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ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(2): 2572-2580, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860265


Recently, aluminum ion batteries (AIBs) have attracted great attention across the globe by virtue of their massive gravimetric and volumetric capacities in addition to their high abundance. Though carbon derivatives are excellent cathodes for AIBs, there is much room for further development. In this study, flexuous graphite (FG) was synthesized by a simple thermal shock treatment, and for the first time, an Al/FG battery was applied as a cathode for AIBs to reveal the real-time intercalation of AlCl4- into FG with high flexibility by using in-situ scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurements exclusively. Similarly, in-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and in-situ Raman techniques have been used to understand the anomalous electrochemical behavior of FG. It was found that FG adopts a unique integrated intercalation-adsorption mechanism where it follows an intercalation mechanism potential above 1.5 V and an adsorption mechanism potential below 1.5 V. This unique integrated intercalation-adsorption mechanism allows FG to exhibit superior properties, like high capacity (≥140 mAh/g), remarkable long-term stability (over 8000 cycles), excellent rate retention (93 mAh/g at 7.5 A/g), and extremely rapid charging and slow discharging.