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4.
Endocr Rev ; 41(2)2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633153

RESUMO

Diabetic kidney disease remains the most common cause of end-stage kidney disease in the world. Despite reductions in incidence rates of myocardial infarction and stroke in people with diabetes over the past 3 decades, the risk of diabetic kidney disease has remained unchanged, and may even be increasing in younger individuals afflicted with this disease. Accordingly, changes in public health policy have to be implemented to address the root causes of diabetic kidney disease, including the rise of obesity and diabetes, in addition to the use of safe and effective pharmacological agents to prevent cardiorenal complications in people with diabetes. The aim of this article is to review the mechanisms of pathogenesis and therapies that are either in clinical practice or that are emerging in clinical development programs for potential use to treat diabetic kidney disease.

5.
Am J Nephrol ; 51(1): 74-82, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the incremental contribution of chronic kidney disease (CKD) to the risk of major adverse cardiovascular (CV) events (MACE), heart failure (HF), and all-cause mortality (ACM) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and its importance relative to the presence of other cardio-renal-metabolic (CaReMe) comorbidities. METHODS: Patients (≥40 years) were identified at the time of T2DM diagnosis from US (Humedica/Optum) and UK (Clinical Practice Research Datalink) databases. Patients were monitored post-diagnosis for modified MACE (myocardial infarction, stroke, ACM), HF, and ACM. Adjusted hazard ratios were obtained using Cox proportional-hazards regression to evaluate the relative risk of modified MACE, HF, and ACM due to CKD. Patients were stratified by the presence or absence of atherosclerotic CV disease (ASCVD) and age. RESULTS: Between 2011 and 2015, of 227,224 patients identified with incident T2DM, 40,063 (17.64%) had CKD. Regardless of prior ASCVD, CKD was associated with higher risk of modified MACE, HF, and ACM; this excess hazard was more pronounced in older patients with prior ASCVD. In time-to-event analyses in the overall cohort, patients with T2DM + CKD or T2DM + CKD + hypertension + hyperlipidemia had increased risks for modified MACE, HF, and ACM versus patients with T2DM and no CaReMe comorbidities. Patients with CKD had higher risks for and shorter times to modified MACE, HF, and ACM than those without CKD. CONCLUSION: In T2DM patients, CKD presence was associated with higher risk of modified MACE, HF, and ACM. This may have risk-stratification implications for T2DM patients based on background CKD and highlights the potential importance of novel renoprotective strategies.

6.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 45(1): 131-141, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperuricemia may cause acute kidney injury by activating inflammatory, pro-oxidative and vasoconstrictive pathways. In addition, radiocontrast causes an acute uricosuria, potentially leading to crystal formation. We therefore aimed to investigate the effect of urine acidity and urine uric acid level on the development of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients undergoing elective coronary angiography. METHODS: We enrolled 175 patients who underwent elective coronary angiography. CIN was defined as a >25% increase in the serum creatinine levels relative to basal values 48-72 h after contrast use. Prior to coronary angiography and 48-72 h later, serum uric acid, urea, creatinine, bicarbonate levels, and spot uric acid to creatinine ratio (UACR) were measured. RESULTS: Of the 175 subjects included, 29 (16.6%) developed CIN. Those who developed CIN had a higher prevalence of diabetes, higher UACR (0.60 vs. 0.44, p = 0.014), higher contrast volume, and lower serum sodium level. With univariate analysis of a logistic regression model, the risk of CIN was found to be associated with diabetes (p = 0.0016, OR = 3.8 [95% CI: 1.7-8.7]), urine UACR (p = 0.0027, OR = 9.6 [95% CI: 2.2-42.2]), serum sodium (p = 0.0079, OR = 0.8 [95% CI: 0.77-0.96]), and contrast volume (p = 0.0385, OR = 1.8 [95% CI: 1.03-3.09]). In a multiple logistic regression model with stepwise method of selection, diabetes (p = 0.0120, OR = 3.2 [95% CI: 1.3-8.1]) and UACR (p = 0.0163, OR = 6.9 [95% CI: 1.4-33.4]) were the 2 risk factors finally identified. CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated that higher urine UACR is associated with the development of CIN in patients undergoing elective coronary angiography.

7.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(11): 5406-5420, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365096

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Although the physiology of sodium, water, and arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as antidiuretic hormone, has long been known, accumulating data suggest that this system operates as a more complex network than previously thought. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: English-language basic science and clinical studies of AVP and osmolarity on the development of kidney and cardiovascular disease and overall outcomes. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Apart from osmoreceptors and hypovolemia, AVP secretion is modified by novel factors such as tongue acid-sensing taste receptor cells and brain median preoptic nucleus neurons. Moreover, pharyngeal, esophageal, and/or gastric sensors and gut microbiota modulate AVP secretion. Evidence is accumulating that increased osmolarity, AVP, copeptin, and dehydration are all associated with worse outcomes in chronic disease states such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), diabetes, and heart failure. On the basis of these pathophysiological relationships, an AVP receptor 2 blocker is now licensed for CKD related to polycystic kidney disease. CONCLUSION: From a therapeutic perspective, fluid intake may be associated with increased AVP secretion if it is driven by loss of urine concentration capacity or with suppressed AVP if it is driven by voluntary fluid intake. In the current review, we summarize the literature on the relationship between elevated osmolarity, AVP, copeptin, and dehydration with renal and cardiovascular outcomes and underlying classical and novel pathophysiologic pathways. We also review recent unexpected and contrasting findings regarding AVP physiology in an attempt to explain and understand some of these relationships.

8.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 21(11): 2368-2383, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297976

RESUMO

Renal hyperfiltration, defined as an increased glomerular filtration rate above normal values, is associated with early phases of kidney disease in the setting of various conditions such as obesity and diabetes. Although it is recognized that glomerular hyperfiltration, that is, increased filtration per nephron unit (usually studied at low glomerular filtration levels and often referred to as single nephron hyperfiltration), is a risk factor for the progression of chronic kidney disease, the implications of having renal hyperfiltration for cardiovascular disease and mortality risk are incompletely understood. Recent evidence from diverse populations, including healthy individuals and patients with diabetes or established cardiovascular disease, suggests that renal hyperfiltration is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. In this review, we critically summarize the existing studies, discuss possible mechanisms, and describe the remaining gaps in our knowledge regarding the association of renal hyperfiltration with cardiovascular disease and mortality risk.

9.
J Diabetes Complications ; 33(8): 547-549, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186164

RESUMO

Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) influences intrarenal hemodynamics in animal models, but the relationship between cGMP and renal function in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) remains unclear. In this study, plasma cGMP correlated with efferent arteriolar resistance, effective renal plasma flow, and renal vascular resistance in adults with T1D.

10.
Kidney Int Rep ; 4(6): 786-796, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194091

RESUMO

Introduction: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is routinely used for clinical assessment of kidney function. However, the accuracy of estimating equations in older adults is uncertain. Methods: In 66 adults with ≥50 years type 1 diabetes (T1D) duration and 73 nondiabetic controls from age/sex-matched subgroups (65 ± 8 years old and 77[55%] were women) we evaluated the performance of estimated GFR (eGFR) by creatinine (Modification of Diet and Renal Disease [MDRD], Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology [CKD-EPI]cr), cystatin C (CKD-EPIcys, CKD-EPIcr-cys), and ß2-microglobulin (ß2M) compared with measured GFR by inulin clearance (mGFR). Performance was evaluated using metrics of bias (mean difference), precision (SD), and accuracy (proportion of eGFR that differed by >20% of mGFR). Results: Mean mGFR was 104 ± 18 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (range: 70-154 ml/min per 1.73 m2) and was not different between T1D and controls (103 ± 17 vs. 105 ± 19 ml/min per 1.73 m2, P = 0.39). All equations significantly underestimated mGFR (bias: -15 to -30 ml/min per 1.73 m2, P < 0.001 for all comparisons) except for ß2M, which had bias of 1.9 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (P = 0.61). Bias was greatest in cystatin C-based equations. Precision was lowest for ß2M (SD: 43.5 ml/min per 1.73 m2, P < 0.001 for each comparison). Accuracy was lowest for CKD-EPIcysC (69.1%, P < 0.001 for each comparison). Cystatin C-based equations demonstrated greater bias and lower accuracy in older age subgroups (<60, 60-69, ≥70 years). All equations demonstrated greater bias across higher ranges of mGFR (60-89, 90-119, ≥120 ml/min per 1.73 m2). Results were similar between T1D and controls except that ß2M had lower performance in T1D. Conclusion: Better estimates of GFR in older adults are needed for research and clinical practice, as this subgroup of the population has an amplified risk for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) that requires accurate GFR estimation methods.

12.
Ren Fail ; 41(1): 427-433, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162987

RESUMO

Objectives: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in type 1 diabetes (T1D). We aimed to explore clinical and biochemical factors, including the achievement of American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommended targets associated with DKD in people living with T1D for ≥50 years. Methods: This was a post hoc analysis of a cross-sectional study of 75 participants enrolled in the Canadian Study of Longevity in T1D. We explored diabetes-related complications, including neuropathy, retinopathy, cardiovascular disease, and DKD. Study participants were dichotomized based on the achievement of ADA recommended targets as the low-target group (achieving ≤4 targets, n = 31) and high-target group (achieving >4 targets, n = 44). The outcome of interest was DKD defined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values <60/mL/min/1.73 m2 and/or 24-h albumin excretion >30 mg. Multivariable logistic regression models were employed to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for DKD with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Of the 75 participants with prolonged T1D duration (45% male, mean age 66 years), 25 participants had DKD and 50 did not. There was no statistical difference between the high- and low-target groups in terms of age and body mass index. eGFR was significantly higher and the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was significantly lower in the high-target group. Older age at diagnosis of T1D and lower frequency component to high-frequency component ratio increased the odds of having DKD. Conclusions: In adults with prolonged T1D duration, older age at diagnosis and lower heart rate variability may be associated with DKD.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Nefropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Longevidade/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
13.
Cell Metab ; 29(5): 1024-1027, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067448

RESUMO

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD), a major cause of morbidity, mortality, and economic hardship globally, is on the rise. The results of the recently reported CREDENCE (Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes with Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation) trial have ushered in hope and optimism for the treatment of DKD.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Canagliflozina , Humanos , Rim
14.
Kidney Int ; 96(2): 489-504, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142441

RESUMO

In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular (CV) disease, empagliflozin (EMPA) decreased progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), likely via a reduction in intraglomerular pressure. Due to prevalent comorbidities, such as hypertension and albuminuria, patients often receive other agents that alter intrarenal hemodynamics, including angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEi/ARBs), calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and diuretics. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may also be used by some individuals. In this exploratory, non-prespecified analysis, we investigated whether the kidney benefits of EMPA are altered in individuals already using the medications in these categories. In the BI 10773 (Empagliflozin) Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients (EMPA-REG OUTCOME®) trial, 7020 patients were essentially equally randomized to EMPA 10 mg, 25 mg or placebo added to their standard care. Differences in risk of incident or worsening nephropathy for pooled EMPA vs placebo across subgroups by baseline background medications (to which patients were not randomized) were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model. Risk reductions in incident or worsening nephropathy with EMPA were consistent across medication subgroups, with no heterogeneity of treatment effect. As a representative example, the risk for acute renal failure was overall slightly increased in patients using ACEi/ARBs in all groups (placebo, EMPA 10 mg or EMPA 25 mg) but incidence rates were numerically lower in those assigned to EMPA. Similar patterns were observed for other medications included in this analysis. Thus, EMPA may assist to prevent CKD progression in patients with T2DM with CV disease, irrespective of common background medications that alter intrarenal hemodynamics, and without increasing acute renal adverse events.

16.
J Diabetes Complications ; 33(11): 107324, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003922

RESUMO

AIM: It is currently unclear if longstanding type 1 diabetes (T1D) affects bone mineral density (BMD). METHODS: BMD measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and history of fragility fracture was determined in 75 T1D participants with ≥50 years of diabetes duration and 75 age- and sex-matched non-diabetic controls. BMD T-scores were determined for the lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH) and femoral neck (FN). RESULTS: T1D participants had median diabetes duration of 54 [52, 58] years, 41 (55%) were females, and mean A1c was 7.3 ±â€¯0.8%. T1D females had higher LS T-scores compared to female controls (-0.3 ±â€¯1.2 vs. -1.1 ±â€¯1.4, p = 0.014), lower FN T-scores (-1.5 ±â€¯1.0 vs. -1.2 ±â€¯0.9, p = 0.042) and more fragility fractures (7 (17%) vs. 1 (2%), p = 0.021). In T1D, higher A1c was associated with higher adjusted odds of fragility fracture (p = 0.006). T1D males and controls showed no difference in BMD or fractures. CONCLUSIONS: There were no substantial differences in T-score between T1D and matched controls; however, T1D females showed higher BMD at the LS and possibly paradoxically higher fragility fractures compared to matched controls. These findings suggest that lower T-scores may not be associated with a history of fragility fracture in females with longstanding T1D and that other factors should be investigated.

17.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 21 Suppl 2: 24-33, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843294

RESUMO

Sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT)-2 inhibitors are the newest addition to our treatment armamentarium for the management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. Glucose-lowering per se reduces the risk of microvascular complications, but not the risk of cardiovascular disease, including heart failure and cardiovascular mortality. Also, even when embedded in optimal cardiovascular prevention, a large residual risk remains with respect to progression of diabetic kidney disease. SGLT-2 inhibitors lower blood glucose levels by inducing glucosuria. Through various proposed mechanisms, among which diuretic and natriuretic effects, SGLT-2 inhibitors decrease heart failure hospitalization, reduce cardiovascular mortality, and mitigate progression of diabetic kidney disease. In this perspective, we will discuss the glucose-lowering and other protective effects of SGLT-2 inhibitors on the cardiorenal axis, both in primary and secondary prevention. By comparing the glycemic and pleiotropic effects of these agents to other glucose-lowering drugs, we will address questions around whether SGLT-2 inhibitors should be considered primarily as glucose-lowering agents, cardiorenal drugs or both.

18.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 73(6): 786-796, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30799029

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is associated with renal and cardiovascular disease in diabetes. Unfortunately, early RAAS blockade in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) does not prevent the development of complications. We sought to examine the role of hyperfiltration and RAAS activation across a wide range of T1DM duration to better understand renal hemodynamic status in patients with T1DM. STUDY DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of blood samples. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 148 Canadian patients with T1DM: 28 adolescents (aged 16.2±2.0 years), 54 young adults (25.4±5.6 years), and 66 older adults (65.7±7.5 years) studied in a clinical investigation unit. EXPOSURE: Angiotensin II infusion (1ng/kg/min; a measure of RAAS activation) during a euglycemic clamp. OUTCOMES: Glomerular filtration rate measured using inulin clearance, effective renal plasma flow measured using para-aminohippurate, afferent (RA) and efferent (RE) arteriolar resistances, and glomerular hydrostatic pressure estimated using the Gomez equations. RESULTS: In a stepwise fashion, glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, and glomerular hydrostatic pressure were higher, while renal vascular resistance and RA were lower in adolescents versus young adults versus older adults. RE was similar in adolescents versus young adults but was higher in older adults. Angiotensin II resulted in blunted renal hemodynamic responses in older adults (renal vascular resistance increase of 3.3% ± 1.6% vs 4.9% ± 1.9% in adolescents; P<0.001), suggesting a state of enhanced RAAS activation. LIMITATIONS: Homogeneous study participants limit the generalizability of findings to other populations. Studying older adult participants with T1DM may be associated with a survivorship bias. CONCLUSIONS: A state of relatively low RAAS activity and predominant afferent dilation rather than efferent constriction characterize early adolescents and young adults with T1DM. This state of endogenous RAAS inactivity in early T1DM may explain why pharmacologic blockade of this neurohormonal system is often ineffective in reducing kidney disease progression in this setting. Older adults with long-standing T1DM who have predominant afferent constriction and RAAS activation may experience renoprotection from therapies that target the afferent arteriole. Further work is required to understand the potential role of non-RAAS pharmacologic agents that target RA in patients with early and long-standing T1DM.

19.
Circulation ; 140(4): 303-315, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors may reduce kidney hyperfiltration, thereby preventing diabetic kidney disease progression, which may in turn reduce cardiovascular risk, including heart failure. However, the mechanisms that regulate renal function responses to sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition are not yet fully understood. We explored the renal protective effects of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition with empagliflozin, with a focus on glomerular hemodynamic effects and tubuloglomerular feedback using in vivo multiphoton microscopy imaging techniques. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice and spontaneously diabetic Ins2+/Akita mice were studied. The mice were treated with empagliflozin (20 mg·kg-1·d-1) and insulin for 4 weeks, and the single-nephron glomerular filtration rate was measured using multiphoton microscope. A neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (7-nitroindazole, 20 mg·kg-1·d-1) or a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor (SC58236, 6 mg/L), or an A1 adenosine receptor antagonist (8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, 1 mg·kg-1·d-1) was administered to elucidate the mechanisms of tubuloglomerular feedback signaling and single-nephron glomerular filtration rate regulation. RESULTS: The urinary excretion of adenosine, nitric oxide metabolites, and the prostanoid prostaglandin E2 was also quantified. The single-nephron glomerular filtration rate in the Ins2+/Akita group was higher than in controls (C57BL/6; 4.9±1.3 nL/min versus Ins2+/Akita; 15.8±6.8 nL/min) and lower in Ins2+/Akita /empagliflozin to 8.0±3.3 nL/min (P<0.01). In vivo imaging also revealed concomitant afferent arteriolar dilation (P<0.01) and increased glomerular permeability of albumin in the Ins2+/Akita group. Empagliflozin ameliorated these changes (P<0.01). Urinary adenosine excretion in the Ins2+/Akita/empagliflozin group was higher than in Ins2+/Akita (Ins2+/Akita; 3.4±1.4 nmol/d, Ins2+/Akita/empagliflozin; 11.2±3.0 nmol/d, P<0.05), whereas nitric oxide metabolites and prostaglandin E2 did not differ. A1 adenosine receptor antagonism, but not neuronal nitric oxide synthase or cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition, blocked the effect of empagliflozin on renal function. Empagliflozin increased urinary adenosine excretion and reduced hyperfiltration via afferent arteriolar constriction, effects that were abolished by A1 adenosine receptor blockade. CONCLUSIONS: Adenosine/A1 adenosine receptor pathways play a pivotal role in the regulation of the single-nephron glomerular filtration rate via tubuloglomerular feedback mechanisms in response to sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition, which may contribute to renal and cardiovascular protective effects reported in clinical trials.

20.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 21(6): 1388-1398, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30761725

RESUMO

AIMS: To examine the relationship between normal plasma uric acid (PUA) levels, renal haemodynamic function, arterial stiffness and plasma renin and aldosterone over a wide range of type 1 diabetes (T1D) durations in adolescents, young adults and older adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PUA, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), vascular stiffness parameters (aortic augmentation index [AIx], carotid AIx, carotid femoral pulse wave velocity [cfPWV]), and plasma renin and aldosterone were measured during a euglycaemic clamp in people with T1D: 27 adolescents (mean ± SD age 16.8 ± 1.9 years), 52 young adults (mean ± SD age 25.6 ± 5.5 years) and 66 older adults (mean ± SD age 65.7 ± 7.5 years). RESULTS: PUA was highest in patients with the longest T1D duration: 197 ± 44 µmol/L in adolescents versus 264 ± 82 µmol/L in older adults (P < 0.001). Higher PUA correlated with lower GFR only in older adults, even after correcting for age, glycated haemoglobin and sex (ß = -2.12 ± 0.56; P = 0.0003), but not in adolescents or young adults. Higher PUA correlated with lower carotid AIx (ß = -1.90, P = 0.02) in adolescents. In contrast, PUA correlated with higher cfPWV (P = 0.02) and higher plasma renin (P = 0.01) in older adults with T1D. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between higher PUA with lower GFR, increased arterial stiffness and renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) activation was observed only in older adults with longstanding T1D. T1D duration may modify the association between PUA, renal haemodynamic function and RAAS activation, leading to renal vasoconstriction and ischaemia. Further work must determine whether pharmacological PUA-lowering prevents or reverses injurious haemodynamic and neurohormonal sequelae of longstanding T1D, thereby improving clinical outcomes.

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