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1.
J Mater Chem B ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610630

RESUMO

Flexible sensors have attracted extensive attention due to their excellent flexibility, biocompatibility, and information acquisition accuracy. Therefore, it is desired to fabricate a flexible sensor with high toughness and sensitivity based on conductive hydrogels to monitor human movement. In this work, MXene-(Ti3C2Tx-)WPU/PAM dual-network hydrogels (PPM hydrogels) were successfully prepared. As the first network, waterborne polyurethane (WPU) plays the role of energy dissipation and enhancement. Polyacrylamide (PAM) and WPU polymer chains form interpenetrating networks (IPNs). MXene acts as a conductive material to enhance the conductivity and for nano enhancement. The PPM hydrogels exhibited excellent mechanical characteristics (tensile ratio >600%, tensile strength 639 kPa, 1000 stretching cycles, and self-recovery rate 93.7%). Moreover, based on these hydrogels, we fabricated flexible sensors. These sensors had high sensitivity and sensing durability, and could be assembled into a human body wireless monitoring device, which possesses great potential in facial micro-expression monitoring, all-around human motion detection, and wearable electronic products. In addition, these resulting hydrogels possessed outstanding reversible adhesion to various materials (human skin, wood, PDMS, etc.) and the maximum adhesion strength can reach 305.1 N m-1 when exposed to a PDMS substrate. Therefore, PPM hydrogels could provide new inspiration for the development of wearable flexible sensors in the domain of human movements and personalized physiological health monitoring.

2.
Mil Med Res ; 8(1): 48, 2021 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496967

RESUMO

The management of bacterial infections is becoming a major clinical challenge due to the rapid evolution of antibiotic resistant bacteria. As an excellent candidate to overcome antibiotic resistance, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that are produced from the synthetic and natural sources demonstrate a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity with the high specificity and low toxicity. These peptides possess distinctive structures and functions by employing sophisticated mechanisms of action. This comprehensive review provides a broad overview of AMPs from the origin, structural characteristics, mechanisms of action, biological activities to clinical applications. We finally discuss the strategies to optimize and develop AMP-based treatment as the potential antimicrobial and anticancer therapeutics.

3.
Cell Metab ; 33(10): 2059-2075.e10, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536344

RESUMO

Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MIR) injury is a major cause of adverse outcomes of revascularization after myocardial infarction. To identify the fundamental regulator of reperfusion injury, we performed metabolomics profiling in plasma of individuals before and after revascularization and identified a marked accumulation of arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (ALOX12)-dependent 12-HETE following revascularization. The potent induction of 12-HETE proceeded by reperfusion was conserved in post-MIR in mice, pigs, and monkeys. While genetic inhibition of Alox12 protected mouse hearts from reperfusion injury and remodeling, Alox12 overexpression exacerbated MIR injury. Remarkably, pharmacological inhibition of ALOX12 significantly reduced cardiac injury in mice, pigs, and monkeys. Unexpectedly, ALOX12 promotes cardiomyocyte injury beyond its enzymatic activity and production of 12-HETE but also by its suppression of AMPK activity via a direct interaction with its upstream kinase TAK1. Taken together, our study demonstrates that ALOX12 is a novel AMPK upstream regulator in the post-MIR heart and that it represents a conserved therapeutic target for the treatment of myocardial reperfusion injury.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486880

RESUMO

Conventional polymeric phase change materials (PCMs) exhibit good shape stability, large energy storage density, and satisfactory chemical stability, but they cannot be recycled and self-healed due to their permanent cross-linking structure. Additionally, the high flammability of organic PCMs seriously restricts their applications for thermal energy storage (TES). Therefore, it is urgently required to explore PCM composites exhibiting superior recyclability, good self-healing capability, and excellent flame retardancy simultaneously. Herein, tri-maleimide end-capped cyclotriphosphazene flame retardant (TMCTP) was synthesized via the nucleophilic substitution between 1,3,5,2,4,6-triazatriphosphorine-2,2,4,4,6,6-hexachloride and N-(2-hydroxyethyl)maleimide. Then, novel dynamically cross-linked PCM composites (FPCMs) with superior recyclability, good self-healing capability, and excellent flame retardancy were fabricated by bonding PEG and TMCTP to polymeric skeleton via reversible furan/maleimide Diels-Alder (DA) reaction. TMCTP, which covalently and dynamically binding in the polymeric FPCMs, acted not only as an efficient flame retardant for reducing the flammability of PCM composites but also as dynamic cross-linking skeletons for thermally induced self-healing and recycling. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis confirmed the reversible energy storage and release ability of FPCMs. Due to its reversible DA covalent bonds, the introduction of TMCTP endowed the FPCMs with considerably increased self-healing efficiency (up to 93.1%) and recyclability efficiency (94.6%). Moreover, with the introduction of TMCTP into FPCMs, the heat release rate (HRR) and total heat release (THR) significantly decreased, while the char residue and limiting oxygen index (LOI) value increased, confirming that the flame retardancy of FPCMs greatly improved. Hence, the synthesized FPCMs show enormous potential in TES applications.

5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 188: 11-23, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364934

RESUMO

Low intracellular drugs concentration is one of the main representations of multidrug resistance (MDR), which often results in a weak or failed chemotherapy on cancer treatment. Herein, an acid-sensitive and pluronic L61-linked hyaluronic acid nanogels (HA-L61OE/NGs) were developed for solving this problem. The nanogels could well hold more drugs under neutral condition, while triggering efficiently drugs release (61.42% within 24 h) in acidic environment. In vitro cells experiments demonstrated that the nanogels greatly increased intracellular drugs concentration by CD44-mediated endocytosis and L61-mediated anti-MDR effect, resulting in the enhanced cell-killing in MDR cells. In vivo studies verified HA-L61OE/NGs could avoid drugs leakage in blood and reduce systemic toxicity. Subsequently, the specific accumulation and penetration of nanogels at tumor regions lead to the highest tumor growth inhibition (TGI, 77.42%). Overall, HA-L61OE/NGs were effective on MDR tumor therapy and expected to be further used in clinical trials.

6.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 207: 112024, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384973

RESUMO

In this study, we aim to develop the pH-sensitive and tumor-targeting nanogels based on the co-polymerization of three terminal allyl-functionalized components, including ortho ester-conjugated mPEG (mPEG-MOE), ortho ester crosslinker (OEAM) and phenylboronic acid (APBA). The hybrid nanogels displayed a typical spherical structure with a diameter around 200 nm observed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The prepared nanogels possessed a good stability in neutral conditions, while displayed pH-triggered drug release profiles. Furthermore, in vitro study of cellular uptake and cytotoxicity indicated that the nanogels possessed the highest drug accumulation and cytotoxicity against EMT6 cells. In vivo antitumor examination suggested that these nanogels brought out excellent efficacy in enhancing drug concentration, restraining tumor growth, and prolonged the survival time of tumor-bearing mice. Thus, the prepared multi-functional nanogels possess great potentials for drug delivery in tumor treatment.


Assuntos
Doxorrubicina , Ésteres , Animais , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Portadores de Fármacos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Camundongos , Nanogéis , Polietilenoglicóis
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383657

RESUMO

Wind energy is of great importance for future energy development. In order to fully exploit wind energy, wind farms are often located at high latitudes, a practice that is accompanied by a high risk of icing. Traditional blade icing detection methods are usually based on manual inspection or external sensors/tools, but these techniques are limited by human expertise and additional costs. Model-based methods are highly dependent on prior domain knowledge and prone to misinterpretation. Data-driven approaches can offer promising solutions but require a massive amount of labeled training data, which are not generally available. In addition, the data collected for icing detection tend to be imbalanced because, most of the time, wind turbines operate under normal conditions. To address these challenges, this article presents a novel deep class-imbalanced semisupervised (DCISS) model for estimating blade icing conditions. DCISS integrates class-imbalanced and semisupervised learning (SSL) using a prototypical network that can rebalance features and measure the similarities between labeled and unlabeled samples. In addition, a channel calibration attention module is proposed to improve the ability to extract features from raw data. The proposed model has been evaluated using the blade icing datasets of three wind turbines. Compared to the classical anomaly detection and state-of-the-art SSL algorithms, DCISS shows significant advantages in terms of accuracy. Compared to five different class-imbalanced loss functions, the proposed DCISS is competitive. The generalization and practicability of the proposed model are further verified in the use case of online estimation.

8.
J Org Chem ; 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342230

RESUMO

An electrochemical Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons/hydrogenation tandem reaction was achieved using ammonia as electron and proton donors. The reaction could give two-carbon-elongated ester and nitrile from aldehyde or ketones directly. This reaction could proceed with a catalytic amount of base or even without a base. The ammonia provides both the electron and proton for this tandem reaction and enables the catalyst-free hydrogenation of an α,ß-unsaturated HWE intermediate. More than 40 examples were reported, and functional groups, including heterocycles and hydroxyl, were tolerated.

9.
Adv Mater ; 33(37): e2102684, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342056

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) flexible electronics represent an emerging area of intensive attention in recent years, owing to their broad-ranging applications in wearable electronics, flexible robots, tissue/cell scaffolds, among others. The widely adopted 3D conductive mesostructures in the functional device systems would inevitably undergo repetitive out-of-plane compressions during practical operations, and thus, anti-fatigue design strategies are of great significance to improve the reliability of 3D flexible electronics. Previous studies mainly focused on the fatigue failure behavior of planar ribbon-shaped geometries, while anti-fatigue design strategies and predictive failure criteria addressing 3D ribbon-shaped mesostructures are still lacking. This work demonstrates an anti-fatigue strategy to significantly prolong the fatigue life of 3D ribbon-shaped flexible electronics by switching the metal-dominated failure to desired polymer-dominated failure. Combined in situ measurements and computational studies allow the establishment of a failure criterion capable of accurately predicting fatigue lives under out-of-plane compressions, thereby providing useful guidelines for the design of anti-fatigue mesostructures with diverse 3D geometries. Two mechanically reliable 3D devices, including a resistance-type vibration sensor and a janus sensor capable of decoupled temperature measurements, serve as two demonstrative examples to highlight potential applications in long-term health monitoring and human-like robotic perception, respectively.

10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(31): 37665-37679, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342216

RESUMO

Nanoscale hydroxyapatite (nHA) is considered as a promising drug carrier or therapeutic agent against malignant tumors. But the strong agglomeration tendency and lack of active groups seriously hamper their usage in vivo. To address these issues, we fabricated an organic-inorganic hybrid nanosystem composed of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), nHA, and indocyanine green (ICG), and further modified with glucose to give a targeting nanosystem (GA@HAP/ICG-NPs). These hybrid nanoparticles (∼90 nm) showed excellent storage and physiological stability assisted by PAA and had a sustained drug release in an acidic tumor environment. In vitro cell experiments confirmed that glucose-attached particles significantly promoted cellular uptake and increased intracellular ICG and Ca2+ concentrations by glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1)-mediated endocytosis. Subsequently, the excessive Ca2+ induced cell or organelle damage and ICG triggered photothermal and photodynamic effects (PTT/PDT) under laser irradiation, resulting in enhanced cell toxicity and apoptosis. In vivo tests revealed that the hybrid nanosystem possessed good hemocompatibility and biosafety, facilitating in vivo circulation and usage. NIR imaging further showed that tumor tissues had more drug accumulation, resulting in the highest tumor growth inhibition (87.89%). Overall, the glucose-targeted hybrid nanosystem was an effective platform for collaborative therapy and expected to be further used in clinical trials.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415720

RESUMO

The low vessel density and oxygen concentration in hypoxia are the main causes of reduced efficiency of anticancer therapeutics and can stimulate the tumor's relapse. Research showed that macrophages could cross the blood-vessel barriers and reach the hypoxic regions of tumors. Using macrophages in a drug delivery system has been a promising method for tumor targeting in recent years. In this work, we successfully modified monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and iron-based metal-organic framework (MIL-100(Fe)) on the photothermal agent, gold nanorods (GNRs) (i.e., MCP-1/GNR@MIL-100(Fe)), to increase cellular uptake and biocompatibility. The results of TEM, UV-vis, and FTIR all confirmed that we'd synthesized MCP-1/GNR@MIL-100(Fe) successfully, and the MCP-1/GNR@MIL-100(Fe) also showed good biocompatibility. A transwell migration assay illustrated that our material attracted macrophages, and the material uptake amount was increased by 1.5 times after MCP-1 functionalization. It also indicated that the macrophages have a tumor-targeting ability. In the in vivo experiment, we subcutaneously implanted U251 MG cells in nude mice as a xenograft model to demonstrate the photothermal activity of MCP-1/GNR@MIL-100(Fe). With successive NIR treatment, the tumor growth could be controlled, and the tumor volume still remained below 100 mm3 after laser treatment. MCP-1/GNR@MIL-100(Fe) combined with the laser treatment showed an excellent antitumor efficacy from the histology of tumor tissues, survival rates, and bioluminescence imaging.

12.
Hepatology ; 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has risen dramatically to 25% of the adult population worldwide, there are as yet no approved pharmacological interventions for the disease due to uncertainty about the underlying molecular mechanisms. It is known that mitochondrial dysfunction is an important factor in the development of NAFLD. Mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) is a critical signaling adaptor for host defenses against viral infection. However, the role of MAVS in mitochondrial metabolism during NAFLD progression remains largely unknown. APPROACH & RESULTS: Based on expression analysis, we identified a marked downregulation of MAVS in hepatocytes during NAFLD progression. By employing MAVS global knockout and hepatocyte-specific MAVS knockout mice, we found that MAVS is protective against diet-induced NAFLD. MAVS deficiency induces extensive mitochondrial dysfunction during NAFLD pathogenesis which was confirmed as impaired mitochondrial respiratory capacity and membrane potential. Metabolomics data also showed the extensive metabolic disorders after MAVS deletion. Mechanistically, MAVS interacts with the N-terminal stretch of voltage-dependent anion channel 2 (VDAC2), which is required for the ability of MAVS to influence mitochondrial function and hepatic steatosis. CONCLUSIONS: In hepatocytes, MAVS plays an important role in protecting against NAFLD by helping to regulate healthy mitochondrial function. These findings provide new insights regarding the metabolic importance of conventional immune regulators and support the possibility that targeting MAVS may represent a new avenue for treating NAFLD.

13.
Hepatology ; 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: NAFLD is the most prevalent chronic liver disease without any Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacological intervention in clinic. Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is one of the most attractive targets for NAFLD treatment because of its robust rate-limiting capacity to control hepatic de novo lipogenesis. However, the regulatory mechanisms of FASN in NAFLD and potential therapeutic strategies targeting FASN remain largely unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Through a systematic interactomics analysis of FASN-complex proteins, we screened and identified sorting nexin 8 (SNX8) as a binding partner of FASN. SNX8 directly bound to FASN and promoted FASN ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation. We further demonstrated that SNX8 mediated FASN protein degradation by recruiting the E3 ligase tripartite motif containing 28 (TRIM28) and enhancing the TRIM28-FASN interaction. Notably, Snx8 interference in hepatocytes significantly deteriorated lipid accumulation in vitro, whereas SNX8 overexpression markedly blocked hepatocyte lipid deposition. Furthermore, the aggravating effect of Snx8 deletion on NAFLD was validated in vivo as hepatic steatosis and lipogenic pathways in the liver were significantly exacerbated in Snx8-knockout mice compared to wild-type controls. Consistently, hepatocyte-specific overexpression of Snx8 in vivo markedly suppressed high-fat, high-cholesterol diet (HFHC)-induced hepatic steatosis. Notably, the protective effect of SNX8 against NAFLD was largely dependent on FASN suppression. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that SNX8 is a key suppressor of NAFLD that promotes FASN proteasomal degradation. Targeting the SNX8-FASN axis is a promising strategy for NAFLD prevention and treatment.

14.
J Drug Target ; : 1-11, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236257

RESUMO

Ferroptosis is a regulated cell death pathway which depends on iron. Ferroptosis can be induced by limiting intracellular glutathione (GSH) synthesis, or inhibiting the activity of GPX4, or increasing intracellular accumulation of PE-AA-OOH, all of which involve NADPH. Therefore, NADPH depletion, excessive PE-AA-OOH, and GPX4 deficiency are generally considered to be the main characteristics of ferroptosis. In this research, the novel self-assembly nanomicelles modified by maltose ligand (Malt-PEG-Abz@RSL3) with superior nano characteristics were designed and fabricated. Malt-PEG-Abz@RSL3 micelles achieved active targeted drug delivery due to the high expression of glucose transporter (GLUT) and high uptake by HepG2 cells. Maltose-polyethylene glycol broke to release RSL3 for inhibiting GPX4 activity when Malt-PEG-Abz@RSL3 micelles entered the cells. Meanwhile, key coenzyme NADPH that participated in synthesis of GSH and Trx(SH)2 was depleted by azobenzene moiety, resulting in decreasing GSH and Trx(SH)2, which dually induced ferroptosis in tumour cells and promoted cell apoptosis.

15.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 268, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262017

RESUMO

Major gaps in understanding the molecular mechanisms of colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and intestinal mucosal repair have hampered therapeutic development for gastrointestinal disorders. Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) has been reported to be involved in CRC progression and intestinal mucosal repair; however, how TFF3 drives tumors to become more aggressive or metastatic and how TFF3 promotes intestinal mucosal repair are still poorly understood. Here, we found that the upregulated TFF3 in CRC predicted a worse overall survival rate. TFF3 deficiency impaired mucosal restitution and adenocarcinogenesis. CD147, a membrane protein, was identified as a binding partner for TFF3. Via binding to CD147, TFF3 enhanced CD147-CD44s interaction, resulting in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation and prostaglandin G/H synthase 2 (PTGS2) expression, which were indispensable for TFF3-induced migration, proliferation, and invasion. PTGS2-derived PGE2 bound to prostaglandin E2 receptor EP4 subtype (PTGER4) and contributed to TFF3-stimulated CRC progression. Solution NMR studies of the TFF3-CD147 interaction revealed the key residues critical for TFF3 binding and the induction of PTGS2 expression. The ability of TFF3 to enhance mucosal restitution was weakened by a PTGS2 inhibitor. Blockade of TFF3-CD147 signaling using competitive inhibitory antibodies or a PTGS2 inhibitor reduced CRC lung metastasis in mice. Our findings bring strong evidence that CD147 is a novel receptor for TFF3 and PTGS2 signaling is critical for TFF3-induced mucosal restitution and CRC progression, which widens and deepens the understanding of the molecular function of trefoil factors.

16.
Cell Metab ; 33(8): 1640-1654.e8, 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107313

RESUMO

Obesity is characterized by the excessive accumulation of the white adipose tissue (WAT), but healthy expansion of WAT via adipocyte hyperplasia can offset the negative metabolic effects of obesity. Thus, identification of novel adipogenesis regulators that promote hyperplasia may lead to effective therapies for obesity-induced metabolic disorders. Using transcriptomic approaches, we identified transmembrane BAX inhibitor motif-containing 1 (TMBIM1) as an inhibitor of adipogenesis. Gain or loss of function of TMBIM1 in preadipocytes inhibited or promoted adipogenesis, respectively. In vivo, in response to caloric excess, adipocyte precursor (AP)-specific Tmbim1 knockout (KO) mice displayed WAT hyperplasia and improved systemic metabolic health, while overexpression of Tmbim1 in transgenic mice showed the opposite effects. Moreover, mature adipocyte-specific Tmbim1 KO did not affect WAT cellularity or nutrient homeostasis. Mechanistically, TMBIM1 binds to and promotes the autoubiquitination and degradation of NEDD4, which is an E3 ligase that stabilizes PPARγ. Our data show that TMBIM1 is a potent repressor of adipogenesis and a potential therapeutic target for obesity-related metabolic disease.

17.
Hepatology ; 74(4): 2133-2153, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, a common clinical problem that occurs during liver surgical procedures, causes a large proportion of early graft failure and organ rejection cases. The identification of key regulators of hepatic I/R injury may provide potential strategies to clinically improve the prognosis of liver surgery. Here, we aimed to identify the role of tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3-interacting protein 3 (TNIP3) in hepatic I/R injury and further reveal its immanent mechanisms. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In the present study, we found that hepatocyte TNIP3 was markedly up-regulated in livers of both persons and mice subjected to I/R surgery. Hepatocyte-specific Tnip3 overexpression effectively attenuated I/R-induced liver necrosis and inflammation, but improved cell proliferation in mice, whereas TNIP3 ablation largely aggravated liver injury. This inhibitory effect of TNIP3 on hepatic I/R injury was found to be dependent on significant activation of the Hippo-YAP signaling pathway. Mechanistically, TNIP3 was found to directly interact with large tumor suppressor 2 (LATS2) and promote neuronal precursor cell-expressed developmentally down-regulated 4-mediated LATS2 ubiquitination, leading to decreased Yes-associated protein (YAP) phosphorylation at serine 112 and the activated transcription of factors downstream of YAP. Notably, adeno-associated virus delivered TNIP3 expression in the liver substantially blocked I/R injury in mice. CONCLUSIONS: TNIP3 is a regulator of hepatic I/R injury that alleviates cell death and inflammation by assisting ubiquitination and degradation of LATS2 and the resultant YAP activation.TNIP3 represents a promising therapeutic target for hepatic I/R injury to improve the prognosis of liver surgery.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110769

RESUMO

Dielectric ceramics are crucial for high-temperature, pulse-power energy storage applications. However, the mutual restriction between the polarization and breakdown strength has been a significant challenge. Here, multiphase engineering controlled by the two-step sintering heating rate is adopted to simultaneously obtain a high polarization and breakdown strength in 0.8(0.95Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.05SrZrO3)-0.2NaNbO3 (BNTSZNN) ceramic systems. The coexistence of tetragonal (T) and rhombohedral (R) phases benefits the temperature stability of BNTSZNN ceramics. Increasing the heating rate during sintering reduces the diffusion of SrZrO3 and NaNbO3 into Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3, which results in a high proportion of the R phase and a finer grain size. The overall polarization is enhanced by increasing the proportion of the high-polarization R phase, which is demonstrated using a first-principles method. Meanwhile, the finer grain size enhances the breakdown strength. Following this design philosophy, an ultrahigh Wdis of 5.55 J/cm3 and η above 85% is achieved in BNTSZNN ceramics as prepared with a fast heating rate of 60 °C/min given a simultaneously high polarization of 43 µC/cm2 and high breakdown strength of 350 kV/cm. Variations in the discharge energy density from room temperature to 160 °C are less than 10%. Additionally, such BNTSZNN ceramics exhibit an ultrafast discharge speed with τ0.9 at approximately 60 ns, which shows great potential in pulse-power system applications.

19.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 115: 160-170, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147614

RESUMO

C-type lectins (CTL) are a large group of pattern-recognition proteins and to play important roles in glycoprotein metabolism, multicellular integration, and immunity. Based on their overall domain structure, they can be classified as different groups that possess different physiological functions. A typical C-type lectin (named as OmLec1) was identified from the fish, Onychostoma macrolepis, an important cultured fish in China. Open reading frame of OmLec1 contains a 570 bp, encoding a protein of 189 amino acids that includes a signal peptide and a single carbohydrate-recognition domain. The phylogenetic analysis showed that OmLec1 could be grouped with C-type lectin from other fish. OmLec1 was expressed in all the tissues in our study, and the expression level was highest in liver. And its relative expression levels were significantly upregulated following infection with Aeromonas hydrophila. The recombinant OmLec1 protein (rOmLec1) could agglutinate some Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria in vitro in the presence of Ca2+, showing a typical Ca2+-dependent carbohydrate-binding protein. Furthermore, rOmLec1 purified from E. coli BL21 (DE3), strongly bound to LPS and PGN, as well as all tested bacteria in a Ca2+-dependent manner. These results indicate that OmLec1 plays a central role in the innate immune response and as a pattern recognition receptor that recognizes diverse pathogens among O. macrolepis.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/genética , Cyprinidae/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Lectinas Tipo C/imunologia , Aeromonas hydrophila/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Lectinas Tipo C/química , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária
20.
Nanoscale ; 13(24): 10748-10764, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132312

RESUMO

The rapid development of drug nanocarriers has benefited from the surface hydrophilic polymers of particles, which has improved the pharmacokinetics of the drugs. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a kind of polymeric material with unique hydrophilicity and electrical neutrality. PEG coating is a crucial factor to improve the biophysical and chemical properties of nanoparticles and is widely studied. Protein adherence and macrophage removal are effectively relieved due to the existence of PEG on the particles. This review discusses the PEGylation methods of nanoparticles and related techniques that have been used to detect the PEG coverage density and thickness on the surface of the nanoparticles in recent years. The molecular weight (MW) and coverage density of the PEG coating on the surface of nanoparticles are then described to explain the effects on the biophysical and chemical properties of nanoparticles.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Portadores de Fármacos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Polietilenoglicóis , Polímeros
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