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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32391718

RESUMO

Aim: Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-associated death. This work aimed to explore the expression, function, and mechanism of circ_0000526 on the progression of breast cancer. Materials and Methods: The expressions of circ_0000526, miR-492, and suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2) in breast cancer samples were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The correlation between pathological indexes of patients and the expression of circ_0000526 was also analyzed. Human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 were applied to investigate the associated mechanism. Cell counting kit-8 assays were used to assess the effect of circ_0000526 on proliferation, and together with the wound healing assay, transwell assay was conducted to detect the effects of circ_0000526 on migration and invasion. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assay was used to verify the targeting relationship between miR-492 and circ_0000526. In addition, Western blot was performed to detect the regulatory effects of circ_0000526 on SOCS2. Results: Circ_0000526 expression in breast cancer samples was downregulated, which was correlated with unfavorable pathological indexes. It significantly inhibited the proliferation and metastasis of breast cancer cells, and facilitated apoptosis. The overexpression of circ_0000526 remarkably inhibited the expression of miR-492 by sponging it, and in turn promoted the expression of SOCS2. Conclusions: Circ_0000526 served as a tumor suppressor, which could function as the sponge of miR-492, an oncogenic microRNA, in breast cancer, and enhance the expression of tumor suppressor SOCS2 indirectly.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191296

RESUMO

The construct of frailty was first developed in gerontology to help identify older adults with increased vulnerability when confronted with a health stressor. This article is a review of studies in which frailty has been applied to pre- and post-kidney transplantation (KT) populations. Although KT is the optimal treatment for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), KT candidates often must overcome numerous health challenges associated with ESKD before receiving KT. After KT, the impacts of surgery and immunosuppression represent additional health stressors that disproportionately impact individuals with frailty. Frailty metrics could improve the ability to identify KT candidates and recipients at risk for adverse health outcomes and those who could potentially benefit from interventions to improve their frail status. The Physical Frailty Phenotype (PFP) is the most commonly used frailty metric in ESKD research, and KT recipients who are frail at KT (~20% of recipients) are twice as likely to die as nonfrail recipients. In addition to the PFP, many other metrics are currently used to assess pre- and post-KT vulnerability in research and clinical practice, underscoring the need for a disease-specific frailty metric that can be used to monitor KT candidates and recipients. Although frailty is an independent risk factor for post-transplant adverse outcomes, it is not factored into the current transplant program risk-adjustment equations. Future studies are needed to explore pre- and post-KT interventions to improve or prevent frailty.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The progress of liver diseases may not stop after viral eradication.This study aimed to provide data on long-term prognosis of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection who underwent pegylated interferon plus ribavirin (PR) regimen and achieved a sustained virological response 24 weeks post-treatment (SVR24). METHODS: Responders to the PR regimen in our hospital from January 2011 to June 2014 were enrolled and prospectively followed up. Baseline characteristics were profiled. The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), progression of liver disease (increase in liver stiffness or occurrence of decompensated complication), and HCV recurrence were all monitored. The accumulative and annualized incidence rates (AIRs) of these adverse events were analyzed, and the risk factors were also examined. RESULTS: In total, 151 patients reached a median follow-up time of 103 weeks. Among them, two had an incidence of HCC during the surveillance with AIR of 0.68% (95% CI: 0.00%-1.63%). Six patients showed progression of liver disease with AIR of 2.05% (95% CI: 0.42%-3.68%). Three patients who had risky behaviors encountered HCV reinfection. The cirrhotic patients faced higher risk of poor prognosis than non-cirrhotic patients, including HCC and progression of liver disease (AIR: 6.17% vs. 1.42%, P = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of HCC and progression of liver disease was evident in PR responders during the long-term follow-up period, but the risk level was low. Cirrhotic responders were more vulnerable to develop HCC post SVR24 compared with non-cirrhotic ones. HCV recurrence was rare in responders with SVR24 who had corrected their risky behaviors.

4.
Exp Cell Res ; 390(2): 111950, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188578

RESUMO

The endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) plays a key role in the development of cardiac fibrosis (CF) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The results of our previous study showed that amphiregulin (AR) expression was enhanced after MI. However, the role of AR on EndMT post MI remains unknown. This study aimed to elucidate the impact of AR on EndMT post MI and the associated molecular mechanisms. AR expression was markedly enhanced in infarct border area post MI, and endothelial cells were one of the primary cell sources of AR secretion. Stimulation with AR promoted endothelial cell proliferation, invasion, migration, collagen synthesis and EndMT. In addition, EGFR and downstream gene expression was significantly enhanced. In vivo, EndMT was significantly inhibited after lentivirus-AR-shRNA was delivered to the myocardium post MI. In addition, silencing AR ameliorated cardiac function by decreasing the extent of CF. Furthermore, the levels of EGFR pathway components in endothelial cells extracted from infarct border myocardium were all significantly decreased in lentivirus-AR-shRNA-treated MI mice. Our results demonstrate that AR induces CF post MI by enhancing EndMT in endothelial cells. Thus, targeting the regulation of AR may provide a potentially novel therapeutic option for CF after MI.

5.
Environ Pollut ; 263(Pt B): 114381, 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203859

RESUMO

Estrogens, which are extensive in the eco-environments, are a category of high-toxic emerging contaminants that induce metabolic disorders and even carcinogenic risks in wildlife and humans. Here we investigate whether fungus-secreted laccase can be used as a green catalyst to eliminate a representative estrogen, 17ß-estradiol (E2). A white-rot fungus Trametes hirsuta La-7 with high laccase-productivity, was isolated from pig manure-contaminated soil. Extracellular laccase activity expressed by strain La-7 was 65.4 U·mL-1 for a 3 d inoculation under the optimal fermentation parameters. The concentrated-crude laccase from Trametes hirsuta La-7 (CC-ThLac) was capable of effectively metabolizing E2 at pH 4-6, and the apparent pseudo first-order reaction rate constant and half-life values were respectively 0.027-0.055 min-1 and 25.86-12.67 min (R2 > 0.98). The mass measurement of high-resolution mass spectrometry in combination with 13C-isotope labeling identified that the main by-products of E2 metabolism were dimers, trimers, and tetramers, which are consistent with radical-driven C-C and/or C-O-C covalent coupling pathway, involving the initial enzymatic production of phenoxy radical intermediates and then the successive oxidative-oligomerization of radical intermediates. The formation of oligomers dramatically reduced the estrogenic activity of E2. Additionally, CC-ThLac also exhibited high-efficiency metabolism capability toward E2 in the natural water and pig manure, with more than 94.4% and 91.0% of E2 having been metabolized, respectively. These findings provide a broad prospect for the clean biotechnological applications of Trametes hirsuta La-7 in estrogen-contaminated ecosystems.

6.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(6): 1015-1027, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088771

RESUMO

Oncolytic virus (OV) therapy is an emerging approach with the potential to redefine treatment options across a range of cancer indications and in patients who remain resistant to existing standards of care, including immuno-oncology (IO) drugs. MEDI5395, a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV), engineered to express granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), exhibits potent oncolytic activity. It was hypothesized that activation of immune cells by MEDI5395, coupled with its oncolytic activity, would enhance the priming of antitumor immunity. Using MEDI5395 and recombinant NDVs encoding fluorescent reporter genes, we demonstrated preferential virus uptake and non-productive infection in myeloid cells, including monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs). Infection resulted in immune-cell activation, with upregulation of cell surface activation markers (e.g., CD80, PD-L1, HLA-DR) and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IFN-α2a, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α). Interestingly, in vitro M2-polarized macrophages were more permissive to virus infection than were M1-polarized macrophages. In a co-culture system, infected myeloid cells were effective virus vectors and mediated the transfer of infectious NDV particles to tumor cells, resulting in cell death. Furthermore, NDV-infected DCs stimulated greater proliferation of allogeneic T cells than uninfected DCs. Antigens released after NDV-induced tumor cell lysis were cross-presented by DCs and drove activation of tumor antigen-specific autologous T cells. MEDI5395 therefore exhibited potent immunostimulatory activity and an ability to enhance antigen-specific T-cell priming. This, coupled with its tumor-selective oncolytic capacity, underscores the promise of MEDI5395 as a multimodal therapeutic, with potential to both enhance current responding patient populations and elicit de novo responses in resistant patients.

7.
Transplantation ; 104(2): 349-356, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the potential utility of frailty, a clinical phenotype of decreased physiologic reserve and resistance to stressors, to predict postkidney transplant (KT) outcomes, we sought to understand the perceptions and practices regarding frailty measurement in US KT programs. METHODS: Surveys were emailed to American Society of Transplantation Kidney/Pancreas Community of Practice members and 202 US transplant programs (November 2017 to April 2018). Program characteristics were gleaned from Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients. RESULTS: The 133 responding programs (response rate = 66%) represented 77% of adult KTs and 79% of adult KT candidates in the United States. Respondents considered frailty to be a useful concept in evaluating candidacy (99%) and endorsed a need to develop a frailty measurement specific to KT (92%). Frailty measurement was more common during candidacy evaluation (69%) than during KT admission (28%). Of the 202 programs, 38% performed frailty assessments in all candidates while 23% performed assessments only for older candidates. There was heterogeneity in the frailty assessment method; 18 different tools were utilized to measure frailty. The most common tool was a timed walk test (19%); 67% reported performing >1 tool. Among programs that measure frailty, 53% reported being less likely to list frail patients for KT. CONCLUSIONS: Among US KT programs, frailty is recognized as a clinically relevant construct and is commonly measured at evaluation. However, there is considerable heterogeneity in the tools used to measure frailty. Efforts to identify optimal measurement of frailty using either an existing or a novel tool and subsequent standardization of its measurement and application across KT programs should be considered.

8.
ACS Nano ; 14(1): 552-558, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829558

RESUMO

The many advantageous optoelectronic properties of lead halide perovskites have made them promising materials in both solar cells and light source applications. However, lead halide perovskites are soluble in polar solvents, which hinders their practical applications. Thus, the effective protection of perovskite against polar solvents is of great significance. Herein, we report a waterproof CsPbBr3 nanoplate (NP) laser protected by large-scale on-chip microprocess-compatible atomic layer deposition (ALD) Al2O3. The 50 nm Al2O3 coated CsPbBr3 NPs can continuously lase in water for over an hour and can still lase after being immersed in water for a month. Moreover, the lasing behaviors of the 20 nm Al2O3 coated CsPbBr3 NP, in the mixed solution of water and glycerine with the refractive index ranging from 1.33 to 1.47, are also studied. As the environmental refractive index increases, the NP laser goes through a mode selection process, showing single-mode (540.3 nm) to dual-mode and to single-mode (533.9 nm) lasing behavior, which is caused by mode competition resulting from the decrease of quality factor (Q factor) and the blue-shift of the material's gain spectra. Besides, lasing thresholds of the CsPbBr3 NP increase with the environmental refractive index, which can be utilized for sensing with a measured sensitivity of 129.7 µJ cm-2 RIU-1 (per refractive index unit) (388.2 µJ cm-2 RIU-1) for the long (short)-wavelength lasing mode. Our work demonstrates that the ALD Al2O3 protection method can effectively protect CsPbBr3 against polar solvents, enhance the material's stability, and enable perovskite's practical applications in both on-chip integration and solvent systems.

9.
Int J Cancer ; 146(2): 531-541, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584185

RESUMO

We have developed an oncolytic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) that has potent in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activities and attenuated pathogenicity in chickens. In this ex vivo study using the same recombinant NDV backbone with GFP transgene (NDV-GFP, designated as rNDV), we found that rNDV induces maturation of monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells (iDCs) by both direct and indirect mechanisms, which promote development of antigen-specific T cell responses. Addition of rNDV directly to iDCs culture induced DC maturation, as demonstrated by the increased expression of costimulatory and antigen-presenting molecules as well as the production of type I interferons (IFNs). rNDV infection of the HER-2 positive human breast cancer cell line (SKBR3) resulted in apoptotic cell death, release of proinflammatory cytokines, and danger-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) including high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Addition of rNDV-infected SKBR3 cells to iDC culture resulted in greatly enhanced upregulation of the maturation markers and release of type I IFNs by DCs than rNDV-infected DCs only. When co-cultured with autologous T cells, DCs pre-treated with rNDV-infected SKBR3 cells cross-primed T cells in an antigen-specific manner. Altogether, our data strongly support the potential of oncolytic NDV as efficient therapeutic agent for cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Apresentação Cruzada , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias/terapia , Terapia Viral Oncolítica/métodos , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Técnicas de Cocultura , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Feminino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Neoplasias/imunologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/genética , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Vírus Oncolíticos/genética , Vírus Oncolíticos/imunologia , RNA/administração & dosagem , RNA/genética , RNA Viral/administração & dosagem , RNA Viral/genética , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Células Vero
10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19199, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844080

RESUMO

Zirconium compounds has been widely attention over the last decades due to its excellent physical and chemical properties. Zirconium nitride nanopowders were synthesized via a simple direct carbothermic nitridation process of internal gel derived zirconia in the presence of nano-sized carbon black. The effects of reaction temperature, dwell time and molar ratio of carbon black to Zr (C/Zr) on the phase composition, grain size and crystal parameters of products were studied. Based upon the analysis of crystallite phase evolution and microstructure characterization, it was found that zirconium oxynitride is intermediate product and then O atoms in oxynitride were extracted by oxygen getter, carbon black. Anion sites were directly replaced by N atoms to form rock-salt type nitride in carbothermic nitridation process.

11.
Ageing Res Rev ; 56: 100965, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678652

RESUMO

Dementia represents one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders in older adults. However, it is still unclear whether non-pharmacological therapies (NPTs) are effective or not and which treatment should be preferred. We applied a series of search strategies to identify eligible randomized controlled trials on 1st October, 2018, investigating the effects of NPTs of dementia in the older persons. Pairwise and network meta-analyses were sequentially performed. A total of 31 trials were included, which enrolled 1895 participants and 7 NPTs. Compared with control group, all the NPTs included were statistically beneficial to cognitive function, and our study indicated Comprehensive Therapy(CT) [the surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA = 92.42%)] might be the best choice for dementia patients. Our study suggests CT might be the optimal NPT for improving the cognitive function of dementia patients. However, the above conclusions need to be further analyzed.

12.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 9(11)2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717384

RESUMO

Developing an eco-friendly, flexible and recyclable micro-structured dry electrode for sustainable life is essential. In this work, we have developed irregular, micro-structured sandpaper coated with graphite powder as an electrode for developing a simple, low-cost, contact-separation mode graphite-coated sandpaper-based triboelectric nanogenerator (GS-TENG) as a self-powered device and biomechanical sensor. The as-fabricated GS-TENG is a dielectric-conductor model. It is made up of a bottom layer with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) as a triboelectric layer, which is attached onto a graphite-coated sandpaper-based electrode and a top layer with aluminum as another triboelectric layer as well as an electrode. The forward and reverse open-circuit voltages reach upto ~33.8 V and ~36.62 V respectively, and the forward and reverse short-circuit currents are ~2.16 µA and ~2.17µA, respectively. The output generated by GS-TENG can power 120 blue light-emitting diodes connected in series, liquid crystal display and can charge commercial capacitors along with the rectifier circuit. The capacitor of 22 µF is charged upto 5 V and is sufficient to drive digital watch as wearable electronics. Moreover, the device can track signals generated by human motion, hence it scavenges biomechanical energy. Thus, GS-TENG facilitates large-scale fabrication and has potential for future applications in wearable and portable devices.

13.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(51): 18627-18633, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621994

RESUMO

Galvanic replacement is a versatile approach to prepare hollow nanostructures with controllable morphology and elemental composition. The primary issue is to identify its fundamental mechanism. In this study, in situ liquid cell transmission electron microscopy was employed to monitor the dynamic reaction process and to explore the mechanism of galvanic replacement. The detailed reaction process was revealed based on in situ experiments in which small Au particles first appeared around Ag nanowires; they coalesced, grew, and adhered to Ag nanowires. After that, small pits grew from the edge of Ag nanowires to form tubular structures, and then extended along the Ag nanowires to obtain hollowed structures. All of our experimental observations from the viewpoint of electron microscopy, combined with DFT calculations, contribute towards an in-depth understanding of the galvanic replacement reaction process and the design of new materials with hollow structures.

14.
Dalton Trans ; 48(40): 14989-14995, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498343

RESUMO

Designing photocatalysts with heterostructures is an effective way to promote visible-light-driven photocatalytic degradation. Herein, a series of 2D/2D heterojunction photocatalysts, denoted as CuPor-Ph-COF/g-C3N4 composites, were prepared through in situ synthesis on the surface of g-C3N4 by a facile liquid-assisted grinding method. The photocatalytic performance of the as-prepared CuPor-Ph-COF/g-C3N4 composites was evaluated by the degradation of a model pollutant rhodamine B. The CuPor-Ph-COF/g-C3N4 composites displayed superior photocatalytic performance to pure g-C3N4 or pure CuPor-Ph-COF because of the faster separation of photogenerated charges. This represents the first composite fabricated between a 2D porphyrin-based covalent organic framework (COF) and g-C3N4, demonstrating not only the possibility but also more importantly the affordability of the application of costly porphyrin-based COFs in catalysis.

15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(39): 35924-35934, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525945

RESUMO

Imide functionalization is one of the most effective approaches to develop electron-deficient building blocks for constructing n-type organic semiconductors. Driven by the attractive properties of imide-functionalized dithienylbenzodiimide (TBDI) and the promising device performance of TBDI-based polymers, a novel acceptor with increased electron affinity, fluorinated dithienylbenzodiimide (TFBDI), was designed with the hydrogen replaced by fluorine on the benzene core, and the synthetic challenges associated with this highly electron-deficient fluorinated imide building block are successfully overcome. TFBDI showed suppressed frontier molecular orbital energy levels as compared with TBDI. Copolymerizing this new electron-withdrawing TBDI with various donor co-units afforded a series of n-type polymer semiconductors TFBDI-T, TFBDI-Se, and TFBDI-BSe. All these TFBDI-based polymers exhibited a lower-lying lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy level than the polymer analogue without fluorine. When applied in organic thin-film transistors, three polymers showed unipolar electron transport with large on-current/off-current ratios (Ion/Ioff) of 105-107. Among them, the selenophene-based polymer TFBDI-Se with the deepest-positioned LUMO and optimal chain stacking exhibited the highest electron mobility of 0.30 cm2 V-1 s-1. This result demonstrates that the new TFBDI is a highly attractive electron-deficient unit for enabling n-type polymer semiconductors, and the fluorination of imide-functionalized arenes offers an effective approach to develop more electron-deficient building blocks in organic electronics.

16.
Biomaterials ; 217: 119326, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288173

RESUMO

Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to immediate disruption of neuronal membranes and loss of neurons, followed by extensive secondary injury process. Treatment of SCI still remains a tremendous challenge clinically. Minocycline could target comprehensive secondary injury via anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic mechanisms. Polyethylene glycol (PEG), a known sealing agent, is able to seal the damaged cell membranes and reduce calcium influx, thereby exerting neuroprotective capacity. Here, an E-selectin-targeting sialic acid - polyethylene glycol - poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (SAPP) copolymer was designed for delivering hydrophobic minocycline to achieve combinational therapy of SCI. The obtained SAPP copolymer could self-assemble into micelles with critical micelle concentration being of 13.40 µg/mL, and effectively encapsulate hydrophobic minocycline. The prepared drug-loaded micelles (SAPPM) displayed sustained drug release over 72 h, which could stop microglia activation and exhibited excellent neuroprotective capacity in vitro. The SAPP micelles were efficiently accumulated in the lesion site of SCI rats via the specific binding between sialic acid and E-selectin. Due to the targeting distribution and combinational effect between PEG and minocycline, SAPPM could obviously reduce the area of lesion cavity, and realize more survival of axons and myelin sheaths from the injury, thus distinctly improving hindlimb functional recovery of SCI rats and conferring superior therapeutic effect in coparison with other groups. Our work presented an effective and safe strategy for SCI targeting therapy. Besides, neuroprotective capacity of PEG deserves further investigation on other central nervous system diseases.

17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(25): 22429-22438, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140774

RESUMO

Based on the high theoretical capacity and relatively high safety voltage, niobium-based oxides are regarded as promising intercalation-type electrode materials for advanced lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Here, ZrNb14O37 nanowires are fabricated via a facile electrospinning method, presenting a nanoparticle-in-nanowire architecture. As an anode for LIBs, the as-fabricated ZrNb14O37 nanowires maintain a capacity of 244.9 mA h g-1 at 100 mA g-1 and present excellent cycling capability (0.026% of capacity fading per cycle during 1000 cycles) as well as outstanding rate performance. In situ X-ray diffraction measurement is conducted to understand the fundamental reaction mechanism during the lithiation/delithiation process. The ex situ observations, including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, are further performed to provide more lines of evidence of the reaction mechanism. Moreover, the excellent electrochemical performance of the full cell constructed using ZrNb14O37 nanowires and LiCoO2 suggests that ZrNb14O37 nanowires are a promising anode material. This work sheds new light on understanding the lithium storage mechanism and may open new opportunities to develop new anode materials for LIBs.

18.
Brain Res ; 1718: 75-82, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054885

RESUMO

The molecular mechanisms underlying cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) are poorly understood. To assess the correlation between HIF-1α, MMP-9 and functional recovery following chronic cervical spinal cord compression (CSCI). Rats in the sham group underwent C5 semi-laminectomy, while a water-absorbable polyurethane polymer was implanted into the C6 epidural space in the chronic CSCI group. Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan score and somatosensory evoked potentials were used to evaluate neurological function. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to assess pathological changes in the spinal cord, while immunohistochemical analysis was used to examine HIF-1α and MMP-9 expression on days 7, 28, 42 and 70 post-surgery. Normal rats were only used for HE staining. The BBB score was significantly reduced on day 28 following CSCI, while SEPs exhibited decreased amplitude and increased latency. In chronic CSCI group, the BBB score and SEPs significantly improved on day 70 compared with day 28. HE staining revealed different level of spinal cord edema after chronic CSCI. Compared with the sham group, immunohistochemical analyses revealed that HIF-1α- and MMP-9-positive cells were increased on day 7 and peaked on day 28. HIF-1α and MMP-9 expression were demonstrated to be significantly positively correlated, whereas HIF-1α expression and BBB score were significantly negatively correlated, as well MMP-9 expression and BBB score. HIF-1α and MMP-9 expression are increased following chronic spinal cord compression and are positively correlated with one another. Decreased expression of HIF-1α and MMP-9 may contribute to functional recovery following CSCI. This expression pattern of HIF-1α and MMP-9 may give a new perspective on the molecular mechanisms of CSM.

19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(20): 9820-9824, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036653

RESUMO

Middle to Late Pleistocene human evolution in East Asia has remained controversial regarding the extent of morphological continuity through archaic humans and to modern humans. Newly found ∼300,000-y-old human remains from Hualongdong (HLD), China, including a largely complete skull (HLD 6), share East Asian Middle Pleistocene (MPl) human traits of a low vault with a frontal keel (but no parietal sagittal keel or angular torus), a low and wide nasal aperture, a pronounced supraorbital torus (especially medially), a nonlevel nasal floor, and small or absent third molars. It lacks a malar incisure but has a large superior medial pterygoid tubercle. HLD 6 also exhibits a relatively flat superior face, a more vertical mandibular symphysis, a pronounced mental trigone, and simple occlusal morphology, foreshadowing modern human morphology. The HLD human fossils thus variably resemble other later MPl East Asian remains, but add to the overall variation in the sample. Their configurations, with those of other Middle and early Late Pleistocene East Asian remains, support archaic human regional continuity and provide a background to the subsequent archaic-to-modern human transition in the region.

20.
Chemosphere ; 229: 169-180, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078031

RESUMO

Although silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used in various commercial products, the biological effects of AgNPs on fish embryogenesis and the underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. In this study, both touch responses and neuron membrane potential were found to be abnormal in AgNPs-stressed embryos. Moreover, neurogenesis genes were unveiled to be down-regulated and were enriched in ligand-gated ion channel activity, dopamine receptor signaling pathway, etc. in AgNPs-stressed embryos by microarray assays. Additionally, the down-regulated expression of otpa/sncgb - gad1b/gad2 dopaminergic neurotransmitter genes, robo2 - vim and glrbb synaptic transmission genes, and motor neuron genes isl1 &isl2a was further identified in both AgNPs- and Ag+-stressed embryos by qPCR, whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH), and by using specific promoter-derived GFP fluorescence transgenic zebrafish. Moreover, the reduced expression of gad1b, gad2, and isl1 could be recovered by adding Ag+ chelating compound l-cysteine in AgNPs stressed embryos. Our results reveal for the first time that it is through damaging the formation of neural circuits, including dopaminergic neurotransmitter, synaptic transmission, and motor activities, that AgNPs induce abnormal electrical membrane properties, leading to dysfunctional touch responses and locomotor escape responses mostly via their released Ag+ during embryogenesis.


Assuntos
Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Fenômenos Fisiológicos do Sistema Nervoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Prata/química , Prata/toxicidade , Tato/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero/fisiologia , Tato/fisiologia , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
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