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1.
Ophthalmol Retina ; 4(1): 57-66, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902472

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy and safety profile of intravitreal ranibizumab 0.5 mg in Asian patients with visual impairment due to macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). DESIGN: A 12-month, phase III, double-masked study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 283 patients with BRVO. METHODS: Patients aged ≥18 years were randomized (2:1) to receive ranibizumab 0.5 mg or sham. The ranibizumab group received a minimum of 3 monthly intravitreal injections until stable maximal visual acuity (VA) was achieved followed by an individualized VA stabilization criteria-driven pro re nata (PRN) regimen. Patients in the sham group received sham injections up to month 5 and could receive ranibizumab 0.5 mg PRN from month 6. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean average change in best-corrected VA (BCVA) from baseline to month 1 through month 6 and safety up to month 12. RESULTS: At baseline, patients' mean (standard deviation [SD]) BCVA and central subfield thickness (CSFT) were 57.4 (11.7) letters and 525 (193.4) µm, respectively. Compared with sham, ranibizumab treatment resulted in superior VA gains. The least squares (LS) mean average change in BCVA from baseline to month 1 to month 6 in ranibizumab and sham groups was +12.5 and +5.0 letters, respectively (LS mean difference between ranibizumab vs. sham: +7.5 letters [95% confidence interval, 5.5-9.5], 1-sided P < 0.001). The LS mean change from baseline at month 12 in the ranibizumab versus sham groups in BCVA was +16.4 (14.9-17.8) versus +11.4 (9.3-13.5) letters and in CSFT was -280.0 (-291.6 to -268.4) versus -269.7 (-286.2 to -253.1) µm. The mean (SD) number of injections over 12 months was 7.0 (2.55) in the ranibizumab group and 3.6 (1.60) in the sham with ranibizumab group. No new safety findings were reported. CONCLUSIONS: In Asian patients with BRVO, individualized PRN ranibizumab treatment was statistically superior to sham at month 6 and led to early visual gains that were maintained up to 12 months. Results from the sham group indicate the importance of early treatment in achieving optimal visual outcomes in BRVO. The safety of ranibizumab in this study was consistent with the well-established safety profile of ranibizumab.

2.
Planta ; 251(2): 44, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907626

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: In Hordeum vulgare, nine differentially expressed novel miRNAs were induced by colchicine. Five novel miRNA in colchicine solution showed the opposite expression patterns as those in water. Colchicine is a commonly used agent for plant chromosome set doubling. MicroRNA-mediated responses to colchicine treatment in plants have not been characterized. Here, we characterized new microRNAs induced by colchicine treatment in Hordeum vulgare using high-throughput sequencing. Our results showed that 39 differentially expressed miRNAs were affected by water treatment, including 34 novel miRNAs and 5 known miRNAs; 42 miRNAs, including 37 novel miRNAs and 5 known miRNAs, were synergistically affected by colchicine and water, and 9 differentially expressed novel miRNAs were induced by colchicine. The novel_mir69, novel_mir57, novel_mir75, novel_mir38, and novel_mir56 in colchicine treatment showed the opposite expression patterns as those in water. By analyzing these 9 differentially expressed novel miRNAs and their targets, we found that novel_mir69, novel_mir56 and novel_mir25 co-target the genes involving the DNA repair pathway. Based on our results, microRNA-target regulation network under colchicine treatment was proposed, which involves actin, cell cycle regulation, cell wall synthesis, and the regulation of oxidative stress. Overall, the results demonstrated the critical role of microRNAs mediated responses to colchicine treatment in plants.

3.
Phytochem Anal ; 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916640

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dispensing granule, an innovative product of traditional Chinese medicine decoction, is widely practiced in clinic. As a prerequisite to support the clinical medication, quality consistency between dispensing granule and traditional decoction need to be evaluated. Furthermore, a generally applicable strategy for consistency evaluation of dispensing granule is needed. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to propose an integrated quality-based strategy to assess consistency between dispensing granule and traditional decoction taking Coptidis Rhizoma (CR) as a case study. METHODOLOGY: For chemical consistency evaluation, efficacy-related Coptis alkaloids were quantified with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The "Mean ± 3SD" of analyte contents in traditional decoction was considered as the criterion of consistency. And, as auxiliary analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) was employed for data visualisation. For biological consistency evaluation, two one-side t-tests and 90% confidence intervals of the geometric mean ratio of antibacterial zone diameter and 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of α-glucosidase inhibition were calculated. The scope of 80.00% to 125.00% was taken as in vitro bioequivalence interval. It was considered internally consistent with traditional decoction when the chemical and biological indices of dispensing granule fulfilled the preset criteria simultaneously. RESULTS: Eight out of 20 batches of CR dispensing granule were demonstrated consistent with traditional decoction in chemistry and biological activities. CONCLUSIONS: A generally applicable strategy was recommended that integrates chemical and biological characteristics for consistency evaluation of dispensing granule.

4.
Cell Signal ; : 109540, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953012

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common term for alveolar septal wall destruction resulting in emphysema, and chronic bronchitis accompanied by conductive airway remodelling. In general, this disease is characterized by a disbalance of proteolytic/anti-proteolytic activity, augmented inflammatory response, increased oxidative/nitrosative stress, rise in number of apoptotic cells and decreased proliferation. As the first responder to the various environmental stimuli, epithelium occupies an important position in different lung pathologies, including COPD. Epithelium sequentially transitions from the upper airways in the direction of the gas exchange surface in the alveoli, and every cell type possesses a distinct role in the maintenance of the homeostasis. Basically, a thick ciliated structure of the airway epithelium has a major function in mucus secretion, whereas, alveolar epithelium which forms a thin barrier covered by surfactant has a function in gas exchange. Following this line, we will try to reveal whether or not the chronic bronchitis and emphysema, being two pathological phenotypes in COPD, could originate in two different types of epithelium. In addition, this review focuses on the role of lung epithelium in COPD pathology, and summarises underlying mechanisms and potential therapeutics.

5.
J Hand Surg Eur Vol ; : 1753193419896518, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937179

RESUMO

Surgical treatment for metacarpal neck fractures may be indicated for malrotation, palmar angulation exceeding 30° or metacarpal shortening exceeding 3 mm, although these thresholds have not been firmly established. In a retrospective study, we compared the clinical and radiographic results of 54 patients with displaced fifth metacarpal neck fractures who were treated with either medial locking plates (14 patients) or retrograde intramedullary K-wires (40 patients). At a mean follow-up of 26 months (range 12 to 62), metacarpal shortening and angulation were 2 mm greater and 4° greater, respectively, in the K-wire group. The plate group had an earlier return to work and greater aesthetic satisfaction, but operative time and complication incidence were higher. Range of motion, time to union, grip strength and Quick Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand scores were similar. We conclude that medial plating offers no clear advantage over K-wire fixation in treating metacarpal neck fractures. Level of evidence: III.

6.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939945

RESUMO

Asymmetric conjugate addition of PhMe2SiBPin to a wide range of N-heteroaryl alkenes proceeded in the presence of a copper catalyst coordinated with an easily accessible chiral phosphoramidite ligand to afford useful ß-silyl N-heteroarenes in high yields (up to 96%) and excellent enantioselectivities (up to 97% ee).

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 304, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941936

RESUMO

The bacteria inhabiting brackish lake environments in arid or semi-arid regions have not been thoroughly identified. In this study, the 454 pyrosequencing method was used to study the sedimentary bacterial community composition (BCC) and diversity in Lake Bosten, which is located in the arid regions of northwestern China. A total of 210,233 high-quality sequence reads and 8,427 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were successfully obtained from 20 selected sediment samples. The samples were quantitatively dominated by members of Proteobacteria (34.1% ± 11.0%), Firmicutes (21.8% ± 21.9%) and Chloroflexi (13.8% ± 5.2%), which accounted for more than 69% of the bacterial sequences. The results showed that (i) Lake Bosten had significant spatial heterogeneity, and TOC(total organic carbon), TN(total nitrogen) and TP(total phosphorus) were the most important contributors to bacterial diversity; (ii) there was lower taxonomic richness in Lake Bosten, which is located in an arid region, than in reference lakes in eutrophic floodplains and marine systems; and (iii) there was a low percentage of dominant species in the BCC and a high percentage of unidentified bacteria. Our data help to better describe the diversity and distribution of bacterial communities in contaminated brackish lakes in arid regions and how microbes respond to environmental changes in these stable inland waters in arid or semi-arid regions.

8.
Am J Health Behav ; 44(1): 76-81, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783934

RESUMO

Objectives: In this study, we present updated estimates of use prevalence, flavor use, and flavors as a reason for use among US cigar and electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) users. Methods: Data come from Wave 4 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study and were collected between December 2016 and early January 2018. Results are presented for youth (12-17 years), young adults (18-24 years), and adults (25+ years). Results: Approximately half (50.7%) of young adults reported having ever used an ENDS product with 83.7% reporting that their first ENDS product was flavored. Flavor use was particularly high among current (past 30-day) ENDS users at 97.0% among youth, 96.8% among young adults, and 81.2% among adults. For cigars, cigarillos were the most commonly used type among youth and young adults. Flavor use was highest among current cigarillo and filtered cigar users, with close to half of current users reporting flavor use across age groups. Conclusions: Flavored product use is common among ENDS and cigar users.

9.
Org Biomol Chem ; 18(2): 305-315, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845709

RESUMO

This study describes an efficient protocol for the preparation of substituted 2,4-diaryl-3-sulfonylquinolines from functionalized 2-aminobenzophenones and aromatic ß-ketosulfones by using p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate under microwave irradiation. In this atom-economical synthetic route, a series of pharmaceutically active 3-arylsulfonylquinolines with good functional group tolerance are prepared in good to excellent yields. Some structures are confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.

10.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 117(1): 157-166, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544955

RESUMO

Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells typically produce glycoproteins with N-glycans terminating in α-2,3 sialylation. Human cells produce glycoproteins that include α-2,3 and α-2,6 sialic acids. To examine the impact of altering protein sialylation on pharmacokinetic properties, recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) was produced in CHO cells by knocking out the α-2,3 sialyltransferase genes followed by overexpression of the α-2,6 sialyltransferase (26BChE) enzyme. The N-glycan composition of 26BChE was compared to BChE with α-2,3 sialylation (23BChE) derived from wild-type CHO cells. Both 23BChE and 26BChE exhibited comparable antennarity distributions with bi-antennary di-sialylated glycans representing the most abundant glycoform. CD-1 mice were intravenously injected with the 23BChE or 26BChE, and residual BChE activities from blood collected at various time points for pharmacokinetic analyses. Although 23BChE contained a slightly lower initial sialylation level compared to 26BChE, the molecule exhibited higher residual activity between 5 and 24 hr postinjection. Pharmacokinetic analyses indicated that 23BChE exhibited an increase in area under the curve and a lower volume of distribution at steady state than that of 26BChE. These findings suggest that the type of sialylation linkage may play a significant role in the pharmacokinetic behavior of a biotherapeutic when tested in in vivo animal models.

11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 371-375, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The identification of tea varieties is essential to obtain high-quality tea that can command a high price. To identify tea varieties quickly and non-destructively, and to fight against counterfeit and inferior products in the tea market, a new method of visible / near-infrared spectrum processing based on competitive adaptive reweighting algorithms-stepwise regression analysis (CARS-SWR) variable optimization is proposed in this paper. RESULTS: The spectral data of five different tea varieties were obtained by visible / near-infrared spectrometry. The spectral data were preprocessed by the multivariate scattering correction (MSC) algorithm. First, 20 wavelength variables were selected by CARS, and then six optimal wavelength variables were selected using the SWR method, based on the CARS optimal variables. The generalized regression neural network (GRNN) classification model and probabilistic neural network (PNN) classification model were established, based on spectral information from the full wavelength, the CARS preferred wavelength variable, the SWR preferred wavelength variable, and the CARS-SWR preferred wavelength variable. CONCLUSION: It was found that the CARS-SWR-PNN model had the best classification effect by comparing different modeling results. The classification accuracy of its training set and test set reached 100%. This shows that the CARS-SWR preferred variable method combined with the visible / near-infrared spectrum is feasible for the rapid and non-destructive identification of tea varieties. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/química , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Algoritmos , Camellia sinensis/classificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/classificação , Análise de Regressão , Chá/química
12.
Anal Chem ; 92(1): 1292-1300, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855416

RESUMO

We demonstrate an effective approach to realize active and real-time temperature monitoring around the gold nanobipyramids (AuNBPs)-labeled cancer cell under 808 nm laser irradiation by combining optical tweezers and temperature-sensitive upconversion microparticles (UCMPs). On the one hand, the aptamer-modified AuNBPs that absorb laser at 808 nm not only act as an excellent photothermal reagent but also accurately and specifically bind the target cancer cells. On the other hand, the single optically trapped NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+ UCMPs with a 980 nm laser exhibit temperature-dependent luminescence properties, where the intensity ratio of emission 525 and 547 nm varies with the ambient temperature. Therefore, real-time temperature variation monitoring is performed by 3D manipulation of the trapped single UCMP to control its distance from the AuNBPs-labeled cancer cell while being photothermally killed. The results show distance-related thermal propagation because the temperature increase reaches as high as 10 °C at a distance of 5 µm from the cell, whereas the temperature difference drops rapidly to 5 °C when this distance increases to 15 µm. This approach shows that the photothermal conversion from AuNBPs is sufficient to kill the cancer cells, and the temperature increase can be controlled within the micrometer level at a certain period of time. Overall, we present a micrometer-size thermometer platform and provide an innovative strategy to measure temperature at the micrometer level during photothermal killing of cancer cells.

13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(2): 2572-2580, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860265

RESUMO

Recently, aluminum ion batteries (AIBs) have attracted great attention across the globe by virtue of their massive gravimetric and volumetric capacities in addition to their high abundance. Though carbon derivatives are excellent cathodes for AIBs, there is much room for further development. In this study, flexuous graphite (FG) was synthesized by a simple thermal shock treatment, and for the first time, an Al/FG battery was applied as a cathode for AIBs to reveal the real-time intercalation of AlCl4- into FG with high flexibility by using in-situ scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurements exclusively. Similarly, in-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and in-situ Raman techniques have been used to understand the anomalous electrochemical behavior of FG. It was found that FG adopts a unique integrated intercalation-adsorption mechanism where it follows an intercalation mechanism potential above 1.5 V and an adsorption mechanism potential below 1.5 V. This unique integrated intercalation-adsorption mechanism allows FG to exhibit superior properties, like high capacity (≥140 mAh/g), remarkable long-term stability (over 8000 cycles), excellent rate retention (93 mAh/g at 7.5 A/g), and extremely rapid charging and slow discharging.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817066

RESUMO

The potential effect of a typhoon track on the extent of damage makes the track a critical factor during the emergency response phase. Historical typhoon data may provide information for decision makers to anticipate the impact of an upcoming typhoon and develop prevention strategies to reduce the damage. In our preliminary work, we proposed a track similarity algorithm and implemented a real-time search engine for past typhoon events. However, the proposed algorithm was not discussed thoroughly in the preliminary work, and the great number of historical typhoon track records slowed down the similarity calculations. In addition, the tool did not feature the option of automatically importing upcoming typhoon track predictions. This research introduces the assumption of the recentness dominance principle (RDP), explores the details of the track similarity algorithm of the preliminary work, completes the discussion of parameter setting, and developed a method to improve the efficiency of the similarity calculation. In this research, we implemented the proposed advanced methodology by developing a new information display panel featuring the ability to auto-import forecast data. The results of this study provide decision makers and the public with a concise and handy search engine for searching similar historical typhoon records.

15.
Thromb Haemost ; 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785598

RESUMO

AIM: Enhancement of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) synthase (TXAS) activity, TXA2 release, and thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptor activation leads to vasoconstriction and oxidative injury. We explored whether genetic deletion of TXAS/TXA2/TP signalling may reduce renal ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Renal haemodynamics and function were evaluated in TXAS+/+TP+/+ (wild-type, WT), TXAS-/- (TXS-/-), TP-/- and TXAS-/-TP-/- (double knockout, dKO) mice in response to intravenous TXA2 mimetic-U46619 and 45-minute renal ischaemia and 4-hour reperfusion injury. We examined renal TXAS and TP expression, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine, reactive oxygen species (ROS) amount, pro-inflammatory cytokines and pathophysiologic mechanisms, including apoptosis, autophagy and pyroptosis under I/R injury. RESULTS: Renal I/R enhanced the levels of TXAS, TP, nuclear factor-κB, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase gp91, Bax/Bcl-2/caspase-3/apoptosis, Beclin-1/LC3-II/autophagy, caspase-1/gasdermin D/interleukin-1ß/pyroptosis, renal thromboxane B2 (TXB2) concentration, ROS amount, plasma BUN, creatinine and TXB2 and decreased renal endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in WT mice. All these enhanced parameters were significantly decreased in three KO mice. Intravenous U46619 significantly decreased renal microcirculation and enhanced gp91 and Bax/Bcl-2 in WT and TXS-/- but not TP-/- in dKO mice. I/R significantly decreased renal microcirculation in all mice; however, the time for recovery to baseline renal blood flow level was significantly shortened in TXS-/-, TP-/-and dKO mice versus WT mice. Blockade of TXAS/TP signalling attenuated I/R-enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine profile. CONCLUSION: Blockade of TXAS/TXA2/TP signalling confers renal protection against I/R injury through the actions of anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis, anti-autophagy and anti-pyroptosis.

16.
J BUON ; 24(5): 1979-1984, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786864

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) combined with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and antiviral therapy on the prognosis and quality of life in primary chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver cancer. METHODS: A total of 80 hepatitis B patients complicated with hepatocellular carcinoma treated in our hospital from March 2016 to February 2018 were selected and divided into the control group (n=40) and the observation group (n=40) using a random number table. The patients in the control group were treated with RFA combined with TACE, while those in the observation group were additionally treated with entecavir. The HBV-DNA load and alpha fetoprotein (AFP) level during intervention and the liver function before and after intervention were compared between the two groups. The patients were followed up for 2 years after treatment, the clinical therapeutic effects in both groups were recorded, and the correlations of HBV-DNA load, AFP level and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level with the survival time of patients were analyzed. RESULTS: At 1 and 3 months after intervention, the HBV-DNA load in the observation group was significantly lower than that before intervention (p<0.05), and it was also significantly lower than in the control group (p<0.05). At 1 and 3 months after intervention, the AFP level was lowered in both groups compared with that before the intervention (p<0.05), and it was also lower in the observation group than in the control group (p<0.05). After intervention, the levels of total bilirubin (Tbil), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and ALT in the observation group were lower than those before the intervention (p<0.05), and they were also lower than those in the control group (p<0.05). Moreover, the disease progression in the observation group was significantly lower than in the control group, and the 1-year and 2-year survival in the observation group was longer compared with the control group. The HBV-DNA load, AFP level and ALT level were negatively correlated with the survival of patients (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The RFA combined with TACE and regular antiviral therapy for HBV-related liver cancer is of significance in reducing the HBV-DNA load and tumor markers, improving the liver function, promoting the overall clinical therapeutic effect and prolonging the survival of patients.

17.
World Neurosurg ; 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proximal anterior cerebral (A1) aneurysms are rare among all intracranial aneurysms and are regarded as difficult to treat endovascularly. Treatment is even more challenging in patients with ruptured aneurysms and acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) condition due to the small size and proximity to perforators. Though challenging, endovascular treatment can provide favorable outcome in such patients. We report our case series of endovascular treatment in ruptured proximal A1 aneurysms. METHODS: Between January 2010 and December 2017, 1,200 aneurysms were treated using endovascular treatment at our center. Fifteen patients with 15 ruptured proximal A1 aneurysms presented with SAH. Five patients underwent simple coiling, 9 underwent balloon assisted coiling, and 1 underwent catheter protective coiling. Medical records and angiographic results were obtained retrospectively. RESULTS: All aneurysms were successfully treated with endovascular treatment. Multiplicity rate was 53.3% (n=8). Initial complete obliteration rate was 93.3% (n=14), with a 13.3% recurrence rate (n=2). One patient suffered from procedure-related complications, specifically, intraoperative bleeding. Eleven patients (73.3%) had good clinical outcome. When excluding Hunt and Hess grade 4 patients, the good outcome rate was 81.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Ruptured proximal A1 aneurysm is a rare condition and is highly associated with multiple aneurysms. Despite being a more difficult and complicated technique, endovascular coiling performed in high-volume, experienced medical centers is still an effective modality with excellent clinical outcome.

18.
Environ Toxicol ; 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794124

RESUMO

It has been well-documented that the consumption of deep sea water (DSW) has beneficial effects on myocardial hypertrophy and cardiac apoptosis induced by hypercholesterolemia. However, the molecular mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of DSW on diabetic cardiomyopathy are still largely unclear. The main purpose of this present study was to test the hypothesis that DSW exerts anti-inflammatory effects through the suppression of the TNF-α-mediated signaling pathways. IP injection of streptozotocin (STZ) at the dose of 65 mg/kg was used to establish a diabetes rat model. DSW mineral extracts that diluted in desalinated water were prepared in three different dosages and administered to the rats through gavages for 4 weeks. These dosages are DSW-1X (equivalent to 37 mg Mg2+ /kg/day), 2X (equivalent to 74 mg Mg2+ /kg/day) and 3X (equivalent to 111 mg Mg2+ mg/kg/day). Immunofluorescence staining and Western blot showed that the protein expression level of TNF-α was markedly higher in the STZ-induced diabetic rat hearts than in the control group. Consequently, the phosphorylation levels of the TNF-α-modulated downstream signaling molecules and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were notably elevated in heart tissues of STZ-induced diabetes. These higher phosphorylation levels subsequently upregulated NF-κB-modulated inflammatory mediators, such as cyclooxygenase (COX)-II and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). However, treatment with DSW as well as MgSO4 , the main mineral in DSW, significantly reversed all the alterations. These findings suggest that DSW has potential as a therapeutic agent for preventing diabetes-related cardiovascular diseases.

19.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; : 113347, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794730

RESUMO

Many marine invertebrate larvae undergo a dramatic morphological and physiological transition from a planktonic larva to a benthic juvenile. The mechanisms of this metamorphosis in bivalves are mainly unknown. The recent identification in bivalves of a thyroid hormone receptor (TR) gene raises the possibility that as occurs in vertebrate metamorphosis, TRs regulate this developmental process. An evolutionary study of TR receptors revealed they are ubiquitous in the molluscs. Knock-down of the TR gene in pediveliger larvae of the hard-shelled mussel, Mytilus coruscus (Mc), using electroporation of siRNA significantly (p < 0.01) reduced TR gene expression. TR gene knock-down decreased pediveliger larval metamorphosis by 54% and was associated with a significant (p < 0.01) reduction in viability compared to control larvae. The TR in the hard-shelled mussel appears to be an essential regulatory factor for the successful epinephrine-induced metamorphosis of the pediveliger larvae to post-larvae. It is hypothesised that the knock-down of TR by siRNA transfection affects the "competence" of pediveliger larvae for the metamorphic transition by reducing their ability to respond to the inducer. The involvement of TR in the epinephrine-induced metamorphosis of a mollusc, the hard-shelled mussel, suggests the role of TR in this process probably emerged early during evolution.

20.
Biomed Opt Express ; 10(11): 5687-5702, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799040

RESUMO

In this study, a Q-switch pumped supercontinuum laser (QS-SCL) is used as a light source for in vivo imaging via ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography and angiography (UHR-OCT/OCTA). For this purpose, an OCT system based on a spectral-domain detection scheme is constructed, and a spectrometer with a spectral range of 635 - 875 nm is designed. The effective full-width at half maximum of spectrum covers 150 nm, and the corresponding axial and transverse resolutions are 2 and 10 µm in air, respectively. The relative intensity noise of the QS-SCL and mode-locked SCL is quantitatively compared. Furthermore, a special processing algorithm is developed to eliminate the intrinsic noise of QS-SCL. This work demonstrates that QS-SCLs can effectively reduce the cost and size of UHR-OCT/OCTA instruments, making clinical applications feasible.

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