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2.
Expert Rev Neurother ; 20(11): 1099-1107, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762382

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Similar effects in reducing the symptoms of the mood disorder are reported in the literature compared the action of drugs and aerobic exercise sessions, demonstrating the potential of exercise in the control and mood stabilization. Therefore, there are many reasons to believe that the increased cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) can be an important means of protection and a reducing potential of physical and mental damage in bipolar disorders (BD). This review will highlight the current pattern of response of exercise on the pathophysiology of BD, relating the possible mechanisms, and hypotheses based on exercises. AREAS COVERED: The mechanism of monoaminergic action and its relationship with exercise, role of physical conditioning and increased VO2Max on neurotrophin release, and new perspectives on long-term exercise will be reviewed. EXPERT OPINION: The adaptations to training, although little explored in the context of BD, can induce the expression of substances that co-regulate several processes related to the pathophysiology of BD. Furthermore, high intensity interval training (HIIT) can also be adjusted to improve the physical fitness and health in patients with BD. Future research is needed to adopt a training strategy that is both time efficient and adequate for the population in question.

3.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 21(9): e869-e873, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701746

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the frequency of delirium detected by pediatric intensivists, based only on their clinical experience, without a valid and reliable tool. DESIGN: Multicenter, prospective, descriptive, observational study. SETTINGS: Three PICUs in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PATIENTS: Twenty-nine days to 18 years old. INTERVENTIONS: Electronic forms were sent weekly to the pediatric intensivists responsible for the daily care of patients from March to September 2015, to fill in information about the presence of risk factors and diagnosis of delirium in all patients who remained in the PICU in the last week. Demographics and other clinical data were extracted from an electronic system. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 504 admissions in the three PICUs (477 patients) were included. The pediatric intensivists reported only two episodes of delirium in two different patients, based on insufficient criteria. Considering all PICUs admissions, the reported frequency of delirium was only 0.4% (2/504). CONCLUSIONS: The low frequency of delirium detection and the insufficient criteria used for the diagnosis in these units suggest flaws in the recognition of delirium and probably the occurrence of underdiagnosis/misdiagnosis when it is based only on clinical experience, without the use of a valid and reliable tool.

4.
J. bras. psiquiatr ; 69(2): 131-139, abr,-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134951

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo Realizar uma revisão sistemática investigando a metacognição no transtorno bipolar (TB). Os objetivos secundários incluem explorar os correlatos clínicos e sociodemográficos da metacognição no TB e como a metacognição varia de acordo com o estado afetivo, estabelecer uma comparação com outros transtornos mentais e investigar se as intervenções metacognitivas no TB são eficazes ou não. Métodos Realizou-se uma revisão sistemática da literatura científica sobre a metacognição em pacientes com TB. Foram buscados estudos clínicos originais sobre o tema nas bases de dados Medline, ISI , PsycINFO e SciELO. Os termos de busca empregados foram: "metacognition" OR "metacognitive" OR "metamemory" AND "bipolar" OR "mania" OR "manic" . Resultados Foram selecionados nove artigos. A metacognição parece estar mais prejudicada no TB do que em controles e menos prejudicada do que na esquizofrenia. Por sua vez, parece não haver diferença entre bipolares e deprimidos unipolares quanto à capacidade metacognitiva. Maior nível educacional e maior duração da doença parecem estar associados a uma melhor capacidade metacognitiva, enquanto a maior gravidade dos sintomas de TB está associada a uma pior metacognição. O treinamento metacognitivo em pacientes com TB é uma perspectiva clínica promissora. Conclusão Os estudos sobre metacognição no TB são escassos, mas a literatura existente indica possíveis fatores clínicos e sociodemográficos associados a pior metacognição no transtorno, sugerindo também que intervenções terapêuticas metacognitivas podem ser clinicamente relevantes para o manejo do TB.


ABSTRACT Objective To perform a systematic review investigating metacognition in bipolar disorder (BD). Secondary objectives include exploring clinical and sociodemographic correlates of metacognition in BD, how metacognition varies according to affective state, establishing a comparison with other mental disorders, and investigating whether metacognitive interventions in BD are effective or not. Methods A systematic review of the scientific literature on metacognition in BD patients was carried out. Original clinical studies on the subject were searched in the Medline, ISI, PsycINFO and SciELO databases. The search terms included were: "metacognition" OR "metacognitive" OR "metamemory" AND "bipolar" OR "mania" OR "manic". Results A total of nine articles were selected. Metacognition appears to be more impaired in BD than in controls, but less impaired than in schizophrenia. There seems to be no difference between bipolar and unipolar depression regarding metacognitive capacity. Higher educational level and longer duration of illness seem to be associated with better metacognitive capacity, while higher severity of BD symptoms is linked to worse metacognition. Metacognitive training in BD patients is a promising clinical perspective. Conclusion Studies on metacognition in BD are scarce, but the existing literature indicates potential clinical and sociodemographic factors associated with poorer metacognition in the disorder, also suggesting that metacognitive therapeutic interventions may be clinically relevant for the management of BD.

6.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 21(1): e39-e46, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714478

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the validity and reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Pediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU for diagnosing delirium in patients with chronological and developmental ages from 5 to 17 years in Brazilian PICUs. DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional study. SETTINGS: Eight Brazilian PICUs (seven in Rio de Janeiro and one in São Paulo). PATIENTS: One-hundred sixteen patients, 5-17 years old, without developmental delay, submitted to mechanical ventilation or not. INTERVENTIONS: To assess the inter-observer reliability, two previously trained researchers concomitantly applied the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Pediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU and independently rated the same patient. To assess the criterion validity, a pediatric neurologist or psychiatrist, blinded to the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Pediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU assessments, evaluated the same patient within 30 minutes, using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, considered the reference standard. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: One-hundred forty-nine paired assessments were included (some patients had more than one). Delirium was diagnosed in 11 of 149 assessments (7%), or eight of 116 patients (7%), using both the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Pediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. There was one false positive and one false negative diagnosis, which resulted in 90.9% sensitivity (95% CI, 58.7-99.8%) and 99.3% specificity (95% CI, 96-100%) for the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Pediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU. The inter-rater reliability was considered almost perfect (κ = 1.0). CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the Pediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU is a valid and reliable tool for diagnosing delirium in pediatric patients 5-17 years old who are spontaneously breathing and not pharmacologically sedated in Brazilian PICUs. The implementation of this tool may be useful to reduce underdiagnosis, ensure monitoring and earlier intervention, provide a better prognosis, and improve research on delirium in this age group in Brazil. Further studies are necessary to test the psychometric properties of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Pediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU in sedated and mechanically ventilated children.


Assuntos
Delírio/diagnóstico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Adolescente , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Confusão/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Respiração Artificial , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
7.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 703, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31632306

RESUMO

The growth of the literature about neuroimaging of major depressive disorder (MDD) over the last several decades has contributed to the progress in recognizing precise brain areas, networks, and neurotransmitter processes related to depression. However, there are still doubts about the etiology and pathophysiology of depression that need answering. The authors did a nonsystematic review of the literature using PubMed database, with the following search terms: "major depressive disorder," "neuroimaging," "functional imaging," "magnetic resonance imaging," "functional magnetic resonance imaging," and "structural imaging," being selected the significant articles published on the topic. Anterior cingulate cortex, hippocampus, orbitomedial prefrontal cortex, amygdala basal ganglia, and the cerebellum were the main affected areas across the selected studies. These areas respond to particular neurotransmitter systems, neurochemicals, hormones, and other signal proteins; even more, the evidence supports a distorted frontolimbic mood regulatory pathway in MDD patients. Despite the positive findings, translation to treatment of MDD remains illusory. In conclusion, this article aims to be a critical review of the neuroimaging correlates of depression in clinical research with the purpose to improve clinical practice.

8.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 41(4): 401-408, Oct.-Dez. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1059184

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction Although bipolar disorder (BD) is traditionally included among mood disorders, some authors believe that changes in energy and motor activity, rather than mood changes, represent the true cardinal symptoms in mania and depression. The aim of the current study was to identify which cluster of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) better distinguishes between mania, depression and euthymia. Method A group of 106 patients with BD were followed for 13 years and repeatedly assessed with the HAM-D as well as with other clinical scales. To perform a comparison, HAM-D items were classified according to clinical criteria into three clusters: energy/activity symptoms, mood symptoms, and other symptoms. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were performed to provide a test information curve for those three clusters. We measured the prevalence of one cluster of symptoms over the other two throughout the latent trait. Results Considering HAM-D items individually, the IRT analysis revealed that there was a mixture of mood and energy/activity symptoms among the most discriminative items, both in depression and in euthymia. However, in mania, only energy/activity symptoms - i.e., general somatic symptoms and retardation - were among the most informative items. Considering the classification of items, both in depression as in mania, the energy/activity cluster was more informative than the mood cluster according to the IRT analysis. Conclusion Our data reinforce the view of hyperactivity and motor retardation as cardinal changes of mania and depression, respectively.


Resumo Introdução Embora o transtorno bipolar (TB) seja tradicionalmente incluído entre os transtornos do humor, alguns autores acreditam que as alterações na energia e na atividade motora, em vez das alterações no humor, representam os verdadeiros sintomas cardinais na mania e na depressão. O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar qual grupo da Escala de Depressão de Hamilton (HAM-D) distingue melhor entre mania, depressão e eutimia. Método Um grupo de 106 pacientes com TB foram acompanhados por 13 anos e avaliados repetidamente com a HAM-D e com outras escalas clínicas. Para realizar uma comparação, os itens da HAM-D foram classificados de acordo com critérios clínicos em três grupos: sintomas de energia/atividade, sintomas de humor e outros sintomas. Foram realizadas análises da teoria da resposta ao item (TRI) para fornecer uma curva de informações de teste para esses três grupos. Medimos a prevalência de um grupo de sintomas em comparação aos outros dois através do traço latente. Resultados Considerando os itens da HAM-D individualmente, a análise da TRI revelou que havia uma mistura de sintomas de humor e de energia/atividade entre os itens mais discriminativos, tanto na depressão quanto na eutimia. No entanto, na mania, apenas os sintomas de energia/atividade - ou seja, sintomas somáticos gerais e retardo - estavam entre os itens mais informativos. Considerando a classificação dos itens, tanto na depressão quanto na mania, o grupo energia/atividade foi mais informativo que o grupo humor, de acordo com a análise da TRI. Conclusão Nossos dados reforçam a visão da hiperatividade e do retardo motor como as alterações cardinais de mania e depressão, respectivamente.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Agitação Psicomotora/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Afeto , Depressão/diagnóstico , Agitação Psicomotora/psicologia , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Entrevista Psicológica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora
9.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 18(10): 893-913, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364895

RESUMO

Introduction: The use of antidepressants (AD) in the treatment of bipolar depression is one of the most controversial issues in psychopharmacology. For some, AD are useful, but, for others, they should never be used in bipolar depression. Areas covered: This review examines published clinical studies on the use of ADs in bipolar depression, addressing their clinical efficacy and the occurrence of side effects, manic switches, cycle acceleration, and suicidal behavior. Meta-analyzes and review articles on the subject are also discussed. Expert opinion: Approved therapeutic options for bipolar depression are associated with not very high response rates and a high incidence of adverse effects. Patients with bipolar depression present very heterogeneous responses to the use of ADs. Some improve significantly, while others, especially those with concomitant manic symptoms, have had previous episodes of treatment-emergent mania or are rapid cyclers, exhibit manic switches or cycle acceleration. The authors conclude that the real question is not whether ADs should or should not be used in bipolar depression, but which patients benefit from these drugs and which ones are impaired. The concept of bipolar spectrum and a dimensional approach on bipolar/unipolar distinction may be useful for understanding the heterogeneity of responses to ADs.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Seleção de Pacientes , Antidepressivos/efeitos adversos , Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 41(2): 191-200, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291413

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to identify whether mixed states in bipolar disorder (BD) are associated with more frequent suicidal behavior when compared to manic/hypomanic and depressive episodes. METHOD: We performed a systematic search of the scientific literature on the subject using the PubMed, ISI Web Of Science, PsycINFO and SciELO databases. The terms chosen for the search were (bipolar) AND (suicid*) AND (mixed). We selected original studies comparing suicidal behavior of patients in mixed states and suicidal behavior of patients in other BD phases. RESULTS: Sixteen papers fit the selection criteria. Twelve of the original 16 studies compared suicidal behavior in mixed states and pure mania, and the majority of these studies (n = 11) revealed that suicidal behavior was more frequent among individuals in mixed states. Five of the papers compared suicidal behavior between depressive and mixed phases of BD. One of these five papers reported more severe suicidal behavior in patients in mixed states and another described more frequent suicidal behavior in patients with pure depression. There were no significant statistical differences between groups in the remaining three of these five studies. CONCLUSION: During acute BD episodes, suicidal behavior is more strongly associated with mixed states than with pure mania or hypomania. However, it was not possible to demonstrate that the association between suicidal behavior and mixed states is stronger than the association between suicidal behavior and depressive phases. The results hereby presented are worth considering in clinical practice to better evaluate suicide risk and to prevent suicide.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Humanos
11.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 41(2): 191-200, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014739

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction The objective of this study was to identify whether mixed states in bipolar disorder (BD) are associated with more frequent suicidal behavior when compared to manic/hypomanic and depressive episodes. Method We performed a systematic search of the scientific literature on the subject using the PubMed, ISI Web Of Science, PsycINFO and SciELO databases. The terms chosen for the search were (bipolar) AND (suicid*) AND (mixed). We selected original studies comparing suicidal behavior of patients in mixed states and suicidal behavior of patients in other BD phases. Results Sixteen papers fit the selection criteria. Twelve of the original 16 studies compared suicidal behavior in mixed states and pure mania, and the majority of these studies (n = 11) revealed that suicidal behavior was more frequent among individuals in mixed states. Five of the papers compared suicidal behavior between depressive and mixed phases of BD. One of these five papers reported more severe suicidal behavior in patients in mixed states and another described more frequent suicidal behavior in patients with pure depression. There were no significant statistical differences between groups in the remaining three of these five studies. Conclusion During acute BD episodes, suicidal behavior is more strongly associated with mixed states than with pure mania or hypomania. However, it was not possible to demonstrate that the association between suicidal behavior and mixed states is stronger than the association between suicidal behavior and depressive phases. The results hereby presented are worth considering in clinical practice to better evaluate suicide risk and to prevent suicide.


Resumo Introdução Identificar se, no transtorno bipolar (TB), os estados mistos estão associados a um maior comportamento suicida, quando comparados a episódios maníacos/hipomaníacos e depressivos. Método Realizamos uma busca sistemática da literatura científica utilizando as bases de dados Pubmed, ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO e SciELO com os termos (bipolar) AND (suicid*) AND (mixed). Foram selecionados estudos originais que compararam o comportamento suicida entre pacientes em estado misto e pacientes em outras fases do TB. Resultados 16 artigos se adequaram aos critérios de seleção. Doze desses 16 estudos compararam estado misto com mania pura, e a maioria desses 12 estudos (n = 11) mostrou que o comportamento suicida era mais frequente entre os indivíduos em estado misto. Somente cinco dos artigos incluídos compararam o comportamento suicida entre as fases depressiva e mista do TB. Dentre esses cinco artigos, um mostrou maior comportamento suicida nos pacientes em estado misto, e um mostrou maior comportamento suicida nos pacientes com depressão pura. Em três desses cinco estudos, não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos. Conclusão Durante um episódio agudo do TB, os estados mistos estão mais relacionados ao comportamento suicida do que os episódios de mania ou hipomania puros. Todavia, não foi possível demonstrar que os estados mistos cursem com um maior risco de comportamento suicida do que os episódios depressivos puros. Os resultados aqui apresentados merecem ser considerados na prática clínica, a fim de avaliar melhor o risco de suicídio, bem como prevenir o suicídio.


Assuntos
Humanos , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Ideação Suicida
12.
Psychiatr Q ; 90(2): 385-394, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796694

RESUMO

Insight is greatly impaired in Bipolar Disorder (BD), especially during mania. Cognitive impairment is also present in BD. Despite that, few studies have investigated a possible association between these two aspects. The main goal of the current study is to compare BD affective states regarding performance in cognitive testing and investigate clinical and cognitive predictors for insight loss in BD. The study investigated a sample of 65 patients who were evaluated in one of the BD phases (mania, euthymia or depression). All the subjects underwent neuropsychological evaluation and completed the Insight Scale for Affective Disorders (ISAD). The relationship between level of insight and clinical/cognitive variables was analyzed through multiple regression models. No significant differences were found among BD phases regarding performance on cognitive testing. Insight was more impaired in mania then in depression or euthymia. Predictors for loss of insight were: severity of manic symptoms and impairments in selective attention (Symbol search test), divided attention (Trail making test) and inhibition (Stroop test). The sample size is a potential limitation of the current study. Nevertheless, the results suggest this had limited impact, with group differences being detected for a number of variables. The results found have important clinical importance, suggesting, for example, that rehabilitation of specific cognitive skills may improve insight in BD.


Assuntos
Conscientização/fisiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
13.
Pediatrics ; 143(2)2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635349

RESUMO

Ranitidine is a histamine-2 blocker commonly prescribed in PICUs for the prophylaxis of gastrointestinal bleeding and stress ulcers. However, it can be associated to central nervous system side effects, such as delirium, in adults. We present the first case of a child presenting delirium possibly caused by anticholinergic toxidrome secondary to the use of ranitidine, resolving after drug discontinuation. With this case report, we reinforce that a wide variety of clinical conditions can trigger delirium and that the best therapeutic approach is to minimize risk factors.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/efeitos adversos , Delírio/induzido quimicamente , Delírio/diagnóstico , Ranitidina/efeitos adversos , Criança , Delírio/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos
14.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 41(4): 401-408, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967199

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although bipolar disorder (BD) is traditionally included among mood disorders, some authors believe that changes in energy and motor activity, rather than mood changes, represent the true cardinal symptoms in mania and depression. The aim of the current study was to identify which cluster of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) better distinguishes between mania, depression and euthymia. METHOD: A group of 106 patients with BD were followed for 13 years and repeatedly assessed with the HAM-D as well as with other clinical scales. To perform a comparison, HAM-D items were classified according to clinical criteria into three clusters: energy/activity symptoms, mood symptoms, and other symptoms. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were performed to provide a test information curve for those three clusters. We measured the prevalence of one cluster of symptoms over the other two throughout the latent trait. RESULTS: Considering HAM-D items individually, the IRT analysis revealed that there was a mixture of mood and energy/activity symptoms among the most discriminative items, both in depression and in euthymia. However, in mania, only energy/activity symptoms - i.e., general somatic symptoms and retardation - were among the most informative items. Considering the classification of items, both in depression as in mania, the energy/activity cluster was more informative than the mood cluster according to the IRT analysis. CONCLUSION: Our data reinforce the view of hyperactivity and motor retardation as cardinal changes of mania and depression, respectively.


Assuntos
Afeto , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Depressão/diagnóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Agitação Psicomotora/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora , Agitação Psicomotora/psicologia
15.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 1009, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32116824
16.
Psychiatry Res ; 271: 111-113, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30472504

RESUMO

The association of early trauma exposure with current cognition was examined in a research series of 56 schizophrenia cases with respect to the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265, Val66Val, Val66Met, Met66Met), as met allele carriers have reduced neurotrophic activity. The Perceptual Organization Index had a significant negative correlation with trauma exposures only in met carriers, including early physical abuse, general trauma after age 18 years, and physical abuse. Within the Val66Val subgroup, there were no significant correlations between WAIS indices and traumatic experiences.


Assuntos
Adultos Sobreviventes de Eventos Adversos na Infância/psicologia , Alelos , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Cognição , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
Front Psychiatry ; 9: 572, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30473667

RESUMO

In this article the authors intend to review in an intelligible and comprehensive way the historical roots of Formal Thought Disorders. Early descriptions of thought disorders date back to the XIX century with Esquirol, but it was in the first half of the XX century that several authors introduced the main features of the actual concept of Formal Thought Disorders. Emil Kraepelin described akataphasia (inability to find the appropriate expression for a thought) in patients with dementia praecox (a term that some years later was replaced by schizophrenia). Bleuler and Kretschmer also identified in schizophrenic patients a generalized "loosening of associations" and Carl Schneider described several Formal Thought Disorders such as derailment, fusion, omission, suspension and driveling. At the end of the XX century Nancy Andreasen studied the classical descriptions regarding Formal Thought Disorders, reclassified them and also introduced a scale to assess them. Although the specificity of these symptoms in schizophrenia and psychosis has been a source of controversy among the different authors, the importance given to their presence in these mental disorders is universal. We defend that it is crucial that these historical and conceptual elements are grasped in order to assess Formal Thought Disorders for clinical and research purposes.

18.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 40(3): 210-215, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30304117

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In recent years, the association between temperament and clinical characteristics of mood disorders has been studied. Most bipolar patients show deficits in their awareness of signs and symptoms. The relationship between affective temperament and insight in bipolar patients has not been carried out in the literature so far. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between affective temperament and insight in bipolar disorder. METHOD: A group of 65 bipolar patients were followed during a year. Patients underwent a clinical assessment and were diagnosed using criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5). Insight was evaluated through the Insight Scale for Affective Disorders (ISAD), and affective temperament, through the TEMPS-Rio de Janeiro. The relationship between affective temperament and insight was explored with Spearman rho correlations between scores on each item of the ISAD and on the TEMPS-Rio de Janeiro subscales. RESULTS: In euthymic phases, bipolars with depressive temperament were associated with a higher level of insight about the consequences of the disorder; when in mania, patients showed better insight about having an affective disorder, presenting psychomotor alterations, and suffering from guilt or grandiosity. Similarly, bipolar patients with higher scores of anxious temperament, when in mania, had better insight on alterations in attention. Bipolar patients with higher scores of hyperthymic temperament, when in mania, showed the worst insight about thought disorder. CONCLUSION: In addition to being determined by the phase of the disease and several varying symptoms, the level of insight in bipolar patients is also influenced by affective temperament.


Assuntos
Afeto , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Autoimagem , Adulto , Idoso , Depressão , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Metacrilatos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Adulto Jovem
19.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 40(3): 233-237, July-Sept. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-959242

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate how well symptom rating scales differentiate bipolar disorder (BD) episode types. Methods: One hundred and six patients with BD were followed for 13 years. At each visit, the following clinical scales were administered: Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) and Clinical Global Impressions scale for use in bipolar illness (CGI-BP). To perform a comparison between the affective states of BP, three time points in each patient's follow-up period were chosen for evaluation: the most severe manic episode, the most severe depressive episode, and the euthymic period with least symptoms. Canonical discriminant analyses (CDA) were performed to identify which symptoms best discriminated episodes. Results: CDA revealed HAM-D was worse than YMRS and CGI-BP to discriminate mood states. The items evaluating increased motor activity in YMRS (2, increased motor activity/energy) and HAM-D (9, agitation) were the best to distinguish mania, depression, and euthymia. In contrast, HAM-D item 8 (retardation) and the HAM-D and YMRS items related to mood symptoms were less important and precise. Conclusion: Higher levels of energy or activity should be considered a core symptom of mania. However, our results do not confirm the association between a decrease in energy or activity and depression. HAM-D probably does not assess motor activity adequately.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Análise Discriminante , Seguimentos , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial
20.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 40(3): 210-215, July-Sept. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-963107

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction In recent years, the association between temperament and clinical characteristics of mood disorders has been studied. Most bipolar patients show deficits in their awareness of signs and symptoms. The relationship between affective temperament and insight in bipolar patients has not been carried out in the literature so far. Objective To evaluate the relationship between affective temperament and insight in bipolar disorder. Method A group of 65 bipolar patients were followed during a year. Patients underwent a clinical assessment and were diagnosed using criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5). Insight was evaluated through the Insight Scale for Affective Disorders (ISAD), and affective temperament, through the TEMPS-Rio de Janeiro. The relationship between affective temperament and insight was explored with Spearman rho correlations between scores on each item of the ISAD and on the TEMPS-Rio de Janeiro subscales. Results In euthymic phases, bipolars with depressive temperament were associated with a higher level of insight about the consequences of the disorder; when in mania, patients showed better insight about having an affective disorder, presenting psychomotor alterations, and suffering from guilt or grandiosity. Similarly, bipolar patients with higher scores of anxious temperament, when in mania, had better insight on alterations in attention. Bipolar patients with higher scores of hyperthymic temperament, when in mania, showed the worst insight about thought disorder. Conclusion In addition to being determined by the phase of the disease and several varying symptoms, the level of insight in bipolar patients is also influenced by affective temperament.


Resumo Introdução Nos últimos anos, a associação entre temperamento e características clínicas dos transtornos de humor tem sido estudada. A maioria dos pacientes bipolares apresenta déficits na consciência de sinais e sintomas. A relação entre temperamento afetivo e insight em pacientes bipolares não tem sido relatada na literatura até o momento. Objetivo Avaliar a relação entre temperamento afetivo e insight no transtorno bipolar. Métodos Um grupo de 65 pacientes bipolares foi acompanhado por um ano. Os pacientes foram submetidos a uma avaliação clínica utilizando os critérios do Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais, 5ª edição (DSM-5). O insight foi avaliado através da Escala de Insight para Transtornos Afetivos (ISAD), e o temperamento afetivo, através da TEMPS-Rio de Janeiro. A relação entre temperamento afetivo e insight foi explorada usando correlações de Spearman entre os escores de cada item da ISAD e as subescalas da TEMPS-Rio de Janeiro. Resultados Nas fases eutímicas, os bipolares com temperamento depressivo relacionaram-se com maior nível de insight sobre as consequências do transtorno; quando em mania, apresentaram melhor insight sobre ter um transtorno afetivo, apresentar alterações psicomotoras e sofrer de culpa ou grandiosidade. Da mesma forma, bipolares com maiores escores de temperamento ansioso, quando em mania, tiveram melhor percepção sobre alterações na atenção. Bipolares com escores mais altos de temperamento hipertímico, quando em mania, mostraram o pior insight sobre o curso do pensamento. Conclusão O nível de insight em pacientes bipolares, além de ser determinado pela fase da doença e por diversos sintomas, é influenciado pelo temperamento afetivo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Autoimagem , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Afeto , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Depressão , Metacrilatos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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