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1.
Photosynth Res ; 2021 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934290

RESUMO

Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of photosystem II (PSII) fluorescence is one of the most important protective mechanisms enabling the survival of phototropic organisms under high-light conditions. A low-efficiency NPQ, characterized by weak NPQ induction capacity and a low level of protective NPQ, was observed in the marine angiosperm Zostera marina, which inhabits the shallow water regions. Furthermore, chlorophyll fluorescence and Western blot analysis verified that the fast-inducted component of NPQ, i.e., the energy-dependent quenching (qE), was not present in this species. In contrast with the lack of PSII antenna quenching sites for qE induction in brown algae and the lack of functional XC in Ulvophyceae belonging to green algae, all the antenna proteins and the functional XC are present in Z. marina. A novel underlying mechanism was observed that the limited construction of the trans-thylakoid proton gradient (ΔpH) caused by photoinactivation of the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) did not induce protonation of PsbS, thus explaining the inability to form quenching sites for qE induction. Although the ΔpH established under light exposure activated violaxanthin (V) de-epoxidase enzyme to catalyze conversion of V via antheraxanthin (A) and then to zeaxanthin (Z), the quenching capacity of de-epoxidized pigment was weak in Z. marina. We suggest that the low-efficiency NPQ was conducive to efficiently utilize the limited electrons to perform photosynthesis, resisting the adverse effect of OEC photoinactivation on the photosynthetic rate.

2.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 149(3): 2072, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810767

RESUMO

On the quest towards efficiently eliminating noises, the development of a subwavelength sound absorber with the capability of free ventilation remains challenging. Here, we theoretically propose and experimentally demonstrate an asymmetric metamaterial absorber constructed by tuned Mie resonators (MRs) with unbalanced intrinsic losses. The lossy MR layer is highly dissipative to consume the sound energy while the lossless one acts as an acoustically soft boundary. Thus, the absorber presents quasi-perfect absorption (95% in experiment) for sound waves incident from the port nearer the dissipative MR and large-amount reflection (71% in experiment) from the opposite port. Moreover, the fluid dynamics investigation confirms the superior character of free air circulation owing to the ultrasparsity (volume filling ratio as low as 5%) of the absorber and its robustness to the velocity of airflows. Due to the multiple-order resonant modes of MR, we further demonstrate the flexibility of a methodology to extend asymmetric absorptions into multibands. Coupled mode analysis is employed to reveal the physical mechanism and further indicates that sparsity can be tuned by attentively controlling the reference leakage factor and intrinsic loss.

3.
Psychometrika ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797016

RESUMO

Person fit statistics are frequently used to detect aberrant behavior when assuming an item response model generated the data. A common statistic, [Formula: see text], has been shown in previous studies to perform well under a myriad of conditions. However, it is well-known that [Formula: see text] does not follow a standard normal distribution when using an estimated latent trait. As a result, corrections of [Formula: see text], called [Formula: see text], have been proposed in the literature for specific item response models. We propose a more general correction that is applicable to many types of data, namely survey or tests with multiple item types and underlying latent constructs, which subsumes previous work done by others. In addition, we provide corrections for multiple estimators of [Formula: see text], the latent trait, including MLE, MAP and WLE. We provide analytical derivations that justifies our proposed correction, as well as simulation studies to examine the performance of the proposed correction with finite test lengths. An applied example is also provided to demonstrate proof of concept. We conclude with recommendations for practitioners when the asymptotic correction works well under different conditions and also future directions.

4.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810101

RESUMO

To date, there is no effective treatment for alcoholic liver disease, despite its prevalence world-wide. Because alcohol consumption is associated with oxidative stress-induced liver injury and pro-inflammatory responses, naturally occurring antioxidants and/or anti-inflammatories may be potential therapeutics. Spermidine is an abundant, ubiquitous polyamine that has been found to display strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. To further investigate whether spermidine is an effective intervention for alcohol-induced liver disease, we examined its hepatoprotective properties using a two-hit, chronic ethanol and acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse model of liver injury. We determined that spermidine administration prevented ethanol and LPS-induced increases in liver injury using plasma ALT as a readout. Furthermore, histological analysis of tissue from control and treated animals revealed that the pathology associated with ethanol and LPS treatment was prevented in mice additionally treated with spermidine. As predicted, spermidine also prevented ethanol and LPS-induced oxidative stress by decreasing the levels of both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation. We further determined that spermidine treatment prevented the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NFκB) by blocking the phosphorylation of the inhibitory protein, IκB, thereby preventing expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Finally, by measuring expression of known markers of hepatic stellate cell activation and monitoring collagen deposition, we observed that spermidine also prevented alcohol and LPS-induced hepatic fibrosis. Together, our results indicate that spermidine is an antioxidant thereby conferring anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects associated with alcoholic liver injury.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: There are limited studies on species distribution and susceptibility profiles of Aspergillus strains isolated from patients with otomycosis in China. METHODS: A total of 69 confirmed Aspergillus species isolates were obtained from ear swabs of patients diagnosed with otomycosis from 2017 to 2018 in northern China. Identification of these Aspergillus isolates at the species level was performed using conventional morphological methods and MALDI-TOF MS in combination with molecular sequencing, and in vitro susceptibility to nine antifungal agents was evaluated using the Sensititre YeastOne system. RESULTS: The Aspergillus section Nigri had the greatest distribution of Aspergillus isolates. A. welwitschiae (n = 25) was the most predominant isolate in section Nigri, followed by A. tubingensis (n = 12) and A. niger (n = 11). Other Aspergillus species were also isolated, including A. terreus (n = 11), A. flavus/A. oryzae (n = 8), and A. fumigatus (n = 2). Amphotericin B, posaconazole, and echinocandins were highly in vitro active against all the isolates tested. 2.9% (2/69) of the isolates were resistant to azoles in our study, including one A. niger isolate with a high MIC value for itraconazole (ITR) (16 mg/L) and one A. tubingensis isolate cross-resistant to both voriconazole (VOR) (MIC >8 mg/L) and ITR (MIC >16 mg/L). One A. welwitschiae and one A. niger isolate both had increased MIC values of 4 mg/L against VOR. CONCLUSIONS: A. welwitschiae was the most prevalent Aspergillus species isolated from patients with otomycosis. Our findings also indicated that the azole-resistant Aspergillus section Nigri should be utilized to guide clinical medication for Otomycosis.

6.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832949

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) accounts for about 2% of all thyroid cancer, but has a relatively poor prognosis compared with differentiated thyroid cancer. Anlotinib is a novel multitarget tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting VEGFR, PDGFR, FGFR and c-Kit. This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase ⅡB study (ALTER 01031, NCT02586350) was conducted to investigate the efficacy and safety of anlotinib in MTC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with histopathologically confirmed, unresectable locally advanced or metastatic MTC were enrolled and randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive anlotinib (12mg once daily from day 1 to 14 every 3 weeks) or placebo. Patients in placebo group were allowed to receive open-label anlotinib after disease progression. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS); secondary end points included objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: 91 patients were enrolled. At data cutoff date, the median PFS was significantly prolonged in anlotinib group than in placebo group (20.7 months vs. 11.1 months, P = 0.029, HR = 0.53 [95% CI, 0.30-0.95]). The ORR of anlotinib treatment was 48.4%. The incidence of treatment related adverse events (TRAE) was 100% and 89.7% in anlotinib and placebo groups. The most common TRAE of all grades in the anlotinib group were palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome (62.9%), proteinuria (61.3%) and hypertriglyceridemia (48.4%). CONCLUSION: Anlotinib demonstrates its efficacy and safety in this phase ⅡB trial for the treatment of MTC and may become a new choice for this rare disease, especially for Chinese patients.

7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2398, 2021 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893278

RESUMO

Arginine plays diverse roles in cellular physiology. As a semi-essential amino acid, arginine deprivation has been used to target cancers with arginine synthesis deficiency. Arginine-deprived cancer cells exhibit mitochondrial dysfunction, transcriptional reprogramming and eventual cell death. In this study, we show in prostate cancer cells that arginine acts as an epigenetic regulator to modulate histone acetylation, leading to global upregulation of nuclear-encoded oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) genes. TEAD4 is retained in the nucleus by arginine, enhancing its recruitment to the promoter/enhancer regions of OXPHOS genes and mediating coordinated upregulation in a YAP1-independent but mTOR-dependent manner. Arginine also activates the expression of lysine acetyl-transferases and increases overall levels of acetylated histones and acetyl-CoA, facilitating TEAD4 recruitment. Silencing of TEAD4 suppresses OXPHOS functions and prostate cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Given the strong correlation of TEAD4 expression and prostate carcinogenesis, targeting TEAD4 may be beneficially used to enhance arginine-deprivation therapy and prostate cancer therapy.

8.
Neuroscience ; 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915200

RESUMO

Oxidative stress plays a critical role in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. We have previously developed a powerful antioxidant, HL-008. This study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective function of HL-008. HL-008 efficacy in vitro and in vivo was evaluated using a PC-12 cell oxidative stress model induced by hydrogen peroxide and a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion, respectively. The MTT assay was used to analyze cell viability. 2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride and hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunofluorescence, western blot, and proteomics were used to evaluate the infarction volume, brain tissue morphology, apoptosis, inflammation, and related pathways. Indicators related to oxidative levels were also detected. HL-008 significantly reduced the cerebral infarction volume induced by ischemia-reperfusion, improved the neurological score, alleviated oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain tissue, reduced glial cell activation, inhibited brain tissue apoptosis by influencing multiple signaling pathways, and had a neuroprotective effect. If HL-008 is successfully developed, it could significantly improve stroke patients' quality of life.

9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(16): e25593, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To systematically evaluate the effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese medicine preparation XPYEG combined with SBI and SBI alone in the treatment of REC, and to provide the reference in drugs for the clinical treatment of children with rotavirus enteritis. METHODS: Retrieving the English databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase; Chinese databases: CNKI, CBM and WANFANG Data. Retrieving a randomized controlled trial of XPYEG and SBI in the treatment of REC. The retrieval time is from the above database until September 2020. The retrieval strategy of combining free words and subject words is adopted, and the references included in the literature are searched manually in accordance with the literature studied in this paper and not included in the above database. Two researchers screen the literature according to the literature inclusion and exclusion criteria, extract valid data and evaluate the quality of the literature, and cross-check it. Using the RevMan 5.3 software to conduct the meta-analysis on the main outcome and secondary outcome indicators of the included literature, while assessing the evidence quality of included study. RESULTS: The effectiveness and safety of XPYEG and SBI in the treatment of REC are presented through the main and secondary outcome indicators. OSF REGISTRATION NUMBER: DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/3QSZG. CONCLUSION: This study will conclude whether the combination of XPYEG and SBI is more effective than SBI alone in the treatment of REC, and whether the medication increases the risk of adverse reactions compared with single medication. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study does not involve the specific patients, and all research data comes from publicly available professional literature, so an ethics committee is not required to conduct an ethical review and approval of the study.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Enterite/terapia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Rotavirus/terapia , Saccharomyces boulardii , Pré-Escolar , Enterite/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi ; 24(4): 217-235, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33896153

RESUMO

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common pathological type of lung cancer. The systemic antitumor therapy of advanced NSCLC has undergone renovations of chemotherapy, targeted therapy and immunotherapy, which results in greatly improved survival for patients with advanced NSCLC. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), especially targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), has changed the treatment paradigm of NSCLC. ICIs have become the standard treatment for advanced NSCLC without epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR) mutation or anaplastic lymphomakinase(ALK) translocation in the first- or second-line setting, and for locally advanced NSCLC following concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy. ICIs are also promising in adjuvant/neoadjuvant therapy. More and more ICIs have been approved domestically for the treatment of NSCLC. Led by the NSCLC expert committee of Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO), this consensus was developed and updated based on thoroughly reviewing domestic and foreign literatures, clinical trial data, systematic reviews, experts' discussion and the consensus(2019 version). This consensus will aid domestic clinicians in the treatment of NSCLC with ICIs.
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11.
Autophagy ; : 1-18, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749503

RESUMO

Basal macroautophagy/autophagy has recently been found in anucleate platelets. Platelet autophagy is involved in platelet activation and thrombus formation. However, the mechanism underlying autophagy in anucleate platelets require further clarification. Our data revealed that LC3-II formation and SQSTM1/p62 degradation were noted in H2O2-activated human platelets, which could be blocked by 3-methyladenine and bafilomycin A1, indicating that platelet activation may cause platelet autophagy. AMPK phosphorylation and MTOR dephosphorylation were also detected, and block of AMPK activity by the AMPK inhibitor dorsomorphin reversed SQSTM1 degradation and LC3-II formation. Moreover, autophagosome formation was observed through transmission electron microscopy and deconvolution microscopy. These findings suggest that platelet autophagy was induced partly through the AMPK-MTOR pathway. In addition, increased LC3-II expression occurred only in H2O2-treated Atg5f/f platelets, but not in H2O2-treated atg5-/- platelets, suggesting that platelet autophagy occurs during platelet activation. atg5-/- platelets also exhibited a lower aggregation in response to agonists, and platelet-specific atg5-/- mice exhibited delayed thrombus formation in mesenteric microvessles and decreased mortality rate due to pulmonary thrombosis. Notably, metabolic analysis revealed that sphingolipid metabolism is involved in platelet activation, as evidenced by observed several altered metabolites, which could be reversed by dorsomorphin. Therefore, platelet autophagy and platelet activation are positively correlated, partly through the interconnected network of sphingolipid metabolism. In conclusion, this study for the first time demonstrated that AMPK-MTOR signaling could regulate platelet autophagy. A novel linkage between AMPK-MTOR and sphingolipid metabolism in anucleate platelet autophagy was also identified: platelet autophagy and platelet activation are positively correlated.Abbreviations: 3-MA: 3-methyladenine; A.C.D.: citric acid/sod. citrate/glucose; ADP: adenosine diphosphate; AKT: AKT serine/threonine kinase; AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase; ANOVA: analysis of variance; ATG: autophagy-related; B4GALT/LacCS: beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase; Baf-A1: bafilomycin A1; BECN1: beclin 1; BHT: butylate hydrooxytoluene; BSA: bovine serum albumin; DAG: diacylglycerol; ECL: enhanced chemiluminescence; EDTA: ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid; ELISA: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; GALC/GCDase: galactosylceramidase; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GBA/GluSDase: glucosylceramidase beta; GPI: glycosylphosphatidylinositol; H2O2: hydrogen peroxide; HMDB: human metabolome database; HRP: horseradish peroxidase; IF: immunofluorescence; IgG: immunoglobulin G; KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes; LAMP1: lysosomal associated membrane protein 1; LC-MS/MS: liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; mAb: monoclonal antibody; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MPV: mean platelet volume; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; ox-LDL: oxidized low-density lipoprotein; pAb: polyclonal antibody; PC: phosphatidylcholine; PCR: polymerase chain reaction; PI3K: phosphoinositide 3-kinase; PLS-DA: partial least-squares discriminant analysis; PRP: platelet-rich plasma; Q-TOF: quadrupole-time of flight; RBC: red blood cell; ROS: reactive oxygen species; RPS6KB/p70S6K: ribosomal protein S6 kinase B; SDS: sodium dodecyl sulfate; S.E.M.: standard error of the mean; SEM: scanning electron microscopy; SGMS: sphingomyelin synthase; SM: sphingomyelin; SMPD/SMase: sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; TEM: transmission electron microscopy; UGT8/CGT: UDP glycosyltransferase 8; UGCG/GCS: UDP-glucose ceramide glucosyltransferase; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1; UPLC: ultra-performance liquid chromatography; PIK3C3/VPS34: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 3; PtdIns3P: phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate; WBC: white blood cell; WT: wild type.

12.
Blood ; 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33763698

RESUMO

RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are critical regulators of transcription and translation that are often dysregulated in cancer. Although RBPs are increasingly appreciated as being important for normal hematopoiesis and for hematological malignancies as oncogenes or tumor suppressors, essential RBPs for leukemia maintenance and survival remain elusive. Here we show that YBX1 is specifically required for maintaining myeloid leukemia cell survival in an m6A-dependent manner. We found that expression of YBX1 is significantly upregulated in myeloid leukemia cells, and deletion of YBX1 dramatically induces apoptosis, promotes differentiation, coupled with reduced proliferation and impaired leukemic capacity of primary human and mouse acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells in vitro and in vivo. Loss of YBX1 does not obviously affect normal hematopoiesis. Mechanistically, YBX1 interacts with IGF2BPs and stabilizes m6A-tagged RNA. Moreover, YBX1 deficiency dysregulates the expression of apoptosis-related genes, and promotes mRNA decay of MYC and BCL2 in an m6A-dependent manner, which contributes to the defective survival due to YBX1 deletion. Thus, our findings uncover a selective and critical role of YBX1 in maintaining myeloid leukemia survival that might provide a rationale for the therapeutic targeting of YBX1 in myeloid leukemia.

13.
J Am Coll Nutr ; : 1-9, 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplements are used to treat lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD), but their effects on patient outcomes remain controversial. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the effect of omega-3 PUFA supplements on outcomes in LEAD patients. DESIGN: We systematically searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published before February 2020 in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Medline, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Three researchers extracted the study design, sample size, omega-3 PUFA dosage, and patient characteristics. A random-effects model was used. The primary outcomes were the mean change in the ankle-brachial index (ABI) and pain-free and maximal walking distance. The secondary outcomes were the mean changes in triglycerides and other lipid profiles, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level, blood pressure, flow-mediated vasodilatation, and incidence of cardiovascular events. RESULTS: Sixteen RCTs and 1,852 patients were analyzed. Most of the included RCTs had a low risk of bias. The grade quality was moderate in ABI, C-reactive protein, and cardiovascular events; very low in triglyceride; and low in the other outcomes. The use of omega-3 PUFAs was not significantly associated with the primary outcomes, but it was significantly associated with a reduced triglyceride level, with a moderate effect size (Hedges' g=-0.34, 95% CI [-0.55-0.13], p < 0.01, I2=32.5%). This significant association was only found for marine-based omega-3 PUFAs. Omega-3 PUFAs and eicosapentaenoic acid dosages >2 g per day were associated with reduced levels of triglycerides. Meta-regression also showed that the use of eicosapentaenoic acid was significantly negatively associated with the triglyceride level in a dosage-dependent manner. No significant association was found in the other secondary outcomes. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis showed that the use of marine-based omega-3 PUFAs was significantly associated with a reduced level of triglycerides. The strength of the association depended on the dosage of eicosapentaenoic acid. (CRD42020168416 at PROSPERO.).

14.
Theranostics ; 11(8): 3624-3641, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33664852

RESUMO

Arginine synthesis deficiency due to the suppressed expression of ASS1 (argininosuccinate synthetase 1) represents one of the most frequently occurring metabolic defects of tumor cells. Arginine-deprivation therapy has gained increasing attention in recent years. One challenge of ADI-PEG20 (pegylated ADI) therapy is the development of drug resistance caused by restoration of ASS1 expression and other factors. The goal of this work is to identify novel factors conferring therapy resistance. Methods: Multiple, independently derived ADI-resistant clones including derivatives of breast (MDA-MB-231 and BT-549) and prostate (PC3, CWR22Rv1, and DU145) cancer cells were developed. RNA-seq and RT-PCR were used to identify genes upregulated in the resistant clones. Unbiased genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 knockout screening was used to identify genes whose absence confers sensitivity to these cells. shRNA and CRISPR/Cas9 knockout as well as overexpression approaches were used to validate the functions of the resistant genes both in vitro and in xenograft models. The signal pathways were verified by western blotting and cytokine release. Results: Based on unbiased CRISPR/Cas9 knockout screening and RNA-seq analyses of independently derived ADI-resistant (ADIR) clones, aberrant activation of the TREM1/CCL2 axis in addition to ASS1 expression was consistently identified as the resistant factors. Unlike ADIR, MDA-MB-231 overexpressing ASS1 cells achieved only moderate ADI resistance both in vitro and in vivo, and overexpression of ASS1 alone does not activate the TREM1/CCL2 axis. These data suggested that upregulation of TREM1 is an independent factor in the development of strong resistance, which is accompanied by activation of the AKT/mTOR/STAT3/CCL2 pathway and contributes to cell survival and overcoming the tumor suppressive effects of ASS1 overexpression. Importantly, knockdown of TREM1 or CCL2 significantly sensitized ADIR toward ADI. Similar results were obtained in BT-549 breast cancer cell line as well as castration-resistant prostate cancer cells. The present study sheds light on the detailed mechanisms of resistance to arginine-deprivation therapy and uncovers novel targets to overcome resistance. Conclusion: We uncovered TREM1/CCL2 activation, in addition to restored ASS1 expression, as a key pathway involved in full ADI-resistance in breast and prostate cancer models.

15.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Furmonertinib (AST2818) is a third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) targeting both sensitising EGFR and EGFR Thr790Met (T790M) mutations. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of furmonertinib in patients with EGFR T790M mutated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: This study was a single-arm, open-label, phase 2b study at 46 hospitals across mainland China. Patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC with centrally confirmed EGFR T790M mutations in tumour tissue who progressed after first or second generation EGFR TKIs or with primary EGFR T790M mutations received furmonertinib 80 mg orally once daily. The primary endpoint was objective response rate. Efficacy was assessed by blinded independent central review as per the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (version 1.1) in all patients who had measurable disease at baseline and received at least one dose of furmonertinib. Safety was assessed as per the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 4.03) in all patients who received at least one dose of furmonertinib with at least one safety assessment during follow-up. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03452592) and is ongoing for survival follow-up. FINDINGS: From Jun 4, 2018, to Dec 8, 2018, 220 patients received furmonertinib treatment. All 220 patients were included in the efficacy and safety analyses. At the data cutoff point of Jan 29, 2020, 71 (32%) patients remained on treatment. The median duration of follow-up was 9·6 months (range 0·7-19·4). The objective response rate was 74% (163 of 220 [95% CI 68-80]). Grade 3 or higher adverse events occurred in 58 (26%) patients and treatment-related grade 3 or higher adverse events occurred in 25 (11%) patients. The most common all-cause grade 3 or higher adverse events were increased γ-glutamyltransferase (five; 2%), increased aspartate aminotransferase, increased alanine aminotransferase, hyponatraemia, hypertension, pulmonary infection, hypermagnesaemia, and pericardial effusion (three each; 1%). Treatment-related diarrhoea was reported in ten (5%) patients and rashes were reported in 16 (7%) patients, all grade 1-2. Serious adverse events were reported in 52 (24%) patients, of which 12 (5%) were possibly treatment-related as evaluated by the investigator. INTERPRETATION: Furmonertinib has promising efficacy and an acceptable safety profile for the treatment of patients with EGFR T790M mutated NSCLC. Furmonertinib is expected to become a new treatment option after first or second generation EGFR TKIs in the Chinese population. FUNDING: Shanghai Allist Pharmaceutical Technology, Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China, and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

16.
J Manuf Syst ; 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686319

RESUMO

COVID-19, which is rampant around the world, has seriously disrupted people's normal work and living. To respond to public urgent needs such as COVID-19, emergency supplies are essential. However, due to the special requirements of supplies, when an emergency occurs, the supply reserve mostly cannot cope with the high demand. Given the importance of emergency supplies in public emergencies, rapid response manufacturing of emergency supplies is a necessity. The faster emergency supplies and facilities are manufactured, the more likely the pandemic can be controlled and the more human lives are saved. Besides, new generation information technology represented by cloud computing, IoT, big data, AI, etc. is rapidly developing and can be widely used to address such situations. Therefore, rapid response manufacturing enabled by New IT is presented to quickly meet emergency demands. And some policy suggestions are presented.

17.
Transpl Infect Dis ; : e13592, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655668

RESUMO

Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is an important opportunistic infection among patients with liver disease and liver transplants. Diagnosis of IA may be challenging, especially among patients with central nervous system infection. Herein, we demonstrate the utility of next-generation sequencing of microbial cell-free DNA in the diagnosis of fungal brain abscess in a liver transplant recipient.

18.
FASEB J ; 35(4): e21491, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710695

RESUMO

An increased omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) tissue status can lead to a significant formation of anti-inflammatory lipid mediators and effective reduction in inflammation and tissue injury in murine colitis. Arachidonic acid lipoxygenases (ALOX) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease as well as in the formation of pro- and anti-inflammatory lipid mediators. To explore the role of Alox15 in the protective response found in fat1 transgenic mice with endogenously increased n-3 PUFA tissue status fat1 transgenic mice were crossed with Alox15-deficient animals and challenged in the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)- and the 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis model. Transgenic fat1 mice rich in endogenous n-3 PUFAs were protected from colitis. However, additional systemic inactivation of the Alox15 gene counteracted this protective effect. To explore the molecular basis for this effect Alox15 lipid metabolites derived from n-3 PUFA were analyzed in the different mice. Alox15 deficiency suppressed the formation of n-3 PUFA-derived 15-hydroxy eicosapentaenoic acid (15-HEPE). In contrast, treating mice with intraperitoneal injections of 15S-HEPE protected wild-type mice from DSS- and TNBS-induced colitis. These data suggest that the anti-colitis effect of increased n-3 PUFA in the transgenic fat1 mouse model is mediated in part via Alox15-derived 15-HEPE formation.

19.
Sci Immunol ; 6(57)2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712472

RESUMO

Epigenetic landscapes can provide insight into regulation of gene expression and cellular diversity. Here, we examined the transcriptional and epigenetic profiles of seven human blood natural killer (NK) cell populations, including adaptive NK cells. The BCL11B gene, encoding a transcription factor (TF) essential for T cell development and function, was the most extensively regulated, with expression increasing throughout NK cell differentiation. Several Bcl11b-regulated genes associated with T cell signaling were specifically expressed in adaptive NK cell subsets. Regulatory networks revealed reciprocal regulation at distinct stages of NK cell differentiation, with Bcl11b repressing RUNX2 and ZBTB16 in canonical and adaptive NK cells, respectively. A critical role for Bcl11b in driving NK cell differentiation was corroborated in BCL11B-mutated patients and by ectopic Bcl11b expression. Moreover, Bcl11b was required for adaptive NK cell responses in a murine cytomegalovirus model, supporting expansion of these cells. Together, we define the TF regulatory circuitry of human NK cells and uncover a critical role for Bcl11b in promoting NK cell differentiation and function.

20.
Lung Cancer ; 154: 176-185, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721611

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare efficacy and safety of dacomitinib versus gefitinib as first-line therapy for EGFR mutation-positive advanced NSCLC in Asian patients enrolled in the ongoing ARCHER 1050 trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this ongoing, randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial (NCT01774721), eligible patients with newly diagnosed advanced EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC were randomized (1:1) to receive oral dacomitinib 45 mg/day or oral gefitinib 250 mg/day. Randomization, by a central computer system, was stratified by race and EGFR mutation type (exon 19 deletion mutation/exon 21 L858R substitution mutation). The primary endpoint was PFS by blinded independent review. RESULTS: Of 346 Asian patients, 170 were randomized to dacomitinib and 176 to gefitinib. The hazard ratio (HR) for PFS with dacomitinib versus gefitinib was 0.509 (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.391-0.662; 1-sided p < 0.0001; median 16.5 months [95 % CI: 12.9-18.4] vs. 9.3 months [95 % CI: 9.2-11.0]). HR for OS with dacomitinib versus gefitinib was 0.759 (95 % CI: 0.578-0.996; median 37.7 months [95 % CI: 30.2-44.7] vs. 29.1 months [95 % CI: 25.6-36.0]). The OS benefit was still maintained in those patients who had a stepwise dose reduction of dacomitinib (to 30 and 15 mg/day). The most common adverse events (AEs) were diarrhea (154 [90.6 %] patients), paronychia (110 [64.7 %]), dermatitis acneiform (96 [56.5 %]), and stomatitis (87 [51.2 %]) with dacomitinib, and diarrhea (100 [56.8 %]), alanine aminotransferase increased (81 [46.0 %]), and aspartate aminotransferase increased (75 [42.6 %]) with gefitinib. Treatment-related serious AEs were reported in 16 (9.4 %) and 8 (4.5 %) patients treated with dacomitinib and gefitinib, respectively. CONCLUSION: First-line dacomitinib was associated with significant prolongation of PFS and improved OS compared with gefitinib in Asian patients with EGFR mutation-positive advanced NSCLC. The AE profiles of dacomitinib and gefitinib in Asian patients were consistent with the overall ARCHER 1050 population.

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