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1.
Talanta ; 230: 122291, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934763

RESUMO

Isolation and enumeration of bacteria at ultralow concentrations and antibiotic resistance profiling are of great importance for early diagnosis and treatment of bacteremia. In this work, we describe a simple, rapid, and versatile magnetic-assisted microfluidic method for rapid bacterial detection. The developed method enables magnetophoretic loading of bead-captured bacteria into the microfluidic chamber under external static and dynamic magnetic fields in 4 min. A shallow microfluidic chamber design that enables the monolayer orientation and transportation of the beads and a glass substrate with a thickness of 0.17 mm was utilized to allow high-resolution fluorescence imaging for quantitative detection. Escherichia coli (E. coli) with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing gene and streptavidin-modified superparamagnetic microbeads were used as model bacteria and capturing beads, respectively. The specificity of the method was validated using Lactobacillus gasseri as a negative control group. The limit of detection and limit of quantification values were determined as 2 CFU/ml and 10 CFU/ml of E. coli, respectively. The magnetic-assisted microfluidic method is a versatile tool for the detection of ultralow concentrations of viable bacteria with the linear range of 5-5000 CFU/ml E. coli in 1 h, and providing growth curves and phenotypic characterization bead-captured E. coli in the following 5 h of incubation. Our results are promising for future rapid and sensitive antibiotic susceptibility testing of ultralow numbers of viable cells.

2.
Food Chem ; 358: 129891, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940290

RESUMO

Quercetin is a well-studied natural product with multiple pharmacological properties. In this study, we demonstrated that quercetin suppressed protein digestion in the intestinal fluid by inhibiting trypsin, a key digestive enzyme. However, we also observed a previously unknown property of quercetin: promoting the intestinal absorption of proteins. In addition, the promoted protein absorption was mediated by internalization of digested oligopeptides in the intestinal epithelia rather than increasing the intestinal paracellular permeability. Notably, four other flavonoids also achieved such enhanced intestinal absorption, suggesting that this effect was associated with the aglycone flavonol backbone, but not related to their inhibitory potencies against trypsin. This study demonstrates that quercetin exhibits dual effects on protein digestion and absorption: 1) suppressing protein digestion by inhibiting trypsin in the intestinal fluid; 2) promoting the intestinal absorption of oligopeptides in the intestinal villi cells.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It is currently unknown how hepatitis C virus (HCV) eradication with pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PR) therapy affects the incidence of new-onset liver cirrhosis (LC) in patients without cirrhosis and the incidence of decompensated liver disease (DLD) or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: Taiwanese chronic hepatitis C cohort (T-COACH) is a nationwide HCV registry cohort from 23 hospitals in Taiwan recruited between 2003 and 2015. This study enrolled 10,693 patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), linked to the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, receiving PR therapy for at least 4 weeks for new-onset LC and liver-related complications (DLD or HCC). RESULTS: Of the 10,693 patients, 1372 (12.8%) patients had LC, and the mean age was 54.0 ± 11.4 years. The mean follow-up duration was 4.38 ± 2.79 years, with overall 46,798 person-years. The 10-year cumulative incidence rates of new-onset LC were 5.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.2-7.7) in patients without cirrhosis with a sustained virologic response (SVR) and 21.9% (95% CI: 13.4-32.4) in those without SVR (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.22, P < 0.001). The 10-year cumulative incidence rates of liver-related complications were 21.4% (95% CI: 11.1-37.2) in patients with cirrhosis with SVR and 47.0% (95% CI: 11.1-86.0) in those without SVR after adjustment for age, sex, and competing mortality (HR: 0.52, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: HCV eradication with PR therapy decreased the incidence of new-onset LC in noncirrhotic patients and the incidence of liver-related complications in cirrhotic patients with CHC.

4.
Mol Cancer ; 20(1): 62, 2021 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug-resistance and severe side effects of chemotherapeutic agents result in unsatisfied survival of patients with lung cancer. CXCLs/CXCR2 axis plays an important role in progression of cancer including lung cancer. However, the specific anti-cancer mechanism of targeting CXCR2 remains unclear. METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis of CXCR2 was performed on the microarray of tumor tissues of clinical lung adenocarcinoma and lung squamous cell carcinoma patients. CCK8 test, TUNEL immunofluorescence staining, PI-Annexin V staining, ß-galactosidase staining, and Western blot were used to verify the role of CXCR2 in vitro. Animal models of tail vein and subcutaneous injection were applied to investigate the therapeutic role of targeting CXCR2. Flow cytometry, qRT-PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunohistochemistry analysis were performed for further mechanistic investigation. RESULTS: The expression of CXCR2 was elevated in both human lung cancer stroma and tumor cells, which was associated with patients' prognosis. Inhibition of CXCR2 promoted apoptosis, senescence, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and anti-proliferation of lung cancer cells. In vivo study showed that tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs) were significantly infiltrate into tumor tissues of mouse model, with up-regulated CXCLs/CXCR2 signaling and suppressive molecules, including Arg-1 and TGF-ß. SB225002, a selective inhibitor of CXCR2 showed promising therapeutic effect, and significantly reduced infiltration of neutrophils and enhanced anti-tumor T cell activity via promoting CD8+ T cell activation. Meanwhile, blockade of CXCR2 could enhance therapeutic effect of cisplatin via regulation of neutrophils infiltration. CONCLUSIONS: Our finds verify the therapeutic effects of targeting CXCR2 in lung cancer and uncover the potential mechanism for the increased sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents by antagonists of CXCR2.

5.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatoma-Up-Regulated Protein (HURP) and Ki-67 have been identified as cancer-related genes involved in cell growth and proliferation. Previous experimental studies have suggested an essential role for HURP expression in liver carcinogenesis. However, data regarding HURP expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its correlation with patient outcomes are limited. In this study, we examined the clinicopathological features associated with HURP expression in HCC, and compared them to the results of the Ki-67 study. METHODS: 87 resected HCC at TNM stages I (n = 28), II (n = 29), and III (n = 30) were evaluated. HURP and Ki-67 expression were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Multivariate analysis was used to examine the prognostic significance of HURP and Ki-67 expression. RESULTS: HURP expression in HCC tissue was observed in 59% patients and associated with female sex, low white blood cell count, and low platelet count. Ki-67 expression was observed in 67% patients and associated with younger age, higher serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) levels, and frequent microvascular invasion. Univariate analysis showed that factors related to overall survival were: age > 55 years, AFP > 20 ng/mL, ICG-15 > 15%, tumor size > 5 cm, multiple tumors, macrovascular invasion, microvascular invasion, Ki-67 expression, and serum VEFG > 170 pg/mL. HURP expression was not associated with post-resection survival. Multivariate analysis indicated that macrovascular invasion, multiple tumors, ICG-15 > 15%, and Ki-67 expression were independent factors for overall survival. Multiple tumors and Ki-67 expression were independent factors related to recurrence-free survival. CONCLUSION: In our study, HURP expression in HCC tissue was not associated with post-resection survival. Ki-67 expression was an independent prognostic factor for survival. Our results suggest that the effect of HURP activity on growth, invasion, and post-resection outcome of HCC in actual patients is less than previously demonstrated in experimental studies.

6.
Postgrad Med ; : 1-10, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851902

RESUMO

Objectives: We aimed to investigate the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) risk and respiratory inflammation evaluated by the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) interleukin-6 (IL-6) and plasma surfactant protein-D (SP-D), based on the Berlin questionnaire (BQ) screening values in an adult, urban community in Beijing, China.Methods: Volunteers aged >40 years were recruited from the Shichahai community of central Beijing (Registration number: NCT04832711). Their general information and disease history were recorded. OSA risk was assessed using the BQ. IL-6 in EBC and plasma SP-D were d etected by enzyme-linked immunoassay through specimens collected while fasting. The differences in IL-6 and SP-D values between high-risk and low-risk groups for OSA were compared, and the factors affecting their values were analyzed.Results: Among 1,239 participants, 18.8% of participants were in the high-risk group. There were more participants with higher body mass index, chronic hypertension, coronary heart disease, and diabetes in the high-risk group than in the low-risk group (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in EBC IL-6 and plasma SP-D between the high- and low-OSA risk groups (p > 0.05). After adjustment for age, sex and chronic comorbidities, multivariate logistic regression showed that there was no correlation between risk of OSA and IL-6 in EBC. However, the risk of OSA (odds ratio [OR] [95% CI]: 1.69 [1.15,2.48]; ß = 0.522) and BMI (OR [95%CI]: 0.94 [0.91,0.98]; ß = -0.061) were independently associated with plasma SP-D level (p < 0.05 for both). Stratification analysis showed that OSA risk were independently associated with plasma SP-D levels in participants <65 years, or men, or participants with BMI<25.Conclusion: This study showed that plasma SP-D, an inflammation biomarker, was associated with risk of OSA and BMI in a Chinese central urban community.The relationship between the risk of OSA and respiratory inflammation in community populations needs to be further evaluated.

7.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33828237

RESUMO

Amyloid-ß (Aß) accumulation in the brain is a pivotal event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and its clearance from the brain is impaired in sporadic AD. Previous studies suggest that approximately half of the Aß produced in the brain is cleared by transport into the periphery. However, the mechanism and pathophysiological significance of peripheral Aß clearance remain largely unknown. The kidney is thought to be responsible for Aß clearance, but direct evidence is lacking. In this study, we investigated the impact of unilateral nephrectomy on the dynamic changes in Aß in the blood and brain in both humans and animals and on behavioural deficits and AD pathologies in animals. Furthermore, the therapeutic effects of the diuretic furosemide on Aß clearance via the kidney were assessed. We detected Aß in the kidneys and urine of both humans and animals and found that the Aß level in the blood of the renal artery was higher than that in the blood of the renal vein. Unilateral nephrectomy increased brain Aß deposition; aggravated AD pathologies, including Tau hyperphosphorylation, glial activation, neuroinflammation, and neuronal loss; and aggravated cognitive deficits in APP/PS1 mice. In addition, chronic furosemide treatment reduced blood and brain Aß levels and attenuated AD pathologies and cognitive deficits in APP/PS1 mice. Our findings demonstrate that the kidney physiologically clears Aß from the blood, suggesting that facilitation of Aß clearance via the kidney represents a novel potential therapeutic approach for AD.

8.
Mol Neurobiol ; 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860440

RESUMO

Diabetic encephalopathy, a severe complication of diabetes mellitus, is characterized by neuroinflammation and aberrant synaptogenesis in the hippocampus leading to cognitive decline. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is associated with cognition impairment. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is a transcription factor of proinflammatory cytokines. Although mTOR has been ever implicated in processes occurring in neuroinflammation, the role of this enzyme on NF-κB signaling pathway remains unclear in diabetic encephalopathy. In the present study, we investigated whether mTOR regulates the NF-κB signaling pathway to modulate inflammatory cytokines and synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons. In vitro model was constructed in mouse HT-22 hippocampal neuronal cells exposed to high glucose. With the inhibition of mTOR or NF-κB by either chemical inhibitor or short-hairpin RNA (shRNA)-expressing lentivirus-vector, we examined the effects of mTOR/NF-κB signaling on proinflammatory cytokines and synaptic proteins. The diabetic mouse model induced by a high-fat diet combined with streptozotocin injection was administrated with rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor) and PDTC (NF-κB inhibitor), respectively. High glucose significantly increased mTOR phosphorylation in HT-22 cells. While inhibiting mTOR by rapamycin or shmTOR significantly suppressed high glucose-induced activation of NF-κB and its regulators IKKß and IκBα, suggesting mTOR is the upstream regulator of NF-κB. Furthermore, inhibiting NF-κB by PDTC and shNF-κB decreased proinflammatory cytokines expression (IL-6, IL-1ß, and TNF-α) and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and synaptic proteins (synaptophysin and PSD-95) in HT-22 cells under high glucose conditions. Besides, the mTOR and NF-κB inhibitors improved cognitive decline in diabetic mice. The inhibition of mTOR and NF-κB suppressed mTOR/NF-κB signaling pathway, increased synaptic proteins, and improved ultrastructural synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus of diabetic mice. Activating mTOR/NF-κB signaling pathway regulates the pathogenesis of diabetic encephalopathy, such as neuroinflammation, synaptic proteins loss, and synaptic ultrastructure impairment. The findings provide the implication that mTOR/NF-κB is potential new drug targets to treat diabetic encephalopathy.

10.
Life (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807545

RESUMO

Deep learning-based software is developed to assist physicians in terms of diagnosis; however, its clinical application is still under investigation. We integrated deep-learning-based software for diabetic retinopathy (DR) grading into the clinical workflow of an endocrinology department where endocrinologists grade for retinal images and evaluated the influence of its implementation. A total of 1432 images from 716 patients and 1400 images from 700 patients were collected before and after implementation, respectively. Using the grading by ophthalmologists as the reference standard, the sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) to detect referable DR (RDR) were 0.91 (0.87-0.96), 0.90 (0.87-0.92), and 0.90 (0.87-0.93) at the image level; and 0.91 (0.81-0.97), 0.84 (0.80-0.87), and 0.87 (0.83-0.91) at the patient level. The monthly RDR rate dropped from 55.1% to 43.0% after implementation. The monthly percentage of finishing grading within the allotted time increased from 66.8% to 77.6%. There was a wide range of agreement values between the software and endocrinologists after implementation (kappa values of 0.17-0.65). In conclusion, we observed the clinical influence of deep-learning-based software on graders without the retinal subspecialty. However, the validation using images from local datasets is recommended before clinical implementation.

11.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807834

RESUMO

Breast cancer expresses clinically heterogeneous characteristics and requires multipurpose drug development for curing the different tumor subtypes. Many withanolides have been isolated from Physalis species showing anticancer effects, but the anticancer function of physapruin A (PHA) has rarely been investigated. In this study, the anticancer properties of PHA in breast cancer cells were examined by concentration and time-course experiments. In terms of cellular ATP content, PHA inhibited the proliferation of three kinds of breast cancer cells: MCF7 (estrogen receptor (ER)+, progesterone receptor (PR)+/-, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-), SKBR3 (ER-/PR-/HER2+), and MDA-MB-231 (triple-negative). Moreover, PHA induced G2/M arrest in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. In terms of flow cytometry, PHA induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the generation of mitochondrial superoxide, mitochondrial membrane potential depletion, and γH2AX-detected DNA damage in breast cancer MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, which were suppressed by the ROS inhibitor N-acetylcysteine (NAC). In terms of flow cytometry and Western blotting, PHA induced apoptotic expression (annexin V, and intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signaling), which was suppressed by NAC and an apoptosis inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK), in breast cancer cells. Therefore, PHA is a potential anti-breast-cancer natural product that modulates the oxidative-stress response, cell-cycle disturbance, apoptosis, and γH2AX-detected DNA damage.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Establish patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDTX) from advanced GICs and assess the clinical value and applicability of PDTX for the treatment of advanced gastrointestinal cancers. METHODS: Patients with advanced GICs were enrolled in a registered multi-center clinical study (ChiCTR-OOC-17012731). The performance of PDTX was evaluated by analyzing factors that affect the engraftment rate, comparing the histological consistency between primary tumors and tumorgrafts, examining the concordance between the drug effectiveness in PDTXs and clinical responses, and identifying genetic variants and other factors associated with prognosis. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients were enrolled in the study with the engraftment rate of 75.8% (25/33). The success of engraftment was independent of age, cancer types, pathological stages of tumors, and particularly sampling methods. Tumorgrafts retained the same histopathological characteristics as primary tumors. Forty-nine regimens involving 28 drugs were tested in seventeen tumorgrafts. The median time for drug testing was 134.5 days. Follow-up information was obtained about 10 regimens from 9 patients. The concordance of drug effectiveness between PDTXs and clinical responses was 100%. The tumor mutation burden (TMB) was correlated with the effectiveness of single drug regimens, while the outgrowth time of tumorgrafts was associated with the effectiveness of combined regimens. CONCLUSION: The engraftment rate in advanced GICs was higher than that of other cancers and meets the acceptable standard for applying personalized therapeutic strategies. Tumorgrafts from PDTX kept attributes of the primary tumor. Predictions from PDTX modeling closely agreed with clinical drug responses. PDTX may already be clinically applicable for personalized medication in advanced GICs.

13.
J Pediatr Surg ; 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840505

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Liver transplantation (LT) for small infants < 6 months old is rare but becoming common as perioperative care improves. In Taiwan, living donor LT (LDLT) has expanded indications but is rarely performed for this age group because of unfavorable outcomes in the literature. We evaluated LDLT outcomes of patients <6 months old. METHODS: We identified infants < 6 months old undergoing LDLT between 2004 and 2019 at our hospital. Variables related to recipients, donors, surgeries, and outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Nine patients were identified. Indications for LT were biliary atresia (n = 2), Alagille syndrome (n = 1), protein C deficiency (n = 1), and acute liver failure (n = 5), including two patients with neonatal hemochromatosis, one with herpes simplex hepatitis, one with giant cell hepatitis with autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and one with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Median age and weight at LT were 129 days and 4.8 kg, respectively. Graft types included left lateral segment (LLS, n = 4), hyper-reduced LLS (n = 4), and monosegment (n = 1). The median graft-to-recipient weight ratio was 4%. The median follow-up period was 14 months (range, 8 days to 127 months) with two mortalities, and two patients were totally weaned off immunosuppressants. Adjuvant therapies were required for patients with giant cell hepatitis and hemophagocytosis. Preoperative reconstructive imaging for estimating graft thickness facilitated surgical planning. CONCLUSION: Although LDLT is difficult to perform for small infants, outcomes are favorable and mainly dependent on underlying causes in addition to technical innovations.

14.
Genomics ; 113(4): 2032-2044, 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915245

RESUMO

Endometrial cancer (EC) is a common female reproductive tumor worldwide. Nonetheless, the pathogenesis of EC still remains ambiguous and associated epigenetic mechanism still to be explored. The goal of this study is to investigate whether gene methylation signature is associated with overall survival (OS) for EC patients. In this study, a 10-gene methylation risk model was built and the OS in high- and low-risk groups was significant different. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of this model was 0.856 at 5 years survival. The nomogram could accurately predict the OS in EC patients, with concordance index and AUC at 5 year survival reached 0.796 and 0.792, respectively. Furthermore, we verified the nomogram with 24 patients in our center and the Kaplan-Meier survival curve also proved to be significantly different (p < 0.01). WGCNA revealed a key gene group for the model and further bioinformatics analysis indicated 6 genes as the hub genes in the module. Knockdown of MMP12 inhibited the proliferation, invasion and metastasis of EC cells. After all, a methylation signature and a nomogram based on this signature were constructed, and they could both predict survival in patients with EC. Moreover, WGCNA model identified MMP12 as a potential target for the treatment of EC.

15.
Mar Drugs ; 19(3)2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669051

RESUMO

Application of LC-MS/MS-based molecular networking indicated the ethanol extract of octocoral Asterospicularia laurae is a potential source for the discovery of new xenicane derivatives. A natural product investigation of this soft coral resulted in the isolation of four new xenicane diterpenoids, asterolaurins O‒R (1‒4), together with six known compounds, xeniolide-A (5), isoxeniolide-A (6), xeniolide-B (7), 7,8-epoxyxeniolide-B (8), 7,8-oxido-isoxeniolide-A (9), and 9-hydroxyxeniolide-F (10). The structures of isolated compounds were characterized by employing spectroscopic analyses, including 2D-NMR (COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS). Asterolaurin O is the first case of brominated tricarbocyclic type floridicin in the family Xeniidae. Concerning bioactivity, the cytotoxic activity of those isolates was evaluated. As a result, compounds 1 and 2 demonstrated a selective cytotoxic effect against the MCF-7 cell line at IC50 of 14.7 and 25.1 µM, respectively.

16.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 95: 107545, 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765609

RESUMO

Hyperglycemia-induced neuroinflammation promotes the progression of diabetic encephalopathy. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exerts anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities against neurodegenerative diseases. However, the effects of H2S on hyperglycemia-induced neuroinflammation has not been investigated in neurons. Herein, by using HT-22 neuronal cells, we found that high glucose decreased the levels of endogenous H2S and its catalytic enzyme, cystathionine-ß-synthase (CBS). The administration of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a H2S donor) or S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe, an allosteric activator of CBS) restored high glucose-induced downregulation of CBS and H2S levels. Importantly, H2S ameliorated high glucose-induced inflammation in HT-22 cells, evidenced by NaHS or SAMe inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α) expression in HT-22 cells exposed to high glucose. Furthermore, NaHS or SAMe restored the SIRT1 level and the phosphorylation of mTOR and NF-κB p65 disturbed by high glucose in HT-22 cells, suggesting H2S reversed high glucose-induced alteration of SIRT1-mTOR/NF-κB signaling pathway. Our results demonstrated that exogenous H2S treatment or enhancing endogenous H2S synthesis prevents the inflammatory processes in the neurons with the exposure of high glucose. Therefore, increasing the H2S level using NaHS or SAMe might shed light on the prophylactic treatment of diabetic encephalopathy.

17.
Hepatol Int ; 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data regarding the real-world effectiveness and safety of sofosbuvir/velpatasvir (SOF/VEL) for East Asian patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and compensated liver disease are limited. We evaluated the performance of SOF/VEL for 12 weeks for HCV-infected patients with compensated liver disease in a large real-world cohort in Taiwan. METHODS: Between July 2019 and March 2020, 1880 HCV-infected patients with compensated liver disease who received SOF/VEL 400/100 mg once daily for 12 weeks were included at 15 academic centers in Taiwan. The sustained virologic response at off-treatment week 12 (SVR12) was assessed for evaluable (EP) and per-protocol populations (PP). The tolerance was also reported. RESULTS: The SVR12 rates by EP and PP analyses were 95.6% [1798 of 1880 patients; 95% confidence interval (CI) 94.6-96.5%] and 99.3% (1798 of 1811 patients; 95% CI 98.8-99.6%), respectively. Among 82 patients who failed to achieve SVR12, 13 (15.9%) were attributed to virologic failures. The SVR12 rates were comparable regardless of baseline characteristics. A total of 1859 (98.9%) patients completed 12-week SOF/VEL treatment. Four (0.2%) patients discontinued treatment due to adverse events (AEs). All patients with serious AEs or deaths were judged not related to SOF/VEL. The AEs occurring in ≥ 10% included headache (16.8%), fatigue (16.2%), nausea (11.8%), and insomnia (11.1%). Nine (0.5%) and 2 (0.1%) patients had grade 3 total bilirubin and alanine aminotransferase elevations. CONCLUSIONS: SOF/VEL for 12 weeks is efficacious and well-tolerated by chronic HCV-infected patients with compensated liver disease in Taiwan.

18.
Liver Int ; 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are highly effective in treating chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. The real-world treatment outcome in Taiwanese patients on a nationwide basis is elusive. METHODS: The Taiwan HCV Registry (TACR) programme is a nationwide registry platform including 48 study sites, which is organized and supervised by the Taiwan Association for the Study of the Liver. The primary endpoint was sustained virological response (SVR12, undetectable HCV RNA 12 weeks after end-of-treatment). RESULTS: A total of 13 951 registered patients with SVR12 data available were analysed (mean age, 63.0 years; female, 55.9%; HCV genotype-1 [GT1], 57.9%; cirrhosis, 38.4%; preexisting hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC], 10.6%; and hepatitis B virus coinfection, 7.7%). The overall SVR12 rate was 98.3%, with 98.7%, 98.0%, 98.4% and 97.4% in treatment-naïve noncirrhotic, treatment-naïve cirrhotic, treatment-experienced noncirrhotic and treatment-experienced cirrhotic patients, respectively. The SVR12 rate was > 95% across all subgroups except treatment-experienced cirrhotic patients who received sofosbuvir/ribavirin (88.7%), treatment-naïve noncirrhotic patients (94.8%) and treatment-experienced cirrhotic (94.8%) patients who received daclatasvir/asunaprevir. The most important factor associated with treatment failure was DAA adherence < 60% ( adjusted odds ratio [aOR]/95% confidence interval [CI]: 117.1/52.4-261.3, P < .001), followed by GT3/GT2 (aOR/CI: 5.78/2.25-14.9, P = .0003 and aOR/CI: 1.55/1.05-2.29, P = .03, compared with GT1), active hepatocellular carcinoma (aOR/CI: 4.29/2.57-7.16, P < .001), the use of sofosbuvir/ribavirin (aOR/CI: 2.51/1.67-3.77, P < .001) and daclatasvir/asunaprevir (aOR/CI: 3.29/1.94-5.58, P < .001), decompensated liver cirrhosis (aOR/CI: 2.50/1.20-5.22, P = .02) and high HCV viral loads (aOR/CI: 2.16/1.57-2.97, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: DAAs are highly effective in treating Taiwanese HCV patients in the real-world setting. Maintaining DAA adherence and selecting highly efficacious regimens are keys to ensure treatment success.

19.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 81, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of broncholithiasis is complex, especially in the case of a large or transbronchial broncholith. Holmium-yttrium aluminum garnet (Ho:YAG) laser lithotripsy may be a useful treatment in broncholithiasis; however, as it is not yet common practice, the optimal parameters are unknown. METHODS: We performed a single-center retrospective analysis of the clinical data of 13 broncholithiasis patients who underwent Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy from May 2012 to October 2018. RESULTS: For the 13 patients (2 males and 11 females), Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy was performed 17 times, in total. All procedures were performed under general anesthesia with rigid bronchoscopy. We initially set the Ho:YAG laser to a pulse frequency of 5 Hz and a pulse energy of 0.8 J, gradually increasing these as required. The pulse frequency range we employed was 5-15 Hz, and the pulse energy range was 0.8-1.6 J. All broncholiths were successfully extracted after lithotripsy, and all symptoms improved. Hemoptysis, bronchial esophageal fistula, and pneumonia were the most common complications; however, there were no long-term complications. CONCLUSIONS: Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy is an effective and safe treatment for broncholithiasis, over a long-term follow up.

20.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 73, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scarring central airway stenosis (SCAS) is a potentially life-threatening condition with debilitating symptoms. Interventional bronchoscopy is increasingly used to relieve symptoms in patients with SCAS, but recurrent stenosis is frequently observed. Little data exist on the long-term prognosis of interventional bronchoscopy for SCAS. We aimed to assess the prognostic factors of bronchoscopic interventions in patients with SCAS to optimize treatment. METHODS: This was a retrospective study that enrolled 119 consecutive patients with SCAS from January 2010 to April 2019 at our institution. Long-term clinical success was defined as airway stenosis < 50%, no limitation of physical activity, and a stable condition for > 12 months after the last interventional procedure. We compared patients' demographics, airway stenosis characteristics, and interventional procedures between the successful and unsuccessful groups, and identified significant predictors of long-term outcome with univariate and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 119 patients with 577 therapeutic bronchoscopies were included. Seventy-five (63%) patients were considered to have long-term clinical success. Older age, male gender, smoking, elevated C-reactive protein level, subglottic stenosis, stent or T-tube implantation, previous interventional treatment, and multiple procedures per year were potentially associated with unsuccessful long-term outcomes in the univariate analysis. Current smoker status (odds ratio [OR] 5.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35-24.17, P = 0.018), subglottic stenosis (OR 4.35, 95% CI 1.31-14.46, P = 0.017), and stent implantation (OR 4.96, 95% CI 1.33-18.48, P = 0.017) were associated with decreased odds of long-term success in the multivariate logistic regression analysis. Of note, there was no significant difference in odds of success between former smokers and nonsmokers. CONCLUSIONS: Current smoker status, subglottic stenosis, and stent implantation are independent factors associated with reduced long-term efficacy of interventional bronchoscopy for SCAS. Smoking cessation should be encouraged to improve the outcome of therapeutic bronchoscopy.


Assuntos
Broncopatias/cirurgia , Broncoscopia/métodos , Cicatriz/cirurgia , Laringoestenose/cirurgia , Stents , Estenose Traqueal/cirurgia , Adulto , Betametasona/análogos & derivados , Betametasona/uso terapêutico , Broncopatias/patologia , Broncopatias/fisiopatologia , Cicatriz/fisiopatologia , Constrição Patológica , Tosse/fisiopatologia , Criocirurgia/métodos , Dilatação/métodos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Dispneia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Injeções Intralesionais , Laringoestenose/fisiopatologia , Terapia a Laser/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumar , Estenose Traqueal/fisiopatologia , Capacidade Vital , Adulto Jovem
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