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1.
Am J Health Behav ; 44(1): 76-81, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783934

RESUMO

Objectives: In this study, we present updated estimates of use prevalence, flavor use, and flavors as a reason for use among US cigar and electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) users. Methods: Data come from Wave 4 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study and were collected between December 2016 and early January 2018. Results are presented for youth (12-17 years), young adults (18-24 years), and adults (25+ years). Results: Approximately half (50.7%) of young adults reported having ever used an ENDS product with 83.7% reporting that their first ENDS product was flavored. Flavor use was particularly high among current (past 30-day) ENDS users at 97.0% among youth, 96.8% among young adults, and 81.2% among adults. For cigars, cigarillos were the most commonly used type among youth and young adults. Flavor use was highest among current cigarillo and filtered cigar users, with close to half of current users reporting flavor use across age groups. Conclusions: Flavored product use is common among ENDS and cigar users.

2.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0206554, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30383853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Polymorphisms in coagulation genes have been associated with early-onset ischemic stroke. Here we pursue an a priori hypothesis that genetic variation in the endothelial-based receptors of the thrombomodulin-protein C system (THBD and PROCR) may similarly be associated with early-onset ischemic stroke. We explored this hypothesis utilizing a multi-stage design of discovery and replication. METHODS: Discovery was performed in the Genetics-of-Early-Onset Stroke (GEOS) Study, a biracial population-based case-control study of ischemic stroke among men and women aged 15-49 including 829 cases of first ischemic stroke (42.2% African-American) and 850 age-comparable stroke-free controls (38.1% African-American). Twenty-four single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNPs) in THBD and 22 SNPs in PROCR were evaluated. Following LD pruning (r2≥0.8), we advanced uncorrelated SNPs forward for association analyses. Associated SNPs were evaluated for replication in an early-onset ischemic stroke population (onset-age<60 years) consisting of 3676 cases and 21118 non-stroke controls from 6 case-control studies. Lastly, we determined if the replicated SNPs also associated with older-onset ischemic stroke in the METASTROKE data-base. RESULTS: Among GEOS Caucasians, PROCR rs9574, which was in strong LD with 8 other SNPs, and one additional independent SNP rs2069951, were significantly associated with ischemic stroke (rs9574, OR = 1.33, p = 0.003; rs2069951, OR = 1.80, p = 0.006) using an additive-model adjusting for age, gender and population-structure. Adjusting for risk factors did not change the associations; however, associations were strengthened among those without risk factors. PROCR rs9574 also associated with early-onset ischemic stroke in the replication sample (OR = 1.08, p = 0.015), but not older-onset stroke. There were no PROCR associations in African-Americans, nor were there any THBD associations in either ethnicity. CONCLUSION: PROCR polymorphisms are associated with early-onset ischemic stroke in Caucasians.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30423998

RESUMO

In 2013⁻2014, nearly 28% of adults in the United States (U.S.) were current tobacco users with cigarettes the most common product used and with nearly 40% of tobacco users using two or more tobacco products. We describe overall change in prevalence of tobacco product use and within-person transitions in tobacco product use in the U.S. between 2013⁻2014 and 2014⁻2015 for young adults (18⁻24 years) and older adults (25+ years). Data from Wave 1 (W1, 2013⁻2014) and Wave 2 (W2, 2014⁻2015) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study were analyzed (N = 34,235). Tobacco product types were categorized into: (1) combustible (cigarettes, cigars, pipe tobacco, hookah), (2) noncombustible (smokeless tobacco, snus pouches, dissolvable tobacco), and (3) electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). Transitions for individual combustible-product types, and for single- and multiple-product use, were also considered. Overall prevalence of current tobacco use decreased from 27.6% to 26.3%. Among W1 non-tobacco users, 88.7% of young adults and 95.8% of older adults were non-tobacco users at W2. Among W1 tobacco users, 71.7% of young adults transitioned, with 20.7% discontinuing use completely, and 45.9% of older adults transitioned, with 12.5% discontinuing use completely. Continuing with/transitioning toward combustible product(s), particularly cigarettes, was more common than continuing with/transitioning toward ENDS. Tobacco use behaviors were less stable among young adults than older adults, likely reflecting greater product experimentation among young adults. Relative stability of cigarette use compared to other tobacco products (except older adult noncombustible use) demonstrates high abuse liability for cigarettes.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30441875

RESUMO

More than half of adult tobacco users in the United States (U.S.) transitioned in tobacco product use between 2013⁻2014 and 2014⁻2015. We examine how characteristics of adult tobacco users in the U.S. relate to transitions in tobacco product use. Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study data were analyzed from 12,862 adult current tobacco users who participated in Wave 1 (W1, 2013⁻2014) and Wave 2 (W2, 2014⁻2015). Three types of transitions were examined-(1) adding tobacco product(s); (2) switching to non-cigarette tobacco product(s); and (3) discontinuing all tobacco use-among those currently using: (1) any tobacco product; (2) cigarettes only (i.e., exclusive cigarette); and (3) cigarettes plus another tobacco product(s) (i.e., poly-cigarette). Multinomial logistic regression analyses determined relative risk of type of transition versus no transition as a function of demographic and tobacco use characteristics. Transitions in tobacco product use among adult tobacco users were common overall, but varied among different demographic groups, including by age, sex, sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and poverty level. Further, cigarette smokers with higher dependence scores were more likely to add product(s) and less likely to discontinue tobacco use compared to those with low dependence scores. That high nicotine dependence is a barrier to discontinuing tobacco use adds evidence to support policy to lower nicotine content of cigarettes and to evaluate new products for their potential to reduce cigarette use.

5.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 18(1): 152, 2018 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29743060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and affects 1.38 million women worldwide per year. Antiestrogens such as tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator, are widely used in clinics to treat ER-positive breast tumors. However, remissions of breast cancer are often followed by resistance to tamoxifen and disease relapse. Despite the increasing understanding of the resistance mechanisms, effective regimens for treating tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer are limited. Antrodia cinnamomea is a traditional medicinal mushroom native only to Taiwan. In this study, we aimed to examine in vitro effect of antrodia cinnamomea in the tamoxifen-resistant cancer. METHODS: Antrodia cinnamomea was studied for its biological activity against proliferation of tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer by XTT assay. Next, the underlying mechanism was studied by flow cytometry, qPCR and Western's blotting assay. RESULTS: Our results revealed that the ethanol extract of antrodia cinnamomea (AC) can inhibit the growth of breast cancer cells, including MCF-7 cell and tamoxifen-resistant MCF-7 cell lines. Combination treatment with AC and 10- 6 M tamoxifen have the better inhibitory effect on the proliferation of tamoxifen-resistant MCF-7 cells than only AC did. AC can induce apoptosis in these breast cancer cells. Moreover, it can suppress the mRNA expression of skp2 (S-phase kinase-associated protein 2) by increasing the expressions of miR-21-5p, miR-26-5p, and miR-30-5p in MCF-7 and tamoxifen-resistant MCF-7 cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the ethanol extract of antrodia cinnamomea could be a novel anticancer agent in the armamentarium of tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer management. Moreover, we hope to identify additional pure compounds that could serve as promising anti-breast cancer candidates for further clinical trials.


Assuntos
Antrodia/química , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases Associadas a Fase S/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Tamoxifeno/farmacologia
6.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 19(1): 5, 2018 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29386061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of prostate cancer. Despite that sophisticated techniques of radiotherapy and radiation combined with chemotherapy were applied to the patients, some tumors may recur. Therefore, the study investigated the effect of dihydroisotanshinone I (DT) and the combination treatment of 5 µM DT and 5Gy irradiation (IR) against the migration ability of prostate cancer cells. METHODS: DT and the combination treatment were studied for its biological activity against migration ability of prostate cancer cells with transwell migration assay. Subsequently, we tried to explore the underlying mechanism with ELISA, flow cytometry and Western's blotting assay. RESULTS: The results showed that DT and the combination treatment substantially inhibited the migration ability of prostate cancer cells. DT and the combined treatment can decrease the ability of macrophages to recruit prostate cancer cells. Mechanistically, DT and the combination treatment reduced the secretion of chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 2 (CCL2) from prostate cancer cells. We also found that DT treatment induced the cell cycle of prostate cancer cells entering S phase and increased the protein expression of DNA damage response proteins (rH2AX and phosphorylated ataxia telangiectasia-mutated [ATM]) in DU145 cells and PC-3 cells. CONCLUSIONS: DT displays radiosensitization and antimigration effects in prostate cancer cells by inducing DNA damage and inhibiting CCL2 secretion. We suggest that DT can be used as a novel antimetastatic cancer drug or radiosensitizer in the armamentarium of prostate cancer management.

8.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2017 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29253243

RESUMO

Introduction: Since 2009, the United States (U.S.) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Tobacco Products (CTP) has had the authority to regulate the manufacture, distribution, and marketing of tobacco products in order to reduce the death and disease caused by tobacco use. Biomarkers could play an important role across a number of FDA regulatory activities, including assessing new and modified risk tobacco products and identifying and evaluating potential product standards. Methods: On April 4-5, 2016, FDA/CTP hosted a public workshop focused on biomarkers of potential harm (BOPH) with participants from government, industry, academia, and other organizations. The workshop was divided into five sessions focused on: 1) overview of BOPH; 2) cardiovascular disease (CVD); 3) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); 4) cancer; and 5) new areas of research. Results and Conclusions: The deliberations from the workshop noted some promising BOPH but also highlighted the lack of systematic effort to identify BOPH that would have utility and validity for evaluating tobacco products. Research areas that could further strengthen the applicability of BOPH to tobacco regulatory science include the exploration of composite biomarkers as predictors of disease risk, "omics" biomarkers, and examining biomarkers using existing cohorts, surveys and experimental studies. Implications: This paper synthesizes the main findings from the 2016 FDA-sponsored workshop focused on biomarkers of potential harm (BOPH) and highlights research areas that could further strengthen the science around BOPH and their applicability to tobacco regulatory science.

9.
Oncotarget ; 8(53): 90925-90947, 2017 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29207614

RESUMO

In traditional Chinese medicine, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (danshen) is widely used in the treatment of numerous cancers. However, its clinical effort and mechanism in the treatment of advanced lung cancer are unclear. In our study, the in vivo protective effort of danshen in patients with advanced lung cancer were validated using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We observed in vitro that dihydroisotanshinone I (DT), a bioactive compound in danshen, exerts anticancer effects through many pathways. First, 10 µM DT substantially inhibited the migration ability of lung cancer cells in both macrophage and macrophage/lung cancer direct mixed coculture media. Second, 10 µM DT repressed the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), the protein expression of S-phase kinase associated protein-2 (Skp2), and the mRNA levels of STAT3-related genes, including chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2). In addition, 10 µM DT suppressed the macrophage recruitment ability of lung cancer cells by reducing CCL2 secretion from both macrophages and lung cancer cells. Third, 20 µM DT induced apoptosis in lung cancer cells. Furthermore, DT treatment significantly inhibited the final tumor volume in a xenograft nude mouse model. In conclusion, danshen exerts protective efforts in patients with advanced lung cancer. These effects can be attributed to DT-mediated interruption of the cross talk between lung cancer cells and macrophages and blocking of lung cancer cell proliferation.

10.
J Immunol Res ; 2017: 9489383, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29062841

RESUMO

In this study, we demonstrated that temozolomide (TMZ) and propyl gallate (PG) combination enhanced the inhibition of migration in human U87MG glioma cells. PG inhibited the TMZ-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The mitochondrial complex III and NADPH oxidase are two critical sites that can be considered to regulate antimigration in TMZ-treated U87MG cells. PG can enhance the antimigration effect of TMZ through suppression of metalloproteinase-2 and metalloproteinase-9 activities, ROS generation, and the NF-κB pathway and possibly provide a novel prospective strategy for treating malignant glioma.


Assuntos
Dacarbazina/análogos & derivados , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Galato de Propila/farmacologia , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dacarbazina/farmacologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Temozolomida
11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 209: 305-316, 2017 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28807849

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge) is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. However, it's definite clinical effect and mechanism on colon carcinoma is unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: To test the hypothesis that the protective effect of danshen on colon cancer and discover the bioactive compounds through in vitro study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a nationwide cohort study by using population-based data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). The study cohort comprised patients diagnosed with malignant neoplasm of colon (ICD-9-CM codes:153) in catastrophic illness database between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2010. We used the Kaplan-Meier method to estimate lung cancer cumulative incidences. Next, human colon cancer cells (HCT 116 cells and HT29 cells) were used to investigate the effect of dihydroisotanshinone I (DT) on the proliferation and apoptosis of human colon cancer cells and the underlying mechanism through XTT assay and flow cytometry. The in vivo effect of DT treatment was investigated through a xenograft nude mouse model. RESULTS: In our study, the in vivo protective effect of danshen in the different stage of colon cancer patients was validated through data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. In vitro, we found that dihydroisotanshinone I (DT), a bioactive compound present in danshen, can inhibit the proliferation of colon carcinoma cells, HCT 116 cells and HT-29 cells. Moreover, DT induced apoptosis of colorectal cancer cells. DT also repressed the protein expression of Skp2 (S-Phase Kinase Associated Protein 2) and the mRNA levels of its related gene, Snail1 (Zinc finger protein SNAI1) and RhoA (Ras homolog gene family, member A). In addition, DT also blocked the colon cancer cells recruitment ability of macrophage by decreasing CCL2 secretion in macrophages. DT treatment also significantly inhibited the final tumor volume in a xenograft nude mouse model. CONCLUSION: Danshen has protective effects in colon cancer patients, which could be attributed to DT through blocking the proliferation of colon cancer cells through apoptosis.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Fenantrenos/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases Associadas a Fase S/metabolismo , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Movimento Celular , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Células HCT116 , Células HT29 , Humanos , Camundongos , Neoplasias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Fenantrenos/química , Células RAW 264.7 , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Associadas a Fase S/genética , Taiwan/epidemiologia
12.
Am J Public Health ; 107(9): 1508-1514, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28727534

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine patterns of smokeless tobacco (SLT) use, by type, in wave 1 (2013-2014) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study in the United States. METHODS: We analyzed data from 32 320 adults (aged ≥ 18 years) to assess the use of pouched snus and other SLT products (loose snus, moist snuff, dip, spit, and chewing tobacco). RESULTS: Overall, SLT use was most common among men, younger adults, non-Hispanic Whites, and nonurban respondents. Pouched snus users were more likely to report nondaily and polytobacco use than users of other SLT products. Respondents who used SLT some days were more likely to be current established cigarette smokers than those who used SLT every day (57.9% vs 20.2%). Furthermore, current established smokers who used SLT some days were more likely to smoke every day and had a higher median number of cigarettes smoked per day than smokers who used SLT every day. CONCLUSIONS: Polytobacco use, especially cigarette smoking, is common among SLT users. Pouched snus users are more likely to report nondaily snus use and polytobacco use than users of other SLT products.


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/tendências , Tabaco sem Fumaça/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar , Estados Unidos
13.
Oncotarget ; 8(25): 40246-40263, 2017 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28157698

RESUMO

Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge) is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. In our study, the in vivo protective effect of danshen in prostate cancer patients was validated through data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. In vitro, we discovered that dihydroisotanshinone I (DT), a bioactive compound present in danshen, can inhibit the migration of both androgen-dependent and androgen-independent prostate cancer cells. In addition, we noted that DT substantially inhibited the migratory ability of prostate cancer cells in both a macrophage-conditioned medium and macrophage/prostate cancer coculture medium. Mechanistically, DT both diminished the ability of prostate cancer cells to recruit macrophages and reduced the secretion of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) from both macrophages and prostate cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, DT inhibited the protein expression of p-STAT3 and decreased the translocation of STAT3 into nuclear chromatin. DT also suppressed the expression of tumor epithelial-mesenchymal transition genes, including RhoA and SNAI1. In conclusion, danshen can prolong the survival rate of prostate cancer patients in Taiwan. Furthermore, DT can inhibit the migration of prostate cancer cells by interrupting the crosstalk between prostate cancer cells and macrophages via the inhibition of the CCL2/STAT3 axis. These results may provide the basis for a new therapeutic approach toward the treatment of prostate cancer progression.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CCL2/biossíntese , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Fenantrenos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cocultura , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Camundongos , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Transporte Proteico/efeitos dos fármacos , Salvia miltiorrhiza/química , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/biossíntese , Resultado do Tratamento , Proteína rhoA de Ligação ao GTP/biossíntese
14.
N Engl J Med ; 376(4): 342-353, 2017 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28121512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noncigarette tobacco products are evolving rapidly, with increasing popularity in the United States. METHODS: We present prevalence estimates for 12 types of tobacco products, using data from 45,971 adult and youth participants (≥12 years of age) from Wave 1 (September 2013 through December 2014) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, a large, nationally representative, longitudinal study of tobacco use and health in the United States. Participants were asked about their use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, traditional cigars, cigarillos, filtered cigars, pipe tobacco, hookah, snus pouches, other smokeless tobacco, dissolvable tobacco, bidis, and kreteks. Estimates of the prevalence of use for each product were determined according to use category (e.g., current use or use in the previous 30 days) and demographic subgroup, and the prevalence of multiple-product use was explored. RESULTS: More than a quarter (27.6%) of adults were current users of at least one type of tobacco product in 2013 and 2014, although the prevalence varied depending on use category. A total of 8.9% of youths had used a tobacco product in the previous 30 days; 1.6% of youths were daily users. Approximately 40% of tobacco users, adults and youths alike, used multiple tobacco products; cigarettes plus e-cigarettes was the most common combination. Young adults (18 to 24 years of age), male adults and youths, members of racial minorities, and members of sexual minorities generally had higher use of tobacco than their counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: During this study, 28% of U.S. adults were current users of tobacco, and 9% of youths had used tobacco in the previous 30 days. Use of multiple products was common among tobacco users. These findings will serve as baseline data to examine between-person differences and within-person changes over time in the use of tobacco products. (Funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the Food and Drug Administration.).


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nat Commun ; 8: 16015, 2017 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29313844

RESUMO

Hand grip strength is a widely used proxy of muscular fitness, a marker of frailty, and predictor of a range of morbidities and all-cause mortality. To investigate the genetic determinants of variation in grip strength, we perform a large-scale genetic discovery analysis in a combined sample of 195,180 individuals and identify 16 loci associated with grip strength (P<5 × 10-8) in combined analyses. A number of these loci contain genes implicated in structure and function of skeletal muscle fibres (ACTG1), neuronal maintenance and signal transduction (PEX14, TGFA, SYT1), or monogenic syndromes with involvement of psychomotor impairment (PEX14, LRPPRC and KANSL1). Mendelian randomization analyses are consistent with a causal effect of higher genetically predicted grip strength on lower fracture risk. In conclusion, our findings provide new biological insight into the mechanistic underpinnings of grip strength and the causal role of muscular strength in age-related morbidities and mortality.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Força da Mão , Mãos/fisiologia , Actinas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador alfa/genética , Reino Unido
16.
J Clin Epigenet ; 3(2)2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29376147

RESUMO

Introduction: Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a common chronic disease with substantial disease burden and economic impact. Lifestyle changes can significantly alter the course of the disease, if detected at an early stage. DNA methylation signature may serve as a biomarker for early detection of increased T2D risk. Design: DNA methylation profiling was performed using the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation 450K Bead chip array in 24 normoglycemic Old Order Amish (OOA) individuals who later developed Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) (cases), and 24 OOA individuals who remained normoglycemic after an average follow up of 10 years (controls). Cases and controls were matched on age, sex, BMI, baseline fasting glucose, and glucose level after 2 h from 75 g Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT). Results: Association analysis found no significant difference in either global methylation or individual probe methylation between cases and controls, however, the top 34 suggestive significant sites were located in genes with interesting biological links to T2D and glycemic traits. These genes include BTC that plays a role in pancreatic cell proliferation and insulin secretion, ITGA1 a known bone mineral density gene that was recently found to be associated also with T2D and glycemic traits, and may explain the link between T2D and BMD, and RPTOR and TSC2 both of which are part of insulin signaling pathway. Conclusions: These results may shed light on the initiation and development of hyperglycemia and T2D and help to identify high risk individuals for early intervention; however, further studies are required for validation.

17.
Tob Control ; 26(4): 371-378, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27507901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This paper describes the methods and conceptual framework for Wave 1 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study data collection. The National Institutes of Health, through the National Institute on Drug Abuse, is partnering with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Tobacco Products to conduct the PATH Study under a contract with Westat. METHODS: The PATH Study is a nationally representative, longitudinal cohort study of 45 971 adults and youth in the USA, aged 12 years and older. Wave 1 was conducted from 12 September 2013 to 15 December 2014 using Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interviewing to collect information on tobacco-use patterns, risk perceptions and attitudes towards current and newly emerging tobacco products, tobacco initiation, cessation, relapse behaviours and health outcomes. The PATH Study's design allows for the longitudinal assessment of patterns of use of a spectrum of tobacco products, including initiation, cessation, relapse and transitions between products, as well as factors associated with use patterns. Additionally, the PATH Study collects biospecimens from consenting adults aged 18 years and older and measures biomarkers of exposure and potential harm related to tobacco use. CONCLUSIONS: The cumulative, population-based data generated over time by the PATH Study will contribute to the evidence base to inform FDA's regulatory mission under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and efforts to reduce the Nation's burden of tobacco-related death and disease.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Iran J Radiol ; 13(2): e19814, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27679690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is currently the gold standard diagnostic method for the diagnosis and evaluation of cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVF). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze different less invasive magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) images, time-resolved MRA (TR-MRA) and three-dimensional time-of-flight MRA (3D TOF MRA) to identify their diagnostic accuracy and to determine which approach is most similar to DSA. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 41 patients with AVM and dAVF at their initial evaluation or follow-up after treatment were recruited in this study. We applied time-resolved angiography using keyhole (4D-TRAK) MRA to perform TR-MRA and 3D TOF MRA examinations simultaneously followed by DSA, which was considered as a standard reference. Two experienced neuroradiologists reviewed the images to compare the diagnostic accuracy, arterial feeder and venous drainage between these two MRA images. Inter-observer agreement for different MRA images was assessed by Kappa coefficient and the differences of diagnostic accuracy between MRA images were evaluated by the Wilcoxon rank sum test. RESULTS: Almost all vascular lesions (92.68%) were correctly diagnosed using 4D-TRAK MRA. However, 3D TOF MRA only diagnosed 26 patients (63.41%) accurately. There were statistically significant differences regarding lesion diagnostic accuracy (P = 0.008) and venous drainage identification (P < 0.0001) between 4D-TRAK MRA and 3D TOF MRA. The results indicate that 4D-TRAK MRA is superior to 3D TOF MRA in the assessment of lesions. CONCLUSION: Compared with 3D TOF MRA, 4D-TRAK MRA proved to be a more reliable screening modality and follow-up method for the diagnosis of cerebral AVM and dAVF.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27347986

RESUMO

Much attention has been paid to hospitals environments since modern pandemics have emerged. The building sector is considered to be the largest world energy consumer, so many global organizations are attempting to create a sustainable environment in building construction by reducing energy consumption. Therefore, maintaining high standards of hygiene while reducing energy consumption has become a major task for hospitals. This study develops a decision model based on genetic algorithms and A* graph search algorithms to evaluate existing hospital environmental conditions and to recommend an optimal scheme of sustainable renovation strategies, considering trade-offs among minimal renovation cost, maximum quality improvement, and low environmental impact. Reusing vacant buildings is a global and sustainable trend. In Taiwan, for example, more and more school space will be unoccupied due to a rapidly declining birth rate. Integrating medical care with local community elder-care efforts becomes important because of the aging population. This research introduces a model that converts a simulated vacant school building into a community public hospital renovation project in order to validate the solutions made by hospital managers and suggested by the system. The result reveals that the system performs well and its solutions are more successful than the actions undertaken by decision-makers. This system can improve traditional hospital building condition assessment while making it more effective and efficient.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Arquitetura Hospitalar/métodos , Hospitais Comunitários , Hospitais Públicos , Arquitetura Hospitalar/normas , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
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