denture use in these specific populations. METHODS: Data were assessed from 17,079 cognitively normal older adults aged ≥ 65 years, participating in the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). The outcome of interest was cognitive impairment (assessed by the Chinese version of Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE]). The number of natural teeth and status of denture use were collected by a structural questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 6,456 cases of cognitive impairment were recorded during 88,627 person-years of follow-up. We found that compared with participants with 20+ teeth, those with 10-19, 1-9 and 0 teeth had increased risks of incident cognitive impairment (P-trend < 0.001). Participants without dentures also had a higher risk of incident cognitive impairment, compared with those who wore dentures. Effect modification by denture use was observed (P-interaction = 0.010). Specifically, among those without dentures, the adjusted HR (95% CI) for participants with 10-19, 1-9 and 0 teeth were 1.19 (1.08,1.30), 1.28 (1.17,1.39) and 1.28 (1.16,1.41), respectively, as compared to those with 20+ teeth. In contrary, among denture users, detrimental effect was only observed among those with 0 teeth (HR 1.14, 95% CI: 1.16,1.41). CONCLUSIONS: In Chinese older adults, maintaining 20+ teeth is important for cognitive health; denture use would attenuate the detrimental effects of tooth loss, especially for partial tooth loss, on cognitive impairment.

10.
Food Chem ; 354: 129570, 2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761340

RESUMO

While tissue fatty acid compositions reflect that of the dietary lipid source, little information is available on how dietary oils modify lipid class and molecular species profiles in hepatopancreas of crustacean. Herein, an 8-week nutritional trial and untargeted lipidomic analysis were used to investigate the impacts of dietary n-3 PUFA lipid sources including fish oil, krill oil and linseed oil on the lipidomic characteristics of hepatopancreas of swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus). Dietary krill oil significantly increased distribution of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 at sn-2 in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine compared to fish oil. Fish oil intake promoted the deposition of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 at sn-1,2,3 in triglyceride compared to linseed oil, which significantly increased the specific accumulation of 18:3n-3 at sn-1,3 in triglyceride and sn-2 in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. The study revealed metabolic responses to different dietary n-3 PUFA in swimming crab, which provided novel insight into the lipid nutrition of crustacean.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723915

RESUMO

Solid-state lithium metal batteries built with composite polymer electrolytes using cubic garnets as active fillers are particularly attractive owing to their high energy density, easy manufacturing and inherent safety. However, the uncontrollable formation of intractable contaminant on garnet surface usually aggravates poor interfacial contact with polymer matrix and deteriorates Li + pathways. Here we report a rational designed intermolecular interaction in composite electrolytes that utilizing contaminants as reaction initiator to generate Li + conducting ether oligomers, which further emerge as molecular cross-linkers between inorganic fillers and polymer matrix, creating dense and homogeneous interfacial Li + immigration channels in the composite electrolytes. The delicate design results in a remarkable ionic conductivity of 1.43×10 -3 S cm -1 and an unprecedented 1000 cycles with 90% capacity retention at room temperature is achieved for the assembled solid-state batteries.

12.
Med Educ Online ; 26(1): 1897267, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720807

RESUMO

During the spring semester of 2020, medical school anatomists in China were forced by the COVID-19 pandemic to transition from face-to-face educators or part-time online educators to full-time online educators. This nationwide survey was conducted to assess online anatomy education during the pandemic for medical students from nonclinical medicine and clinical medicine majors at medical schools in China via WeChat. The total of 356 responders included 293 responders from clinical medicine and 63 respondents from nonclinical medicine majors (i.e., 21 from preventive medicine, 13 from stomatology, and 29 from traditional Chinese medicine). The survey results showed that several aspects of online anatomy education were quite similar in clinical and nonclinical majors' classes, including theoretical and practical sessions, active learning, assessments and evaluations. However, there were statistically significant differences in class size, implementation of active learning activities prior to the pandemic, and the evaluation of the effectiveness of online learning during the pandemic, between clinical and nonclinical medicine majors. These results indicated that, compared with teachers of anatomy courses in clinical medicine, teachers of nonclinical medicine majors using online learning in medical schools in China had relatively poor preparation for online learning in response to the unforeseen pandemic.

13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(11): 3401-3414, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719437

RESUMO

Tea leaves contain an extraordinarily high level of flavonoids that contribute to tea health benefits and flavor characteristics, but the regulatory mechanism of ambient ultraviolet B (UV-B) on tea flavonoid enrichment remains unclear. Here, we report that ambient UV-B modulates tea quality by inducing a metabolic flux in flavonoid biosynthesis. UV-B absence decreased bitter- and astringent-tasting flavonol glycosides (kaempferol-7-O-glucoside, myricetin-3-O-glucoside, and quercetin-7-O-glucoside) but increased non-galloylated catechins. Conversely, supplementary UV-B increased flavonols and decreased catechins in tea leaves. These responses were achieved via CsHY5, which mediates the UV-B-induced MYB12 activation and binds to the promoters of flavonoid biosynthetic genes (CsFLS, CsLARa, and CsDFRa), leading to flavonoid changes. Transcriptomic data indicated that UV-B-induced tea flavonoid regulation is responsive to multiple biotic and abiotic environmental stresses. These findings improve our understanding of light-regulated tea astringency and bitterness underlying shading effects and seasonal light changes and provide novel insights into tea cultivation management and processing.

14.
Cancer Sci ; 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756060

RESUMO

The antibody drug conjugate MORAb-202, consisting of farletuzumab paired with a cathepsin B-cleavable linker and eribulin, targets folate receptor alpha (FRA), which is frequently overexpressed on various tumor types. MORAb-202 was highly cytotoxic to FRA-positive cells in vitro, with limited off-target killing of FRA-negative cells. Furthermore, MORAb-202 showed a clear in vitro bystander cytotoxic effect in co-culture with FRA positive/negative cells. In vivo anti-tumor efficacy studies of MORAb-202 were conducted with a single administration of MORAb-202 in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patient-derived xenograft (PDx) models expressing low and high levels of FRA. MORAb-202 exhibited durable efficacy proportional to tumor FRA expression. Toxicology studies (Q3Wx2) in non-human primates suggested that the major observed toxicity of MORAb-202 is hematologic toxicity. Overall, these findings support the concept that MORAb-202 represents a promising investigational ADC for the treatment of TNBC patients.

15.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 69, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli K1 (E. coli K1) caused neonatal meningitis remains a problem, which rises the urgent need for an effective vaccine. Previously, we rationally designed and produced the recombinant protein OmpAVac (Vo), which elicited protective immunity against E. coli K1 infection. However, Vo has limited stability, which hinders its future industrial application. METHOD: Chitosan-modified poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles were prepared and used as carried for the recombinant Vo. And the safety, stability and immunogenicity of Vo delivered by chitosan-modified PLGA nanoparticles were tested in vitro and in a mouse model of bacteremia. RESULTS: We successfully generated chitosan-modified PLGA nanoparticles for the delivery of recombinant Vo (VoNP). In addition, we found that a freeze-drying procedure increases the stability of the VoNPs without changing the shape, size distribution and encapsulation of the Vo protein. Unlike aluminum adjuvant, the nanoparticles that delivered Vo were immunoprotective in mice even after storage for as long as 180 days. CONCLUSIONS: We identified an effective strategy to improve the stability of Vo to maintain its immunogenicity, which will contribute to the future development of vaccines against E. coli K1.

16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 646523, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33679809

RESUMO

Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM2) is a transmembrane receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily and a crucial signaling hub for multiple pathological pathways that mediate immunity. Although increasing evidence supports a vital role for TREM2 in tumorigenesis of some cancers, no systematic pan-cancer analysis of TREM2 is available. Thus, we aimed to explore the prognostic value, and investigate the potential immunological functions, of TREM2 across 33 cancer types. Based on datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas, and the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia, Genotype Tissue-Expression, cBioPortal, and Human Protein Atlas, we employed an array of bioinformatics methods to explore the potential oncogenic roles of TREM2, including analyzing the relationship between TREM2 and prognosis, tumor mutational burden (TMB), microsatellite instability (MSI), DNA methylation, and immune cell infiltration of different tumors. The results show that TREM2 is highly expressed in most cancers, but present at low levels in lung cancer. Further, TREM2 is positively or negatively associated with prognosis in different cancers. Additionally, TREM2 expression was associated with TMB and MSI in 12 cancer types, while in 20 types of cancer, there was a correlation between TREM2 expression and DNA methylation. Six tumors, including breast invasive carcinoma, cervical squamous cell carcinoma and endocervical adenocarcinoma, kidney renal clear cell carcinoma, lung squamous cell carcinoma, skin cutaneous melanoma, and stomach adenocarcinoma, were screened out for further study, which demonstrated that TREM2 gene expression was negatively correlated with infiltration levels of most immune cells, but positively correlated with infiltration levels of M1 and M2 macrophages. Moreover, correlation with TREM2 expression differed according to T cell subtype. Our study reveals that TREM2 can function as a prognostic marker in various malignant tumors because of its role in tumorigenesis and tumor immunity.

17.
Am J Pathol ; 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705752

RESUMO

Growing evidence shows that the lungs are an unavoidable target organ of diabetic complications. However, the pathologic mechanisms of diabetic lung injury are still controversial. This study demonstrated the dysbiosis of the gut and lung microbiome, pulmonary alveolar wall thickening, and fibrotic change in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice and antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis mice compared with controls. In both animal models, the NF-κB signaling pathway was activated in the lungs. Enhanced pulmonary alveolar well thickening and fibrotic change appeared in the lungs of transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active NF-κB mutant compared with wild type. When lincomycin hydrochloride-induced gut dysbiosis was ameliorated by fecal microbiota transplant, enhanced inflammatory response in the intestine and pulmonary fibrotic change in the lungs were significantly decreased compared with lincomycin hydrochloride-treated mice. Furthermore, the application of fecal microbiota transplant and baicalin could also redress the microbial dysbiosis of the gut and lungs in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Taken together, the study data suggest that multiple as yet undefined factors related to microbial dysbiosis of gut and lungs cause pulmonary fibrogenesis associated with diabetes mellitus through an NF-κB signaling pathway.

18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 273: 113950, 2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610713

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Thesium chinense Turcz. has been used to treat mastitis, pulmonitis, tonsillitis, iaryngopharyngitis and upper respiratory tract infections in the indigenous medicine of China for a long history. Presently, several pharmaceutics prepared by this medical herb have been clinically used for the therapy of infectious diseases. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review aims to comprehensively summarize the current researches on the ethnomedical, phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of T. chinense, and discuss their possible opportunities for the future research. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Extensive database searches, including Web of Science, SciFinder, Google Scholar and China Knowledge Resource Integrated, were performed using keywords such as 'Thesium chinense', 'Bai Rui Cao', and their chemical constituents. In addition, local classic herbal literature on ethnopharmacology and relevant textbooks were consulted to provide a comprehensive survey of this ethnomedicine. RESULTS: Thirty four chemical constituents, including flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids, have been identified from T. chinense. Of which, flavonoids are the predominant and characteristic constituents. The crude extracts, the purified constituents, and commercial available pharmaceutics have displayed diverse in vitro and in vivo pharmacological functions (e.g. anti-inflammation, antimicrobial activity, analgesic effect, hepaprotection), and are particularly useful as a potential therapeutic agent against inflammation-related diseases. CONCLUSIONS: T. chinense is an important ethnomedical medicine and possesses a satisfying effect for treating inflammation, microbial infection, and upper respiratory diseases. It has received plenty of researches on its phytochemical and pharmacological aspects since 1970s. These findings definitely establish the link between chemical composition and pharmacological application, and support the ethnomedical use of T. chinense in the indigenous medicine of China. However, chemical composition of this plant and the molecular mechanisms of purified constituents have not been comprehensively investigated, and thus the trace constituents and the therapeutic targets of bioactive constituents deserve a further exploration. Collectively, the researchers should pay more attention to a better understanding and application of this ethnomedical plant.

19.
Ann Nucl Med ; 35(4): 493-503, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33532992

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutation and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status are diagnostic, prognostic, predictive and therapeutic biomarkers for primary diffuse gliomas, and this study aimed to explore the relationship between choline (CHO) positron emission tomography (PET) parameters and these molecular alterations. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients who were histopathologically diagnosed with primary diffuse glioma and underwent presurgical CHO PET/CT were retrospectively analyzed, and IDH, TERT and MGMT alterations were examined. The volume of interest (VOI) was semiautomatically defined based on standardized uptake value (SUV) thresholds, and 5 traditional CHO parameters, namely, SUVmax, SUVmean, metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion CHO uptake (TLC) and tumor-to-normal contralateral cortex activity ratio (T/N ratio), were calculated. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were applied to evaluate the differences and performances of the CHO parameters, and their capability to stratify patient prognosis was also evaluated. RESULTS: All 5 parameters were significantly higher in IDH-wildtype gliomas than in IDH-mutant gliomas (p = 0.0001-0.037), and SUVmax, SUVmean, TLC and the T/N ratio exhibited good performances in distinguishing the IDH status (areas under the ROC curve (AUCs) 0.856-0.918, accuracies 0.857-0.893) as well as stratifying patient prognosis. Although the differences and performances of the traditional parameters in distinguishing diverse TERT and MGMT statuses were moderate in the whole population, the T/N ratio and TLC displayed certain predictive value in discriminating the TERT status in the IDH-mutant and IDH-wildtype subgroups (p = 0.028-0.048, AUCs 0.857-0.860, accuracies 0.800-0.917, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Traditional CHO PET parameters are capable of distinguishing IDH but not TERT or MGMT alterations in the whole population. In accordance with the clinical understanding of TERT promoter mutations, the T/N ratio and TLC can also discriminate the TERT status in IDH subgroups.

20.
Chest ; 159(2): e119-e126, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563454

RESUMO

CASE PRESENTATION: A 72-year-old Chinese man presented with a 5-month history of chronic dry cough, weight loss, and progressive dyspnea. There was no associated hemoptysis, hoarseness, epistaxis, or fever on systemic review. He was a nonsmoker and had no family history of malignancy. He was treated for pulmonary TB 40 years ago. A chest radiograph (Fig 1) showed mass-like consolidation in the right midzone with loss of the right hilar border, a small right pleural effusion, and bi-apical scarring. On physical examination, he was afebrile and normotensive, and he had pulse oxygen saturation of 97%. Examination of the chest was remarkable only for reduced breath sounds over the right chest. He did not have digital clubbing, distended neck veins, or cervical lymphadenopathy.

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