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1.
J Chem Phys ; 153(8): 084120, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872866

RESUMO

The time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) has been broadly used to investigate the excited-state properties of various molecular systems. However, the current TDDFT heavily relies on outcomes from the corresponding ground-state DFT calculations, which may be prone to errors due to the lack of proper treatment in the non-dynamical correlation effects. Recently, thermally assisted-occupation DFT (TAO-DFT) [J.-D. Chai, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 154104 (2012)], a DFT with fractional orbital occupations, was proposed, explicitly incorporating the non-dynamical correlation effects in the ground-state calculations with low computational complexity. In this work, we develop TDTAO-DFT, which is a TD, linear-response theory for excited states within the framework of TAO-DFT. With tests on the excited states of H2, the first triplet excited state (13Σu +) was described well, with non-imaginary excitation energies. TDTAO-DFT also yields zero singlet-triplet gap in the dissociation limit for the ground singlet (11Σg +) and the first triplet state (13Σu +). In addition, as compared to traditional TDDFT, the overall excited-state potential energy surfaces obtained from TDTAO-DFT are generally improved and better agree with results from the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster singles and doubles.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(39): 16661-16667, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881485

RESUMO

A two-ligand system composed of the predesigned multivalent and complementary terpyridine-based ligands was exploited to construct heteroleptic metallo-supramolecules and to investigate the self-assembly mechanism. Molecular stellation of the trimeric hexagon [Cd6L23] gave rise to the exclusive self-assembly of the star hexagon [Cd18L16L33] through complementary ligand pairing between the ditopic and octatopic tectons. To understand how the intermolecular heteroleptic complexation influenced the self-assembly pathway, the star hexagon was truncated into two triangular fragments: [Cd12L13L43] and [Cd12L13L53]. In the self-assembly of [Cd12L13L43], the conformational movements of hexatopic ligand L4 could be regulated by L1 to promote the subsequent coordination event, which was the key step to the successful multicomponent self-assembly. In contrast, the formation of [Cd12L13L53] was hampered by the geometrically mismatched intermediates.

3.
J Phys Chem A ; 124(38): 7644-7657, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32864966

RESUMO

Quantifying vibronic couplings in molecular excited states is crucial for the elucidation of a broad range of photophysical phenomena. In this study, we compare different theoretical approaches for the calculation of reorganization energy, a measure of vibronic coupling strength, and provide a rigorous derivation to show that molecular transition density characterizing electron-hole excitation could be used to quantify the magnitude of reorganization energy. The theory enables a descriptor based on molecular-orbital coefficients and atomic transition densities to quantify the magnitude of reorganization energies in molecular excited states. Applying the approach to low-lying excited states of polyacenes, we demonstrate that transition density distribution explains the difference in the magnitude of the reorganization energy of different excited states. Furthermore, to clarify the applicability of the transition density descriptor in molecular design for small-reorganization energy molecules, we investigate a broad range of molecular chromophores to show the effectiveness of the proposed theory. With this perspective on the relationship between reorganization energy and transition density, we successfully provide a quantitative rule to identify π-conjugated systems with small reorganization energy in the excited state, which should be useful for the development of novel optoelectronic materials.

5.
J Chem Phys ; 150(22): 224110, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202234

RESUMO

The small polaron quantum master equation (SPQME) is a powerful method for describing quantum dynamics in molecular systems. However, in the slow-bath regime where low-frequency vibrational modes dominate the dynamics, the fully dressed small polaron coordinates lead to errors in the SPQME theory. Furthermore, low-frequency modes also cause infrared divergence in the SPQME method, making the theory applicable only to systems described by spectral densities of the super-Ohmic form. In this study, we propose to treat these low-frequency vibrations as dynamically arrested "frozen" modes in a semiclassical representation and apply the small polaron representation only to the high-frequency vibrations. Furthermore, we show that a variational polaron approach can be utilized to determine the frequency upper bound of the frozen modes, allowing dynamical simulations free of manually tuned parameters. This frozen-mode SPQME is applied to models describing excitation energy transfer (EET) in molecular aggregates and comprehensively compared with the quasiadiabatic path integral method a well as the Redfield theory to demonstrate the applicability of this new method. We show that errors due to slow baths in the original SPQME theory are significantly reduced by the frozen-mode approximation. More significantly, we show that the new approach successfully extends the SPQME theory to be applicable to systems with the Drude-Lorentz spectral density, resulting in a great expansion of the applicability of the SPQME theory for EET problems. In summary, we demonstrate a "frozen-mode" SPQME that provides efficient and accurate simulations of EET dynamics of molecular systems in a broad parameter regime.

6.
J Phys Chem A ; 123(20): 4333-4341, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034231

RESUMO

We investigate energy transfer and electron transfer in a dimethylsilylene-spaced aminostyrene-stilbene donor-acceptor dimer using time-dependent density functional theory calculations. Our results confirm that the vertical S3, S2, and S1 excited states are, respectively, a local excitation on the aminostyrene, local excitation on the stilbene, and the charge-transferred (CT) excited state with electron transfer from aminostyrene to stilbene. In addition, an energy minimum with the C-N bond of the amino group twisted at about 90° is also identified on the S1 potential energy surface. This S1 state exhibits a twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) character. A potential energy scan along the C-N bond torsional angle reveals a conical intersection between the S2 stilbene local excitation and the S1 CT/TICT state at a torsional angle of ∼60°. We thus propose that the conical intersection dominates the electron transfer dynamics in the donor-acceptor dimer and copolymers alike, and the energy barrier along the C-N bond rotation controls the efficiency of such a process. Moreover, we show that despite the zero oscillator strength of the S1 excited states in the CT and TICT minima, an emissive S1 state with a V-shaped conformational structure can be located. The energy of this V-shape CT structure is thermally accessible; therefore, it is expected to be responsible for the CT emission band of the dimer observed in polar solvents. Our data provide a clear explanation of the complex solvent-dependent dual emission and photoinduced electron transfer properties observed experimentally in the dimer and copolymer systems. More importantly, the identifications of the conical intersection and energy barrier along the C-N bond rotation provide a novel synthetic route for controlling emissive properties and electron transfer dynamics in similar systems, which might be useful in the design of novel organic optoelectronic materials.

7.
Faraday Discuss ; 216(0): 94-115, 2019 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016302

RESUMO

Here we present our theoretical investigations into the light reaction in the dimeric photosystem II (PSII) core complex. An effective model for excitation energy transfer (EET) and primary charge separation (CS) in the PSII core complex was developed, with model parameters constructed based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulation data. Compared to experimental results, we demonstrated that this model faithfully reproduces the absorption spectra of the RC and core light-harvesting complexes (CP43 and CP47) as well as the full EET dynamics among the chromophores in the PSII core complex. We then applied master equation simulations and network analysis to investigate detailed EET plus CS dynamics in the system, allowing us to identify key EET pathways and produce a coarse-grained cluster model for the light reaction in the dimeric PSII core complex. We show that non-equilibrium energy transfer channels play important roles in the efficient light harvesting process and that multiple EET pathways exist between subunits of PSII to ensure the robustness of light harvesting in the system. Furthermore, we revealed that inter-monomer energy transfer dominated by the coupling between the two CLA625 molecules enables efficient energy exchange between two CP47s in the dimeric PSII core complex, which leads to significant energy pooling in the CP47 domain during the light reaction. Our study provides a blueprint for the design of light harvesting in the PSII core and show that a structure-based approach using molecular dynamics simulations and quantum chemistry calculations can be effectively utilized to elucidate the dynamics of light harvesting in complex photosynthetic systems.

8.
J Org Chem ; 83(11): 6133-6141, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29732894

RESUMO

A transition-metal-free approach for the preparation of N-arylketimines has been developed from the direct reaction of aryldiazonium salts, arenes, and nitriles in a one-pot fashion with the consecutive formation of N-C and C-C bonds. This approach proceeds via an in situ generation of N-arylnitrilium intermediate, which then undergoes intermolecular arylation. This three-component strategy offers a step- and atom-efficient way to N-arylketimines from easily accessible reagents under mild reaction conditions. The characterization of stereochemistry of ketimine was achieved by X-ray crystallographic structure and theoretical calculation. Operational simplicity, shorter reaction time, excellent functional group compatibility, and scalability are the key features of this report.

9.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(6): 4351-4359, 2018 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29367985

RESUMO

Organic photoacids with enhanced acidities in the excited states have received much attention both experimentally and theoretically because of their applications in nanotechnology and chemistry. In this study, we investigate the excited-state acidities of 14 hydroxyl-substituted aromatic photoacids, with a focus on using theoretical molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) as an effective descriptor for photoacidity. For these model photoacids, we applied time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) at the ωB97X-D/6-31G(d) level to calculate the molecular electrostatic potentials of S1 excited states and show that the molecular electrostatic potential on the proton-donating atom exhibits a linear relationship with the observed excited-state logarithmic acid dissociation constant (pKa*). As a result, the molecular electrostatic potential on the proton-donating atom can be used to estimate the pKa* values based on simple TDDFT calculations for a broad range of hydroxyl-substituted aromatic compounds. Furthermore, we explore the molecular electrostatic potential as a quantum descriptor for the photoacidities of cationic photoacids, and show a universal behavior of the pKa*-MEP dependence. We also investigate the solvent effects on the photoacidity using TDDFT calculations with implicit solvent models. Finally, we discuss the physical insights implicated by the molecular electrostatic potential as a successful measure for photoacidity on the mechanism of proton transfer in the molecular excited states. This pKa* descriptor provides an effective means to quantify the tendency of excited-state proton transfer with a relatively small computational cost, which is expected to be useful in the design of functional photoacids.

10.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 71, 2017 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28694423

RESUMO

It is unclear whether there is an intermediate dark state between the S2 and S1 states of carotenoids. Previous two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy measurements support its existence and its involvement in the energy transfer from carotenoids to chlorophylls, but there is still considerable debate on the origin of this dark state and how it regulates the energy transfer process. Here we use ab initio calculations on excited-state dynamics and simulated two-dimensional electronic spectrum of carotenoids from purple bacteria to provide evidence supporting that the dark state may be assigned to a new Ag+ state. Our calculations also indicate that groups on the conjugation backbone of carotenoids may substantially affect the excited-state levels and the energy transfer process. These results contribute to a better understanding of carotenoid excited states.Carotenoids harvest energy from light and transfer it to chlorophylls during photosynthesis. Here, Feng et al. perform ab initio calculations on excited-state dynamics and simulated 2D electronic spectrum of carotenoids, supporting the existence of a new excited state in carotenoids.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Transferência de Energia/fisiologia , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Proteobactérias/metabolismo , Clorofila/genética
11.
J Org Chem ; 82(15): 8031-8039, 2017 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28726405

RESUMO

Unlike the high fluorescence quantum yield of the naturally occurring green fluorescence protein (GFP, Φf ∼ 0.8), the GFP chromophore, a benzylidenedimethylimidazolinone (BDI) dye, is nearly nonfluorescent (Φf < 0.001) in common solutions at room temperature. While many efforts have been devoted into the BDI chromophore engineering for fluorescence recovery, limited success has been achieved for structurally unconstrained GFP chromophore analogues (uGFPc). Herein we report a rational design of uGFPc toward an unprecedentedly high fluorescence quantum efficiency of 0.60 in hexane. This is achieved by a combined ortho-CN and meta-dimethylamino substituent electronic effect that largely suppresses the Z → E photoisomerization (the τ torsion) reaction, which is the major nonradiative decay channel of uGFPc. The structural design relied on the assumptions that the τ torsion of the meta-amino-substituted BDI systems leads to a zwitterionic twisted intermediate state (1p*) and that destabilizing the 1p* state by an electron-withdrawing CN substituent at the ortho or para position could slow down the τ torsion. The observed CN position effect conforms to the design concept. The push-pull substitution of BDI also leads to sensitive fluorescence-quenching responses to electron donors such as trimethylamine and to H-bond donors such as methanol.

12.
Molecules ; 22(7)2017 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28665348

RESUMO

Cationic methylpalladium complexes bearing hemilabile bidentate α-amino-pyridines can serve as effective precursors for catalytic alternating copolymerization of norbornene (N) and ethylene (E), under mild conditions. The norbornyl palladium complexes in the formula of {[RHNCH2(o-C6H4N)]Pd(C7H10Me)(NCMe)}(BF4) (R = iPr (2a), tBu (2b), Ph (2c), 2,6-Me2C6H3 (2d), 2,6-iPr2C6H3 (2e)) were synthesized via single insertion of norbornene into the corresponding methylpalladium complexes 1a-1e, respectively. Both square planar methyl and norbornyl palladium complexes exhibit facile equilibria of geometrical isomerization, via sterically-controlled amino decoordination-recoordination of amino-pyridine. Kinetic studies of E-insertion, N-insertion of complexes 1 and 2, and the geometric isomerization reactions have been examined by means of VT-NMR, and found in excellent agreement with the results estimated by DFT calculations. The more facile N-insertion in the cis-isomers, and ready geometric isomerization, cooperatively lead to a new mechanism that accounts for the novel catalytic formation of alternating COC.


Assuntos
Etilenos , Modelos Teóricos , Norbornanos , Paládio , Polimerização , Piridinas , Catálise , Etilenos/química , Isomerismo , Cinética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Norbornanos/química , Paládio/química , Piridinas/química
13.
J Chem Phys ; 146(14): 144105, 2017 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28411592

RESUMO

We investigate the applicability of the linearized semiclassical initial value representation (LSC-IVR) method to excitation energy transfer (EET) problems in molecular aggregates by simulating the EET dynamics of a dimer model in a wide range of parameter regime and comparing the results to those obtained from a numerically exact method. It is found that the LSC-IVR approach yields accurate population relaxation rates and decoherence rates in a broad parameter regime. However, the classical approximation imposed by the LSC-IVR method does not satisfy the detailed balance condition, generally leading to incorrect equilibrium populations. Based on this observation, we propose a post-processing algorithm to solve the long time equilibrium problem and demonstrate that this long-time correction method successfully removed the deviations from exact results for the LSC-IVR method in all of the regimes studied in this work. Finally, we apply the LSC-IVR method to simulate EET dynamics in the photosynthetic Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex system, demonstrating that the LSC-IVR method with long-time correction provides excellent description of coherent EET dynamics in this typical photosynthetic pigment-protein complex.


Assuntos
Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/química , Modelos Químicos , Transferência de Energia , Fotossíntese , Teoria Quântica
14.
Sci Rep ; 6: 27535, 2016 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27277702

RESUMO

The structure of Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) light-harvesting complex had long been recognized as containing seven bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) molecules. Recently, an additional BChl molecule was discovered in the crystal structure of the FMO complex, which may serve as a link between baseplate and the remaining seven molecules. Here, we investigate excitation energy transfer (EET) process by simulating single-molecule pump-dump experiment in the eight-molecules complex. We adopt the coherent modified Redfield theory and non-Markovian quantum jump method to simulate EET dynamics. This scheme provides a practical approach of detecting the realistic EET pathway in BChl complexes with currently available experimental technology. And it may assist optimizing design of artificial light-harvesting devices.


Assuntos
Chlorobi/metabolismo , Transferência de Energia , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Bacterioclorofilas/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , Nucleotídeos de Desoxiuracil , Lasers , Luz , Cadeias de Markov , Modelos Teóricos , Oscilometria , Fotossíntese , Teoria Quântica
15.
Nat Commun ; 6: 8106, 2015 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26315066

RESUMO

Electrochemically converting water into oxygen/hydrogen gas is ideal for high-density renewable energy storage in which robust electrocatalysts for efficient oxygen evolution play crucial roles. To date, however, electrocatalysts with long-term stability have remained elusive. Here we report that single-crystal Co3O4 nanocube underlay with a thin CoO layer results in a high-performance and high-stability electrocatalyst in oxygen evolution reaction. An in situ X-ray diffraction method is developed to observe a strong correlation between the initialization of the oxygen evolution and the formation of active metal oxyhydroxide phase. The lattice of skin layer adapts to the structure of the active phase, which enables a reversible facile structural change that facilitates the chemical reactions without breaking the scaffold of the electrocatalysts. The single-crystal nanocube electrode exhibits stable, continuous oxygen evolution for >1,000 h. This robust stability is attributed to the complementary nature of defect-free single-crystal electrocatalyst and the reversible adapting layer.

16.
Sci Rep ; 5: 12753, 2015 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26238479

RESUMO

When dealing with system-reservoir interactions in an open quantum system, such as a photosynthetic light-harvesting complex, approximations are usually made to obtain the dynamics of the system. One question immediately arises: how good are these approximations, and in what ways can we evaluate them? Here, we propose to use entanglement and a measure of non-Markovianity as benchmarks for the deviation of approximate methods from exact results. We apply two frequently-used perturbative but non-Markovian approximations to a photosynthetic dimer model and compare their results with that of the numerically-exact hierarchy equation of motion (HEOM). This enables us to explore both entanglement and non-Markovianity measures as means to reveal how the approximations either overestimate or underestimate memory effects and quantum coherence. In addition, we show that both the approximate and exact results suggest that non-Markonivity can, counter-intuitively, increase with temperature, and with the coupling to the environment.


Assuntos
Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/química , Modelos Estatísticos , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Teoria Quântica , Benchmarking , Transferência de Energia , Cadeias de Markov , Movimento (Física) , Temperatura , Termodinâmica
17.
J Chem Phys ; 142(3): 034109, 2015 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25612691

RESUMO

In this study, we investigate the accuracy of a recently developed coherent modified Redfield theory (CMRT) in simulating excitation energy transfer (EET) dynamics. The CMRT is a secular non-Markovian quantum master equation that is derived by extending the modified Redfield theory to treat coherence dynamics in molecular excitonic systems. Herein, we systematically survey the applicability of the CMRT in a large EET parameter space through the comparisons of the CMRT EET dynamics in a dimer system with the numerically exact results. The results confirm that the CMRT exhibits a broad applicable range and allow us to locate the specific parameter regimes where CMRT fails to provide adequate results. Moreover, we propose an accuracy criterion based on the magnitude of second-order perturbation to characterize the applicability of CMRT and show that the criterion summarizes all the benchmark results and the physics described by CMRT. Finally, we employ the accuracy criterion to quantitatively compare the performance of CMRT to that of a small polaron quantum master equation approach. The comparison demonstrates the complementary nature of these two methods, and as a result, the combination of the two methods provides accurate simulations of EET dynamics for the full parameter space investigated in this study. Our results not only delicately evaluate the applicability of the CMRT but also reveal new physical insights for factors controlling the dynamics of EET that should be useful for developing more accurate and efficient methods for simulations of EET dynamics in molecular aggregate systems.


Assuntos
Modelos Moleculares , Simulação por Computador , Teoria Quântica
18.
Biochemistry ; 53(34): 5515-25, 2014 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25141176

RESUMO

Green sulfur bacteria, which live in extremely low-light environments, use chlorosomes to harvest light. A chlorosome is the most efficient, and arguably the simplest, light-harvesting antenna complex, which contains hundreds of thousands of densely packed bacteriochlorophylls (BChls). To harvest light efficiently, BChls in a chlorosome form supramolecular aggregates; thus, it is of great interest to determine the organization of the BChls in a chlorosome. In this study, we conducted a (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and Mg K-edge X-ray absorption analysis of chlorosomes from wild-type Chlorobaculum tepidum. The X-ray absorption results indicated that the coordination number of the Mg in the chlorosome must be >4, providing evidence that electrostatic interactions formed between the Mg of a BChl and the carbonyl group or the hydroxyl group of the neighboring BChl molecule. According to the intermolecular distance constraints obtained on the basis of (13)C homonuclear dipolar correlation spectroscopy, we determined that the molecular assembly of BChls is dimer-based and that the hydrogen bonds among the BChls are less extensive than commonly presumed because of the twist in the orientation of the BChl dimers. This paper also reports the first (13)C homonuclear correlation spectrum acquired for carotenoids and lipids-which are minor, but crucial, components of chlorosomes-extracted from wild-type Cba. tepidum.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Bacterioclorofilas/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Carotenoides/química , Lipídeos/química , Conformação Proteica , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética
19.
Dalton Trans ; 43(17): 6287-90, 2014 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24626523

RESUMO

A new ligand with N8O2 donors containing three potential metal-binding sites (H2L) and its tricopper(II) complex 1 are synthesized. The tricopper species is found to be formed from a hypodentate dicopper(II) complex 2 in basic solutions. Complex 2 may be isolated from the reaction of H2L with a copper source under acidic conditions. Complex 2 can undergo CO2-abstraction to yield an octacopper(II) complex 3. The single crystal structures of complexes 2 and 3 are characterized by X-ray crystallography.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Cobre/química , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/química , Aminas/química , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ligantes , Conformação Molecular
20.
J Chem Phys ; 139(22): 224112, 2013 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24329061

RESUMO

The small polaron quantum master equation (SPQME) proposed by Jang et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 129, 101104 (2008)] is a promising approach to describe coherent excitation energy transfer dynamics in complex molecular systems. To determine the applicable regime of the SPQME approach, we perform a comprehensive investigation of its accuracy by comparing its simulated population dynamics with numerically exact quasi-adiabatic path integral calculations. We demonstrate that the SPQME method yields accurate dynamics in a wide parameter range. Furthermore, our results show that the accuracy of polaron theory depends strongly upon the degree of exciton delocalization and timescale of polaron formation. Finally, we propose a simple criterion to assess the applicability of the SPQME theory that ensures the reliability of practical simulations of energy transfer dynamics with SPQME in light-harvesting systems.


Assuntos
Transferência de Energia , Teoria Quântica , Elétrons , Temperatura
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